Chapter4 Student's Edition

Download Chapter4 Student's Edition

Post on 27-Nov-2014

107 views

Category:

Documents

1 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

<p>PANITIA BIOLOGI NEGERI KELANTAN 2007</p> <p>CHAPTER 4 : CHEMICAL COMPOSITION IN THE CELL</p> <p>Multiple Choice Questions:</p> <p>For question 4-1 to 4-44, each question is followed by four alternative options A,B,C and D. Choose one correct answer for each question and blacken the corresponding space in your objective answer4.1 : Understanding The Chemical Composition Of The Cell</p> <p>1.</p> <p>Which of these elements is not found in large amounts in the cell ? A. B. C. D. Sulphur Oxygen Carbon Hydrogen</p> <p>2. Medium for chemical reactions in cell Maintains osmotic pressure Which compound has the characteristics listed above ? A. B. C. D. Lipid Water Enzyme Protein</p> <p>3.</p> <p>What is the importance of nucleic acids ? A. B. C. D. Build cells during growth Main source of energy in cells Required for the synthesis of antibodies Carry genetic material</p> <p>4.</p> <p>Which of the following is not a function of water? A. B. C. D. Provides a moist surface for the diffusion of gases Facilitates the movement of joints An insulator of heat in the body Facilitates the hydrolysis of food by enzymes</p> <p>4-1</p> <p>PANITIA BIOLOGI NEGERI KELANTAN 2007</p> <p>5.</p> <p>The common chemical compounds in cells are I. II. III. IV. Carbohydrate Nucleic acids Cellulose Proteins</p> <p>A B. C. D.</p> <p>I and II only II and IV only I, II and III only I, II and IV only</p> <p>4.2 : Understanding Carbohydrate</p> <p>6.</p> <p>Starch is made of A. B. C. D. Glucose Sucrose Maltose and fructose Glycerol and glucose</p> <p>7.</p> <p>What is the major function of monosaccharide in animals? A. B. C. D. Regulates metabolism Acts as structural material Acts as food reserve Releases energy</p> <p>8.</p> <p>Which of the following is not a disaccharide? A. B. C. D. Sucrose Fructose Lactose Maltose</p> <p>9.</p> <p>Which of the following m onosaccharide combinations produces sucrose? A. B. C. D. Glucose + fructose Glucose + galactose Fructose + galactose Glucose + glucose</p> <p>4-2</p> <p>PANITIA BIOLOGI NEGERI KELANTAN 2007</p> <p>10.</p> <p>What is the monomer of carbohydrates? A. B. C. D. Glycerol Nucleotide Polysaccharide Simple sugar</p> <p>11.</p> <p>Plants usually store their excess carbohydrates in the form of A. B. C. D. glycogen starch glucose cellulose</p> <p>12.</p> <p>The main carbohydrates food reserve in liver cells is A. B. C. D. glucose glycogen lactose starch</p> <p>13.</p> <p>The formula for disaccharide is A. B. C. D. C2H10O11 C6H12O6 C12H22O11 (C6H12O6)n</p> <p>14.</p> <p>Which of the following are reducing sugar s ? I. II. III. IV. Glucose Fructose Sucrose Lactose</p> <p>A. B. C. D.</p> <p>I and II only III and IV only I, II and IV only I, II, III and IV</p> <p>4-3</p> <p>PANITIA BIOLOGI NEGERI KELANTAN 2007</p> <p>15.</p> <p>Which of the following elements are present in carbohydrate s ? I. II. III. IV. Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Oxygen</p> <p>A. B. C. D.</p> <p>I and III only I, II and IV only II, III and IV only I, II, III and IV</p> <p>16.</p> <p>Which of the following carbohydrates are examples of polysaccharides ? I. II. III. IV. Glycogen Starch Cellulose Galactose</p> <p>A. B. C. D.</p> <p>I, II and III only I, II and IV only II, III and IV only I, II, III and IV</p> <p>4.3 : Understanding Protein</p> <p>17.</p> <p>Protein is made up of A. B. C. D. fatty acids amino acids nucleic acids mineral salts</p> <p>18.</p> <p>Haemoglobin is an example of a A. B. C. D. primary structure of protein secondary structure of protein tertiary structure of protein quaternary structure of protein</p> <p>4-4</p> <p>PANITIA BIOLOGI NEGERI KELANTAN 2007</p> <p>19.</p> <p>Amino acids are linked together to form a A B. C. D. polypeptide polynucleotide polysaccharide polyribosome</p> <p>20.</p> <p>A dipeptide can be broken down into amino acids by the process of A. B. C. D. condensation heating acids addition hydrolysis</p> <p>21.