chapter 3 - diffusion & osmosis
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Chapte r 3Diffusion and Osmosis
OBJECTIVES By the end of the lesson, you should be able to define and describe diffusion, osmosis and active transport to describe the idea of a partially permeable membrane assess the importance of water potential gradient in water uptake by plants explain the effects of osmosis in plant and animal tissues define and discuss importance of active transport in ion-uptake by root hairs and glucose uptake by cells in the villi
Int roduc tion Recall: ~ A cell is the basic unit of life ~ Many complex reactions take place inside the cell ~This means that many raw materials must be brought into the cell ~ And new products formed by the chemical reactions, and waste materials, must exit the cell.
How ? How do the raw materials get into the cell? How do the new products leave the cell? How are the waste materials removed from the cell? Answer: Materials move across the partially permeable cell membrane diffusion osmosis active transport By processes called _________, _________ and _______________
DiffusionDiffusion is the net movement of ions or solute molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration, down a concentration gradient molecule moves from a region of highregion of high concentration of molecule X
concentration to that of low concentration
concentration gradient region of low concentration of molecule X
Diffusion Diffusion in gases
Gas molecules move from a region of higher concentration to that of a lower concentration
The movement continues until they are evenly spread
Diffusion Diffusion in liquids
A. Dissolved particles of a
B. The particles
substance in a liquid move from a region where they are more concentrated to a region where they are less concentrated.
continue to move until they are evenly distributed.
DiffusionImportance of Diffusion
Initially, the concentration of a substance outside the cell is higher than inside the cell. The particles diffuse across the cell membrane.
Later, an equal concentration of the substance inside and outside the cell is attained.
DiffusionImportance of Diffusion Living cells continuously use up oxygen during aerobic respiration. The concentration of oxygen inside the cell falls. Oxygen molecules diffuse into the cell until the oxygen concentration is raised again. During respiration, carbon dioxide is produced. The concentration of carbon dioxide rises and creates a concentration gradient.carbon dioxide oxygen
Oxygen is supplied to Amoeba by diffusion. Diffusion enables metabolic wastes such as carbon dioxide to be excreted out.
DiffusionFactors which Affect the Rate of Diffusion Temperature: An increase in temperature results in a higher rate of diffusion. Temp Molecules move faster Rate of diffusion
Size of particles: Small molecules or ions diffuse faster than large ones. Particle size Energy to move particle Rate of diffusion
Thickness of the barrier: Membranes of plant and animal cells are of about the same in thickness and permeability. Plant cell walls vary in their thickness. The thicker the cell walls, the slower the rate of diffusion. Thinner membrane Higher rate of diffusion
Concentration gradient: The greater the concentration gradient, the higher the rate of diffusion Steeper concentration gradient Higher rate of diffusion
Surface area: The rate of diffusion into a cell depends on the total surface area of the cell membrane. surface area rate of diffusion.
Diffusion in our body Recall: Our cells have a partially permeable membrane Partially permeable membrane Allows some substance through and not others How do these substances pass through? via DIFFUSION
Practical Application Kidney dialysis Waste products are removed from the blood by diffusing across artificial membrane in the machine Blood cells and other large protein are retained
OsmosisOsmosis is the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane, from a high water potential to a low water potential.selectively-permeable membrane
The selectively permeable membrane on the side of the water is being continuously bombarded by water molecules which pass through. This causes an increase in the volume of sucrose solution and a decrease in the volume of water.
OsmosisWater PotentialThe water potential of a solution is a measure of the tendency of water molecules to move from one place to another A dilute solution has a higher water potential than a concentrated solution The difference in water potential between two solutions is known as the water potential gradient
OsmosisOsmosis and Plant CellsIn plant cells, the cell sap contains dissolved salts and sugar. If the cell sap has a lower water potential than that of the surrounding fluids, water from the outside enters by osmosis. Turgor A state when a cell is firm or turgid due to water entering the cell, causing it to swell. Turgor pressure The outward pressure which the cell sap exerts against the inside wall of the cell
Importance of Turgor in Plants1. Changes in turgor of the guard cell causes the opening of the stomata
Turgor (II) Changes in turgor of the pulvinus (small swelling at the base of the leaflets) causes the folding of leaflets in the Mimosa
OsmosisOsmosis and Plant Cellscell sap more concentrated than outside solution water enters by osmosis
Turgid cells. The cytoplasm is pressed against the cell wall. The cell swells up and is prevented from bursting by the cellulose cell wall.cell sap less concentrated than outside solution water leaves by osmosis
cellulose cell wall
Plasmolysed cells. Water is lost from its vacuole, the cytoplasm shrinks and is withdrawn from the cell wall.
Plasmolysis leads to wilting
Fertilizer - Good or Bad? Too much fertilizer added will cause the plant to wilt Soil solution becomes very concentrated Water moves out of root Plant will wilt Sufficient water must be added to ensure plant survival
OsmosisOsmosis and Animal CellsChanges observed under a microscope when blood is dropped into hypertonic and hypotonic solutions.in hypertonic solutionnormal red blood cell
in hypotonic solution
cell becomes crenated
cell bursts and cell is said to be haemolysed
Active TransportActive transport is an energy-consuming process by which substances are transported from regions of low concentration to regions of high concentration against a concentration gradient. binding sitesubstrate molecule carrier protein OUTSIDE cell membrane
carrier protein changes shape
energy from ATP used
Active TransportPlants need to absorb mineral salts from the soil. They are present as charged ions which cannot diffuse across partially-permeable membranes.
soil particle high concentration of ions low concentration of ions
Direction of active transport
Ion uptake by root hair is facilitated by active transport
Active TransportActive transport enables absorption of glucose and amino acids through the inner surface of the small intestine. The presence of microvilli increases the surface area over which active transport occurs.cell lining the villus
Uptake of glucose by cells in the villiglucose molecule direction of active transport