Chapter 3 New France: The French in America to 1760.

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Chapter 3New France: The French in America to 1760Overview 1607 A.D. Colony of Jamestown established1608 A.D. Champlain founds Quebec1776 A.D. American Declaration of Independance1755 A.D. Expulsion of the Acadians1453 A.D. Mehmed takes Constantinople1534 A.D. Cartier lands in Montreal1867 A.D. Confederation1774 A.D. Quebec Act1834 A.D. - Rebellions1759 A.D. Quebec falls Plains of Abraham1763 A.D. Treaty of Paris1754 A.D. French-Indian Wars1791 A.D. Constitutional Act1758 A.D. Louisbourg falls1756 A.D. French Indian Wars become 7 Years War1492 A.D. Columbus doscovers Hispanola1499 A.D. Amerigo Vespucci lands on the mainlandColonialism Key to wealth and PowerAs European countries grew rich from their colonial holdings, France wanted to claim as much as they could. They established a permanent settlement after 1600 on the St. Lawrence. The area was valuable tactically in their struggle against the British and economically for furs and fish. Merchants controlled the settlement.IntroductionThis chapter will discuss the following:1. The geography of New France2. The fur trade and other economic activities in the colony3. The role of military, the church, the government, and the family in colonial society4. The conflicts that eventually led to the British conquest of New FranceGeography of New FranceThe physical size of New France was gigantic but the population remained quite smallPopulation at this time (1716) was approximately 20, 890Frances claim to possess its American territory was based on exploration and tradeThere was much disagreement between French officials concerning expansion of the colonyTwo ideas for structure of the colony:Jean Baptiste Colbert (Minister of the Marine to King Louis XIV) believed that the colony should remain small until there were enough people to effectively control the huge frontier.Pierre le Moyne, Sieur dIberville recommended that France should lay claim to as much territory as possible and not wait for population to fill those areas. He wanted to join with the Aboriginals to force back English claims in the area. Economy of New FranceNew France was a colony, which is defined as belonging to the Mother countryA mercantilist system developedMERCANTILISMDefin. An economic philosophy of the 16th and 17th centuries where the mother country profits at the expense of the colonyex. Raw materials are extracted from the colony at a very low cost; these raw materials are made into finished goods and sold worldwide (as well as back to the colony) MERCANTILISMEconomy of New FranceFurs were the mainstay of the New France economyMost colonial decisions were based on protecting the steady flow of these valuable furs into New FranceExploration, warfare, alliances and government policy were driven by greed for fursEconomy of New FranceTrade relations with the Huron drew the French into wars with the Iroquois the traditional enemy of the HuronThis decision would lead to the destruction of the Huronia and threaten the existence of New FrancePeace was eventually made with the Iroquois and the fur trade continuedEconomy of New FranceAs the colony grew more men were drawn into the fur tradeCoureure de bois, bored with the sedentary life of a farmer, were drawn into the woods for adventure and fortuneRadisson and Groseilliers discovered the rich fur region of Hudon Bay. This great inland sea provided access to the Atlantic making fur trading more profitableEconomy of New FranceThe French were not interested in expanding into Hudson bay so the Radisson and Groseilliers approached the English who seemed eagerThe Nonsuch sailed into Hudson Bay in 1668 and the Hudson Bay Company was founded two year laterEconomy of New FranceUnder the mercantilist system large-scale industry and manufacturing did not develop in New France The colony did have tradesmen and shops but they were to serve the colonial needs The Church In New FranceNew France was a religious outpost.Catholicism was the main religious practice in New France during this timeThe Jesuit order arrived in 1625 to spread Christianity among the aboriginal peopleIn 1634 the Jesuits established a permanent mission in Huronia The Church In New FranceThe church became the center of community life in New France religious and socialThe head of the church was the Bishop Francois Laval was the first 1659 1688The church operated school, hospitals, orphanages and provided social welfareThe Church In New FranceThe winters of my childhood were long, long seasonsWe lived in three places the school, the Church and the skating rinkBut our real life was on the skating rinkRoch CarrierGovernment and Soldiers in New FranceThe Intendent and the Governor were the two most powerful people in New FranceNew France was constantly under the threat of war thus the military played an important role in the development of the colony New France was a heavily