Chapter 3 New France: The French in America to 1760
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Chapter 3New France: The French in America to 1760
Overview 1607 A.D. Colony of Jamestown established1608 A.D. Champlain founds Quebec1776 A.D. American Declaration of Independance1755 A.D. Expulsion of the Acadians1453 A.D. Mehmed takes Constantinople1534 A.D. Cartier lands in Montreal1867 A.D. Confederation1774 A.D. Quebec Act1834 A.D. - Rebellions1759 A.D. Quebec falls Plains of Abraham1763 A.D. Treaty of Paris1754 A.D. French-Indian Wars1791 A.D. Constitutional Act1758 A.D. Louisbourg falls1756 A.D. French Indian Wars become 7 Years War1492 A.D. Columbus doscovers Hispanola1499 A.D. Amerigo Vespucci lands on the mainland
Colonialism Key to wealth and Power
As European countries grew rich from their colonial holdings, France wanted to claim as much as they could. They established a permanent settlement after 1600 on the St. Lawrence. The area was valuable tactically in their struggle against the British and economically for furs and fish. Merchants controlled the settlement.
IntroductionThis chapter will discuss the following:1. The geography of New France2. The fur trade and other economic activities in the colony3. The role of military, the church, the government, and the family in colonial society4. The conflicts that eventually led to the British conquest of New France
Geography of New FranceThe physical size of New France was gigantic but the population remained quite smallPopulation at this time (1716) was approximately 20, 890Frances claim to possess its American territory was based on exploration and tradeThere was much disagreement between French officials concerning expansion of the colony
Two ideas for structure of the colony:Jean Baptiste Colbert (Minister of the Marine to King Louis XIV) believed that the colony should remain small until there were enough people to effectively control the huge frontier.Pierre le Moyne, Sieur dIberville recommended that France should lay claim to as much territory as possible and not wait for population to fill those areas. He wanted to join with the Aboriginals to force back English claims in the area.
Economy of New FranceNew France was a colony, which is defined as belonging to the Mother countryA mercantilist system developed
MERCANTILISMDefin. An economic philosophy of the 16th and 17th centuries where the mother country profits at the expense of the colonyex. Raw materials are extracted from the colony at a very low cost; these raw materials are made into finished goods and sold worldwide (as well as back to the colony)
Economy of New FranceFurs were the mainstay of the New France economyMost colonial decisions were based on protecting the steady flow of these valuable furs into New FranceExploration, warfare, alliances and government policy were driven by greed for furs
Economy of New FranceTrade relations with the Huron drew the French into wars with the Iroquois the traditional enemy of the HuronThis decision would lead to the destruction of the Huronia and threaten the existence of New FrancePeace was eventually made with the Iroquois and the fur trade continued
Economy of New FranceAs the colony grew more men were drawn into the fur tradeCoureure de bois, bored with the sedentary life of a farmer, were drawn into the woods for adventure and fortuneRadisson and Groseilliers discovered the rich fur region of Hudon Bay. This great inland sea provided access to the Atlantic making fur trading more profitable
Economy of New FranceThe French were not interested in expanding into Hudson bay so the Radisson and Groseilliers approached the English who seemed eagerThe Nonsuch sailed into Hudson Bay in 1668 and the Hudson Bay Company was founded two year later
Economy of New FranceUnder the mercantilist system large-scale industry and manufacturing did not develop in New France The colony did have tradesmen and shops but they were to serve the colonial needs
The Church In New FranceNew France was a religious outpost.Catholicism was the main religious practice in New France during this timeThe Jesuit order arrived in 1625 to spread Christianity among the aboriginal peopleIn 1634 the Jesuits established a permanent mission in Huronia
The Church In New FranceThe church became the center of community life in New France religious and socialThe head of the church was the Bishop Francois Laval was the first 1659 1688The church operated school, hospitals, orphanages and provided social welfare
The Church In New FranceThe winters of my childhood were long, long seasonsWe lived in three places the school, the Church and the skating rinkBut our real life was on the skating rink
Government and Soldiers in New FranceThe Intendent and the Governor were the two most powerful people in New FranceNew France was constantly under the threat of war thus the military played an important role in the development of the colony New France was a heavily militarized colony
Government and Soldiers in New Francethe population of the colony was formally organized into militia units to better protect their farms, families and livelihood
Life on the FarmFarms were located along the St. Lawrence and Richelieu RiversThese lots were long and narrow following the contour of the riverThe land was owned by the Crown and granted to landlords who in turn, rented the land to tenantsThis system is called the Seigneurial System
Settlement Patterns of FarmersLong narrow lots called ranges were marked out along the banks of the St. Lawrence. The river was the main source of transportation and all farms had to have access.Once the shore was occupied, a second row of farms would be staked out. Because of this, villages were not compact but spread out.