</p> <p>What is the type of protein structure that both enzymes and hormones have ? A. B. C. D. Primary Secondary Tertiary Quaternary</p> <p>22.</p> <p>The process when two amino acids are joined together is called A. B. C. D. hydrolysis deamination condensation synthesis</p> <p>4-5</p> <p>PANITIA BIOLOGI NEGERI KELANTAN 2007</p> <p>23.</p> <p>Diagram 4.1 shows the molecular structure of proteins.</p> <p>Figure 1</p> <p>X</p> <p>Y DIAGRAM 4.1</p> <p>Z</p> <p>Which protein structure do X, Y and Z b elong to? X A. B. C. D. Tertiary Primary Secondary Quaternary Y Quaternary Secondary Primary Tertiary Z Primary Tertiary Quaternary Secondary</p> <p>24.</p> <p>Which of the following are functions of proteins ? I. II. III. IV. Formation of some hormones Enzyme production Tissue repair and building body substance s Energy production</p> <p>A. B. C. D.</p> <p>I and II only I, II and III only II, III and IV only I, II, III and IV</p> <p>25.</p> <p>Which of the following elements are found in proteins ? I. II. III. IV. Carbon Nitrogen Sulphur Phosphorus</p> <p>A. B. C. D.</p> <p>I and II only III and IV only I, II and IV only I, II, III and IV</p> <p>4-6</p> <p>PANITIA BIOLOGI NEGERI KELANTAN 2007</p> <p>26.</p> <p>Which of the following statements are true about essential amino acids? I. II. III. IV. They cannot be synthesised by human body from other compounds. They must be taken in with food. They include lysine and valine They are derived from other amino acids.</p> <p>A. B. C. D.</p> <p>I and II only III and IV only I, II and IV only I, II and III only</p> <p>4.4 : Understanding Lipid</p> <p>27.</p> <p>Among the elements in the cell, which are found in l ipid ? A. B. C. D. Carbon, nitrogen and oxygen Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen Carbon, hydrogen and sulphur Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus</p> <p>28.</p> <p>How many fatty acids chains are in a phospholipids molecule ? A. B. C. D. One Two Three Four</p> <p>30.</p> <p>A lipid is formed by condensation of A. B. C. D. Amino acids and glucose Amino acids and glycogen Fatty acids and glycogen Fatty acids and glycerol</p> <p>4-7</p> <p>PANITIA BIOLOGI NEGERI KELANTAN 2007</p> <p>31.</p> <p>Which of the following are lipids ? I. II. III. IV. Steroids Triglycerides Oils Waxes</p> <p>A. B. C. D.</p> <p>I and II only I, II and III only II, III and IV only I, II, III and IV</p> <p>32.</p> <p>Saturated fats I. II. III. IV. contains fatty acids which do not have double bonds between the carbons. Contain fatty acids with double bonds between the carbon atoms. are liquid at room temperatu re. have a higher content of cholesterol</p> <p>A. B. C. D.</p> <p>I and IV only II and III only I, III and IV only II, III and IV only</p> <p>33.</p> <p>Which of the following is not true about the difference between saturated fats and unsaturated fats ?</p> <p>Saturated fat A. B. Of animal origin Usually in solid form or almost solid at room temperature C. They are found in butter and cheese They have one or more double bonds between their carbon atoms.</p> <p>Unsaturated fat Of vegetable origin Usually in liquid form at room temperature They are found in most vegetable products and oils They do not have double bonds between their carbon atoms</p> <p>D.</p> <p>4-8</p> <p>PANITIA BIOLOGI NEGERI KELANTAN 2007</p> <p>34.</p> <p>Diagram 4.2 shows a structure of one lipid molecule.</p> <p>Q</p> <p>DIAGRAM 4.2 The part labelled Q represents A. B. C. D. phosphate glycerol fatty acids amino acids</p> <p>35.</p> <p>Lipid is needed to form P while cellulose is needed to form Q . What are P and Q ? Compound P A. B. C. D Protoplasm Plasma membrane Cell wall Cell wall Compound Q Cell wall Cell wall Protoplasm Plasma membrane</p> <p>4.5 : Understanding Enzyme</p> <p>36.</p> <p>Enzymes are made up of A. B. C. D. carbohydrate proteins lipids dietary fibres</p> <p>37.</p> <p>Which of the following is not true about general characteristic of enzyme?