militarized colonyGovernment and Soldiers in New Francethe population of the colony was formally organized into militia units to better protect their farms, families and livelihoodLife on the FarmFarms were located along the St. Lawrence and Richelieu RiversThese lots were long and narrow following the contour of the riverThe land was owned by the Crown and granted to landlords who in turn, rented the land to tenantsThis system is called the Seigneurial SystemSettlement Patterns of FarmersLong narrow lots called ranges were marked out along the banks of the St. Lawrence. The river was the main source of transportation and all farms had to have access.Once the shore was occupied, a second row of farms would be staked out. Because of this, villages were not compact but spread out.The Seigneurial SystemAll land in New France was owned by the KingThe land would be handed out according to certain responsibilities:Seigneur had to populate his landSeigneur had to pay the transportation cost to bring the people from FranceSeigneur had to oversee the construction of roadsSeigneur had to make annual payments to the Crown Droits et HomageThe Habitant had duties to the Seigneur as well:1. The construction of a house and the cultivation of the land2. Payment of annual taxes cens et rents3. Payment of a portion of all the grain ground at the mill along with fish caught from the river.4. 3 to 4 days free labour on the seigneurs land.What was the goal of the seigneurial system?The purpose of the seigneurial system was:to begin to break the land and make it profitableto create an upper class of landowners to form the basis of governmentIt was NOT successful because it did not create a wealthy landowning classThis was because seigneurs had to charge extremely low rents to entice farmers to stay on their land and not join the fur trade which had the potential for greater profitsMarriage and FamilyCareers were not open to women but most women were better educated in reading and writing than manGirls married from the ages 12-16Colony was a dangerous place and many women became widowsWomen played a crucial role in the economic lifeMarriage and FamilyWomen often looked after accounts and trade goods, and took over the family business when the father diedLarge families were encouragedWomen gave birth every 2 yearsNew France had a young population40-50% of its population was under 15 years of ageThe Thirteen ColoniesThe English settled present-day Virginia at Jamestown in 1607Virginia became the first of Thirteen ColoniesThe Thirteen Colonies outgrew the colony of New France because of the warmer climate; the ability to sprawl; the farming economy; the absence of a Mercantilist economy; and, unrestricted immigrationThe Thirteen Colonies New France Thirteen Colonies1660 3000 90 000171018000331 711172024 474446 185173034 118629 445174044 000905 563175053 000 1 170 760176064 041 1 593 625War and ConquestBritain and France were constantly at war since 1743The expansion of the Thirteen Colonies threatened the interior fur trade of the FrenchCompetition of global supremacy of trade and commerce also brought the two superpowers into conflictThe British captured mainland Nova Scotia from the French in 1713War and ConquestCape Breton remained a French possessionThe French Acadians lived under British rule in Nova Scotia peacefully for 38 yearsIn 1749, Britain was preparing for war with France in Nova Scotia (Cape Breton)The British Government demanded the Acadians take an oath of loyalty but the French farmers refusedWar and ConquestThe British used this as justification to remove the Acadians from Nova ScotiaIn 1755, the Acadians were forcibly removed with loss of possessions and property Britain now attacked the French fortress at Louisbourg and after a 49 day siege, the fort fell in 1758SEVEN YEARS WARThe Seven Years War was fought in three regions: Europe, North America and the CaribbeanThe North American war began in 1754 over fertile territory in the Ohio Valley. The North American war was also called the French and Indian WarFRANCEBlueENGLANDGreenSPAINOrangeDESPUTED TERRITORYYellowSEVEN YEARS WARAcadiansAcadia was the first permanent French settlement in North America, established at Port-Royal in 1604 During the seventeenth century, about sixty French families were established in Acadia. They developed friendly relations with the aboriginal Mi'kmaq, learning their hunting and fishing techniques.SEVEN YEARS WARAcadiansThe Acadians lived mainly in the coastal regions, farming land reclaimed from the sea through diking. Living on the frontier between French and British territories, the Acadians found themselves on the front lines in each conflict between the powers. SEVEN YEARS WARAcadiansAcadia was passed repeatedly from one side to the other, and the Acadians learned to survive through an attitude of studied neutrality, refusing to take up arms for either side, and thus came to be referred to as the "French