chapter 5 stacking and loading lumber for kiln drying 5 stacking and loading lumber for kiln drying...
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Chapter 5Stacking and LoadingLumber for Kiln Drying
Sorting 103Species 103Moisture content 104Heartwood and sapwood 104Wetwood 104Grain 104Grade 104Thickness 105Length 106Sorters 106
Stickering lumber 106Sticker material 107Moisture content of stickers 107Sticker size 107
Width 107Thickness 107
Load supports 107Sticker location, spacing, and alignment 108
Location 108Spacing 108Alignment 109Auxiliary stickers 109
Sticker guides 109Care of stickers 110
Box piling random-length lumber 110Mechanical stacking and unstacking equipment 110
Stackers 110Unstackers 112
Stacking lumber for various types of dry kilns 112Kiln samples 112
Kiln sample pockets built into stack 113Kiln sample pockets cut into stack 113Kiln samples in bolster space 113
Protecting stacked lumber 113Weights and restraining devices 113Loading and baffling dry kilns 114
Track-loaded kilns 115Package-loaded kilns 116
Literature cited 116Sources of additional information 116
Much of the degrade, waste, and moisture content vari-ation that occurs during kiln drying results from poorstacking and loading. Well-stacked lumber and prop-erly loaded and baffled kilns result in faster and moreuniform drying, less warp, and less sticker loss. Stack-ing and loading procedures vary widely for hardwoodsand softwoods, differences in plant layouts, type ofmaterial to be dried, and types of kilns and stackingequipment. However, certain principles apply to allstacking and loading. The purpose of this chapter isto describe these principles.
Sorting lumber before drying simplifies stacking andalso aids in placing material of similar drying charac-teristics in the same kiln charge. The extent of sortingdepends on practical considerations--some sorts are al-most unavoidable, whereas others are sometimes omit-ted. Lumber can be sorted by species, moisture con-tent, heartwood and sapwood, wetwood, grain, grade,thickness, and length.
Some species of wood have markedly different dryingcharacteristics than others. For example, the time re-quired to kiln dry green 4/4 red oak to a final mois-ture content of 7 percent is two to three times thatrequired to kiln dry 4/4 hard maple. Furthermore, amilder drying schedule must be used for the oak toavoid drying defects. If these two species were driedin the same kiln charge, the hard maple would have tobe dried by the milder oak schedule. Consequently, thehard maple would be in the kiln longer than necessary,
Chapter 5 was revised by William T. Simpson,Supervisory Research Forest Products Technologist.
which increases drying costs. On the other hand, thedrying characteristics of hard maple and yellow birchdo not differ greatly. Thus, if the lumber has the samethickness and moisture content, these species can bedried together economically. Similarly, in softwoods thecedars and redwood might take three to five times aslong to dry as Douglas-fir or the true firs. So, when-ever possible and practical, a kiln charge should consistof the same species or of species with similar dryingcharacteristics.
It is not desirable to mix air-dried, partially air-dried,and green lumber in the same kiln charge. Wetter lum-ber requires milder initial drying conditions and longerdrying time than drier lumber. For example, 4/4 cy-press air dried to a moisture content of 25 percent canbe kiln dried to 7 percent moisture content in aboutone-half the time required to dry green lumber to thesame final moisture content. Similarly, 4/4 red oak canhe kiln dried from 25 to 7 percent moisture content inabout one-quarter the time required to kiln dry red oakfrom green to 7 percent.
Because of the many variables involved, specific recom-mendations cannot be made as to the maximum allow-able difference in initial moisture content between thedriest and wettest lumber in a kiln charge. This dif-ference must be determined by each kiln operator onthe basis of production needs and the quality of dryingdesired. In general, the difference in moisture contentbetween the driest and wettest lumber in a kiln chargeshould be smaller (1) for air-dried or partially air-driedlumber than for green lumber, (2) for shorter expecteddrying times than for longer times, and (3) for a narrowrange in the desired final moisture content.
Heartwood and Sapwood
In many hardwood species, sapwood has a higher greenmoisture content than heartwood (ch. 1, table 1-4). Inaddition, sapwood generally dries faster and has fewerdefects than heartwood. Thus, sapwood and heartwoodusually reach the final moisture content at different
times, Because of these differences, it would often beadvantageous to separate heartwood from sapwood, butthis is usually impractical.