</p> <p>A. B. C. D.</p> <p>Enzyme action is specific Active at temperatures exceeding 60 oC Sensitive to changes in pH Accelerates the rate of biochemical reactions</p> <p>4-9</p> <p>PANITIA BIOLOGI NEGERI KELANTAN 2007</p> <p>38.</p> <p>Diagram 4.3 shows a stained shirt being washed by detergent containing pepsin at 20oC. The result was obtained after 1 hour interval.</p> <p>After 1 hour</p> <p>DIAGRAM 4.3 The shirt of the same material was repeatedly washed at 37 oC. Which of the following shows the result after 1 hour?</p> <p>B.</p> <p>AD.</p> <p>C</p> <p>B39. The active site of an enzyme is A. B. C. D. specific to its substrate identical to the active sites of other enzymes complementary to its substrate denatured at the end of a chemical reaction</p> <p>D</p> <p>40.</p> <p>Which of the following statements regarding enzymes is true ? A. B. C. D. All enzymes in living organisms have an optimum temperature of 37C. Enzymes increase the activation energy for the reactions they catalyses. Enzymes are denatured at 0C. Enzymes function as organic catalysts.</p> <p>4-10</p> <p>PANITIA BIOLOGI NEGERI KELANTAN 2007</p> <p>41.</p> <p>Which organelle is invol ved in the production of extracellular enzymes ? A. B. C. D. Golgi apparatus Mitochondrion Chloroplast Smooth endoplasmic reticulum</p> <p>P enzymes which are synthesised in the cell but secreted from the cell to work externally Q enzymes which are synthesised and retained in the cell for use of the cell itself</p> <p>42.</p> <p>Which of the following is correct about the types of enzymes produced for P and Q?</p> <p>P A B C D Intracellular Extracellular Intracellular Extracellular</p> <p>Q Extracellular Intracellular Intracellular Extracellular</p> <p>y y</p> <p>Remove germ from wheat Separate agar from seaweed</p> <p>43.</p> <p>A suitable enzyme that can be used for these activities is A. B. C. D. cellulase protease zymase amylase</p> <p>DIAGRAM 4.4</p> <p>4-11</p> <p>PANITIA BIOLOGI NEGERI KELANTAN 2007</p> <p>44.</p> <p>Diagram 4.4 shows the mechanism of enzyme action. Which property of enzyme is shown in the diagram? A. B. C. D. Enzyme structure is denatured by extremes of pH. Temperature affects the rate of enzyme reaction. Enzyme reaction is non-specific. Structure of enzyme remains unchanged at the end of the reaction.</p> <p>4-12</p> <p>PANITIA BIOLOGI NEGERI KELANTAN 2007</p> <p>Structured Items</p> <p>Answer all questions. Write your answer in the spaces provided in the question paper4.1: Understanding The Chemical Composition Of The Cell</p> <p>4.2:</p> <p>Understanding Carbo hydrate</p> <p>(1)</p> <p>Diagram 4.4 shows the structures of 3 examples of polysaccharide s P, Q and R.</p> <p>DIAGRAM 4.4 (a) Identify the molecules labeled P, Q and R.</p> <p>[3 marks] (b) Where can the molecules be found</p> <p>[3 marks] (c) Structure P can be broken down into a simpler form by a proces s. What is the process involved? [1 mark]</p> <p>4-13</p> <p>PANITIA BIOLOGI NEGERI KELANTAN 2007</p> <p>(d)</p> <p>(i)</p> <p>State one similarity in the 3 polysaccharides</p> <p>(ii)</p> <p>What is the main diffe rence between structures P and Q ?</p> <p>[2 marks] (e) Sucrose and lactose are examples of disaccharides that can be formed from condensation of monosaccharide . What are the monosaccharide that form Sucrose :</p> <p>Lactose : [2 marks]</p> <p>(f)</p> <p>Briefly describe how to test for the presence of reducing sug ar in an unknown sample of food.</p> <p>[1 mark]</p> <p>4-14</p> <p>PANITIA BIOLOGI NEGERI KELANTAN 2007</p> <p>4.3 : Understanding Protein</p> <p>2.</p> <p>Diagram 4.5 shows the organelle involved during the synthesis and secretion of protein in animal cell. Y X</p> <p>Z</p> <p>Molecule P DIAGRAM 4.5 (a) Name the organelles labeled X, Y and Z.</p> <p>[3 marks] (b) State the function of X and Y</p> <p>[2 marks]</p> <p>4-15</p> <p>PANITIA BIOLOGI NEGERI KELANTAN 2007</p> <p>(c)</p> <p>Molecule P is produced from the protein excreted by the cell. (i) What is the type of structure shown by the molecule ?