neutrals"SEVEN YEARS WARAcadiansIn the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, France ceded the portion of Acadia that is now Nova Scotia (minus Cape Breton Island) to the British for the last time. In 1730, the Acadians signed an oath swearing allegiance to the British Crown, but stipulating that Acadians would not have to take up arms against the French or Indians. SEVEN YEARS WARAcadiansHowever, in 1754, the British government, no longer accepting the neutrality previously granted to the Acadians, demanded that they take an absolute oath of allegiance to the British monarch, which would require taking up arms. SEVEN YEARS WARAcadiansThe Acadians did not want to take up arms against family members who were in French territory, and believed that the oath would compromise their Roman Catholic faith, and refused. Colonel Charles Lawrence ordered the mass deportation of the Acadians.SEVEN YEARS WARAcadiansSEVEN YEARS WARThe Seven Years WarEarly in the war, the French are successful against the British armyTheir success is contributed to effective use of their Indian alliesAlso, the French model Indian guerilla tacticsSEVEN YEARS WARThe Seven Years WarThe French go on the offensive and strike the British on the frontier of their 13 colonies. The British are too scared to leave their fortsThe French gain the upper hand until the British put new emphasis on fighting in the North American frontier (1757)SEVEN YEARS WARThe Seven Years WarThe British devise a four pronged attack against the French at Montreal, Quebec, Trois Riviers and the Great Lakes region of the French territory. Four armies march into New FranceDue to colonial prejudice, the Marquois de Montcalm replaces Canadian-born Governor of New France, Vaudreuil, as commander of the French armySEVEN YEARS WARThe Seven Years WarUnder bitter disagreement, Montcalm takes a defensive approach, opposite of the offensive minded VaudreuilMoncalm does not want to rely on their Indian allies but rather utilize the fortress of Quebec. Montcalm believes the guerilla tactics used by the Indians is unfair and ungentlemanly Montcalm falls back to Quebec awaiting the BritishSEVEN YEARS WARThe Seven Years WarBy 1757, the British are putting more emphasis on the North American frontier than the French. The French are more concerned with the Caribbean islandsThe British begin using their naval superiority especially in the Gulf of St. LawrenceIn 1758, the fortress of Louisbourg falls to the BritishSEVEN YEARS WARThe Seven Years WarLed by General Braddock, the British continue their 4 pronged attack moving closer to Quebec. The French forces are falling backBy 1759, the French face a superior British military in North America. Outnumbered 3:1 in ships; 4:1 in troops; and 10:1 in dollars spent on the warThe French are losing every battle as they retreat to Quebec. Montcalm is confident the Quebec will holdSEVEN YEARS WARThe Seven Years WarQuebec was built on the cliffs overlooking the St. Lawrence with gun emplacements aimed down at the riverBy 1759, the British, lead by General Wolfe, arrive outside the walls of Quebec but winter is fast approachingWolfe delays because Quebec appears impenetrableSEVEN YEARS WARThe Seven Years WarWolfe learns from a French trader of a secret passage through a series of caves that leads to the plains behind the walls of QuebecThe British troops conceal their identity and hide themselves on ships that are disguised as French ships. The ships pass the French sentry and one-by-one the British troops go up this passage to the Plains of Abraham SEVEN YEARS WARThe Seven Years WarWhen morning arrives, Montcalm is stunned to see the British army assembled. Montcalm, believing that it is cowardly to hide behind the walls of Quebec, marches his troops outside to engage the BritishThe Battle of the Plains of Abraham ensues where Wolfe and Montcalm are both mortally wounded. The French are defeatedSEVEN YEARS WARThe Seven Years WarQuebec surrenders in 1759 This British victory should have been the end of the French presents in North America but it isn'tThe British, now under General James Murray contemplate their next move with winter approachingMurray believes that the French are not a defeated enemy. He knows that there is a French army of 7000 troops sitting in Montreal under commander La VieSEVEN YEARS WARThe Seven Years WarMurray has only 4000 tired troops in Quebec and he is forced to wait out the winter in Quebec - a hostile foreign city The St. Lawrence river is frozen not allowing Murray out of or La Vie into QuebecAll eyes are on Montreal and La Vie but also on the St. Lawrence. Who will come sailing down the St. Lawrence once the ice melts? The French fleet means that Murray will have to surrender because supplies are low. The British fleet means that Murray will hold QuebecSEVEN YEARS WARThe Seven Years WarThe winter is harsh and many of Murray's troops die. The remaining army is demoralized, tired and home-sickEven