Wetwood, sinker stock, and wet pockets are terms usedto describe wood that has a green moisture contenthigher than that of the normal wood of the species(see ch. 8 for additional discussion). The higher mois-ture content is sometimes confined to areas that aresurrounded by normal wood. The condition is usu-ally confined to heartwood, but also often occurs inthe transition zone between sapwood and heartwood.In addition to higher green moisture content, wetwoodusually dries considerably slower and often with moredrying defects than normal wood of the species. Thenet result is that final moisture content after kiln dry-ing is quite variable, and drying defects sometimes oc-cur when wetwood and normal wood are kiln dried to-gether. Some affected species are the hemlocks, truefirs, aspen, oak, and cottonwood. For example, typi-cal kiln-drying times to 19 percent moisture content forwestern hemlock dimension lumber are 78 h for normalheartwood (65 percent green moisture content), 115 hfor sapwood (170 percent green moisture content), and160 h for wetwood (145 percent green moisture con-tent). Sorting techniques on the green chain, whichtransports lumber between the edger and the lumberstacker, are possible, but they are not always accurateor practical. Faster and more reliable techniques needto be developed for effective, practical sorts.
Flatsawn lumber (ch. 1, fig. 1-6) generally dries fasterthan quartersawn lumber, but it is more susceptible tosuch drying defects as surface checks, end checks, andhoneycomb. For practical purposes, large quantities ofquartersawn lumber may be segregated from flatsawnlumber and dried under relatively severe kiln condi-tions, using a shortened drying time.
The upper grades of lumber, both hardwood and soft-wood, are generally used in products that requirehigher strength, closer control of final moisture content,and better appearance than the lower grades. There-fore, higher grade lumber is usually sorted out and kilndried by different schedules than the lower grades.
Sorting for thickness is essential. Uniform thickness oflumber simplifies stacking and drying. It also reduceswarping in the lumber as well as breakage and distor-tion of stickers. Warping of lumber and sticker distor-tion resulting from stacking lumber with different thick-nesses are shown in figure 5-1a. Cupping and twistingin the thinner boards is caused by lack of contact be-tween the boards and stickers. Without the restraintof the weight of the lumber pile, boards are very likelyto warp. Warping and distortion also disrupt airflowthrough the lumber pile, resulting in nonuniform dry-ing. A stack of uniformly thick and well-piled lumber isshown in figure 5-lb. Figure 5-1(a) Stacking lumber of different thicknesses
in the same stack results in warping of lumber and de-formation and breakage of stickers. (b) Lumber of uni-form thickness and stickers remain flat during drying.(M 115549, M87 929)
Figure 5-2Effect of thickness and initial moisture con-tent on kiln-drying time of red oak. (ML88 5562)
Another reason for sorting for thickness is the variationin drying time with thickness. Figure 5-2 shows theeffect of thickness on kiln-drying time of red oak. Forexample, kiln drying from green to 7 percent moisturecontent might range from 18 days for 4/4 lumber to32 days for 6/4 lumber to 55 days for 8/4 lumber.
Lumber that is miscut is likely to vary considerably inthickness across the width and along the length of thepiece. Not only is miscut lumber difficult to stack, thethinner part of boards cannot be kept flat. Moreover,the thicker parts dry more slowly and may developmore defects than thinner parts. Lumber is sometimespresurfaced or skip-dressed to attain a uniform thick-ness, which pays off in reduced warp and more uniformmoisture content.
One of the best and easiest methods for sorting is tostack lumber of a single length on kiln trucks or inpackages (fig. 5-lb). If the stickers are well supportedand in good alignment, such stacking results in flat-ter and straighter lumber. Overhanging ends of longerboards in a truckload of mixed-length lumber are likelyto warp during drying. Stacking lumber of uniformlength is a common practice among softwood produc-ers and some larger hardwood producers. Most hard-wood producers, however, use box piling, which will bedescribed later in this chapter.
Lumber is often sorted by grade and size on the greenchain between the edging and stacking operations.Different categories of boards are held in bin or slingsorters until the lumber is stacked for drying. Differ-ent types of sorters are the slant bin, vertical bin, sling,and buggy. A sling and a slant-bin sorter are shown infigure 5-3.
Figure 5-3Sling sorter (a) and slant-bin sorter (b) forholding sorted lumber prior to stacking for the dry kiln.(MC88 9029, MC88 9031)
The purpose of stickers is to separate each board sur-face so th