The Seigneurial SystemAll land in New France was owned by the KingThe land would be handed out according to certain responsibilities:Seigneur had to populate his landSeigneur had to pay the transportation cost to bring the people from FranceSeigneur had to oversee the construction of roadsSeigneur had to make annual payments to the Crown Droits et Homage
The Habitant had duties to the Seigneur as well:1. The construction of a house and the cultivation of the land2. Payment of annual taxes cens et rents3. Payment of a portion of all the grain ground at the mill along with fish caught from the river.4. 3 to 4 days free labour on the seigneurs land.
What was the goal of the seigneurial system?The purpose of the seigneurial system was:to begin to break the land and make it profitableto create an upper class of landowners to form the basis of governmentIt was NOT successful because it did not create a wealthy landowning classThis was because seigneurs had to charge extremely low rents to entice farmers to stay on their land and not join the fur trade which had the potential for greater profits
Marriage and FamilyCareers were not open to women but most women were better educated in reading and writing than manGirls married from the ages 12-16Colony was a dangerous place and many women became widowsWomen played a crucial role in the economic life
Marriage and FamilyWomen often looked after accounts and trade goods, and took over the family business when the father diedLarge families were encouragedWomen gave birth every 2 yearsNew France had a young population40-50% of its population was under 15 years of age
The Thirteen ColoniesThe English settled present-day Virginia at Jamestown in 1607Virginia became the first of Thirteen ColoniesThe Thirteen Colonies outgrew the colony of New France because of the warmer climate; the ability to sprawl; the farming economy; the absence of a Mercantilist economy; and, unrestricted immigration
The Thirteen Colonies New France Thirteen Colonies1660 3000 90 000171018000331 711172024 474446 185173034 118629 445174044 000905 563175053 000 1 170 760176064 041 1 593 625
War and ConquestBritain and France were constantly at war since 1743The expansion of the Thirteen Colonies threatened the interior fur trade of the FrenchCompetition of global supremacy of trade and commerce also brought the two superpowers into conflictThe British captured mainland Nova Scotia from the French in 1713
War and ConquestCape Breton remained a French possessionThe French Acadians lived under British rule in Nova Scotia peacefully for 38 yearsIn 1749, Britain was preparing for war with France in Nova Scotia (Cape Breton)The British Government demanded the Acadians take an oath of loyalty but the French farmers refused
War and ConquestThe British used this as justification to remove the Acadians from Nova ScotiaIn 1755, the Acadians were forcibly removed with loss of possessions and property Britain now attacked the French fortress at Louisbourg and after a 49 day siege, the fort fell in 1758
SEVEN YEARS WARThe Seven Years War was fought in three regions: Europe, North America and the CaribbeanThe North American war began in 1754 over fertile territory in the Ohio Valley. The North American war was also called the French and Indian War
SEVEN YEARS WARAcadiansAcadia was the first permanent French settlement in North America, established at Port-Royal in 1604 During the seventeenth century, about sixty French families were established in Acadia. They developed friendly relations with the aboriginal Mi'kmaq, learning their hunting and fishing techniques.
SEVEN YEARS WARAcadiansThe Acadi