before the ice melts, La Vie marches from Montreal on to Quebec. The French defeat Murray and recapture QuebecIn spring however, the British fleet comes sailing down the St. Lawrence and they capture Quebec for a second timeNew France surrenders with the arrival of the British fleet in 1760SEVEN YEARS WARThe Seven Years WarNow the British hold the entire colony and the French have nothing. North America becomes British North America BNAThe Seven Years War does not end in 1760. The war still rages in Europe but finally ends in 1763 with a British victoryThe Treat of Paris followsSEVEN YEARS WARReasons for Quebecs DefeatThe colony of New France was only accessible by the St. Lawrence a route easily blockaded The economy of New France did not encourage population growthThe size of the colony was difficult to defendSEVEN YEARS WARReasons for Quebecs DefeatInternal dissention with Montcalms leadershipThe military strategy for the defense of New France was flawedThe power and skill of the British Navy was overwhelmingTreaty of Paris 1763Treaty of Paris 1963The Treaty of Paris officially ends the war, 1756 - 1763. At the peace talks the French are given the opportunity to get all of their losses backBritain, in return for other concessions, is prepared to give New France back to the FrenchThe French decline their offer because they are more interested in the Caribbean therefore they are willing to trade away New France in return for the island of Guadeloupe "the sugar island"Treaty of Paris 1963The Treaty of Paris secures the fate of the French in North America and established the English dominance of the continentFrance does keep two possessions - San Pierre and Miquelon as two North American ports for their Caribbean tradeThe Habitant feel betrayed by France and relations will never be favorable even to this dayTreaty of Paris 1963How will the English treat this French Catholic population in British North America?The English develop a policy of assimilation, absorbing the French into their culture instead of expelling them like the Acadians60 000 French Catholics live in BNA as conquered peoples Treaty of Paris 1963The British Act of 1763 called the Royal Proclamation replaces French Civil Law with British Common Law; the Protestant Church replaces the Catholic Church; and the Segneurial System is replaced with the Freehold Tenure SystemThe French language is not an issue but religion, law and the landholding system are Treaty of Paris 1963If the French disagree with the assimilation policy, the British allow them to return to Europe freely. Only 3% return because of the cost and danger involvedThe second aspect of the Royal Proclamation is to deal with the native peoples - the Indian allies of the FrenchThe British fear an Indian uprising therefore the Royal Proclamation must contain measures to keep peaceful relations with these tribesTreaty of Paris 1963The British create a Proclamation Line running north-south from the St. Lawrence to Florida giving all land west to the Indians. The rich land of the Ohio Valley now belongs to the IndiansThere will be no White encroachment west of the Proclamation LineAlso, all natives within BNA are now British subjects. Under the Royal Proclamation, the British want to protect the IndiansTreaty of Paris 1963The 13 colonies have argued and fought for permission to expand westward into the Ohio Valley and now they are told this territory belongs to the IndiansThe 13 colonies refer to this Proclamation as an Intolerable Act and moves the colonies closer to revolutionIf the British are defeated by the 13 colonies, the Royal Proclamation becomes null and the colonies can expand westTreaty of Paris 1963The British wish the 13 colonies to expand north into the former New France territory. They hope that an influx of English settlers will accelerate the assimilation of the French populationThe immigration northward does not occur. Most immigrants move to the southern colonies or the CaribbeanAll British subjects were expected to have access to British Representative Government which is made up of an elected assemblyTreaty of Paris 1963According to the Royal Proclamation, Quebec was to establish a parliament and an assembly. An elected assembly would likely be French The Indians of the Ohio Valley are discontent with their new trading partners - the English. The French offered higher prices and the French conducted trade relations according to Indian traditions. The English exploited the trade relationsThere is rumors of an Indian uprisingTreaty of Paris 1963Under Odawa Chief, Pontiac, the Indians of the Ohio Valley create a confederacy and revolt against the BritishPontiac takes 9 British forts but their enthusiasm soon loses momentum and dissention between tribe aboundsPontiac is murdered by an Illinois warrior and the uprising loses its momentum**************************************************************

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