</p> <p>(ii)</p> <p>Give one example of the structure mentioned in c(i).</p> <p>[2 marks] (d) (i) Proteins are made from amino acids, name two types of amino acids involved.</p> <p>[2 marks] (ii) Briefly, explain the meaning of the answer in d(i).</p> <p>[2 marks]</p> <p>4-16</p> <p>PANITIA BIOLOGI NEGERI KELANTAN 2007</p> <p>4.4 : Understanding Lipid</p> <p>3.</p> <p>Diagram 4.6 shows the structure of a lipid molecule.</p> <p>DIAGRAM 4.6 (a) Name the parts X and Y.</p> <p>[2 marks] (b) (i) What is the chemical reaction P that takes place to form the bonds between X and Y?</p> <p>[1 mark] (ii) What is product Q formed during this reaction ?</p> <p>[1 mark] (c) (i) What is the structural difference between a phospholipid molecule and the lipid molecule shown in the figure above?</p> <p>[1 mark] (ii) What is the function of phospholipids in cells? [1 mark]</p> <p>4-17</p> <p>PANITIA BIOLOGI NEGERI KELANTAN 2007</p> <p>(d)</p> <p>One of the main types of lipid is fat. (i) State two types of fat</p> <p>[2 marks] 9ii) State two differences between the types of fat named in d(i) .</p> <p>[2 marks] (e) Explain why a daily intake of a diet rich in fats is bad for health.</p> <p>[2 marks] 4.5 : Understanding Enz yme 4. Diagram 4.7 shows the organelles involved in the production of extracellular enzymes.</p> <p>S</p> <p>R T DIAGRAM 4.7 U</p> <p>4-18</p> <p>PANITIA BIOLOGI NEGERI KELANTAN 2007</p> <p>(a)</p> <p>Name the organelles labe lled T and U.</p> <p>[2 marks] (b) State the function of organelle labe lled R [1 mark] (c) Using an example and place produced, explain the term of extracellular enzyme.</p> <p>[3 marks] (d) Based on the organelles shown in Diagram 4.7, explain how extracellular enzymes are produced.</p> <p>[3 marks]</p> <p>4-19</p> <p>PANITIA BIOLOGI NEGERI KELANTAN 2007</p> <p>(e)</p> <p>Diagram 4.8 shows the action of an enzyme and i ts substrate.</p> <p>DIAGRAM 4.8</p> <p>Explain the mechanism of enzyme action.</p> <p>Max : 3 marks]</p> <p>5.</p> <p>Diagram 4.9 shows a graph represent the effect of temperature on the rate reaction of enzyme P.</p> <p>Temperature ( C)</p> <p>o</p> <p>DIAGRAM 4.9</p> <p>(a)</p> <p>What is the optimum temperature for enzyme P ? [1 mark]</p> <p>4-20</p> <p>PANITIA BIOLOGI NEGERI KELANTAN 2007</p> <p>(b)</p> <p>Describe the effect of different temperature on the rate of enzyme reaction.</p> <p>[max: 4 marks] (c) Enzymes are widely used in the household &amp; industries. Explain how enzymes act in : (i) Helping to cook meat.</p> <p>(i)</p> <p>Extracting agar from seaweed [4 marks]</p> <p>(d)</p> <p>State three factors besides temperature that affect the enzymes activity.</p> <p>[3 marks]</p> <p>4-21</p> <p>PANITIA BIOLOGI NEGERI KELANTAN 2007</p> <p>Essay Items</p> <p>Answer all questions</p> <p>4.1 : Understanding The Chemical Composi tion Of The Cell</p> <p>4.2 : Understanding Carbohydrate</p> <p>4.3 : Understanding Protein</p> <p>4.4 : Understanding Lipid</p> <p>1. There are several components in cells which form organic and inorganic compounds. Organic compounds normally found in cells are carbohydrate, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Each compound pl ays an important role in the cell.</p> <p>(a)</p> <p>Explain the importance of organic compounds like carbohydrate and protein in a cell. [10 marks] Name two types of nucleic acids found in living cells. Compare and contrasty y</p> <p>(b)</p> <p>(i) (ii)</p> <p>[2 marks]</p> <p>saturated fats and unsaturated fats Essential amino acids and non essential amino acids [8 marks]</p> <p>4.5 : Understanding Enzyme</p> <p>2.</p> <p>(a)</p> <p>(i) (ii)</p> <p>What is an enzyme?</p> <p>[2 marks]</p> <p>Explain the characteristics of enzymes from the lock and key hypothesis</p> <p>(iii)</p> <p>Describe how an enzyme-controlled reaction is affected by pH. [4 marks]</p> <p>(b)</p> <p>Enzymes can be extracted and separated from cells in order to be used. Explain how the enzymes can be used in daily life and industry. [10 marks ]</p> <p>4-22</p>