Chapter 21: Romantic Music: Program Music, Ballet, and Musical Nationalism

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  • Chapter 21: Romantic Music: Program Music, Ballet, and Musical Nationalism
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  • Program Music Program Music: Instrumental music that seeks to re-create in sound the events and emotions portrayed in some extramusical source a story, legend, play, novel, historical event Tells a story through music Specific musical gestures evoke particular feelings and associations Connected to the strong literary spirit of the 19 th - century On the other end of the spectrum Absolute Music: Instrumental music free of a text or any pre-existing program Johannes Brahms (1833-1897)
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  • Program Symphony: A symphony with three, four, or five movements, which together depict a succession of specific events or scenes drawn from an extramusical story or event Berliozs Symphonie fantastique Dramatic Overture: A one-movement work that portrays through music a sequence of dramatic events Rossinis overture to the opera William Tell (1829) Tchaikovskys 1812 Overture Tone Poem (Symphonic Poem): A one-movement work for orchestra that gives musical expression to the emotions or events associated with a story, play, political event, or personal experience Tchaikovskys Romeo and Juliet
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  • Hector Berlioz (1803-1869) and the Program Symphony Born near Grenoble, France Composer and music critic Skilled in orchestration Added new instruments to the orchestra Compositions required an enormous number of musicians Influenced by literature, especially Shakespeare Life epitomized the artist as Romantic hero
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  • Symphonie fantastique (1830) The first complete program symphony Berlioz wrote the program based on his love affair with Harriet Smithson Five movements: I. Reveries, Passion II. A Ball III. Scene in the Country IV. March to the Scaffold V. Dream of a Witches Sabbath Unifying theme: ide fixe (fixed idea) Represents the beloved Appears in each movement Altered to reflect his changing mood about the beloved
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  • IV. March to the Scaffold Re-creates the sounds of the French military bands he heard as a child Rousing march tempo Exceptionally heavy low brass Use of the ophicleide (tuba) Crescendo and snare drum announce the fall of the guillotine Graphically orchestrated so we hear the severed head of the lover fall and thud on the ground
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  • V. Dream of a Witches Sabbath Berlioz creates his personal vision of hell Parody of the ide fixe Dies Irae chant burial hymn of the medieval church Parodied as a satiric dance Final fugato, double counterpoint
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  • Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893): Tone Poem and Ballet Music Tone Poem: One-movement work for orchestra that captures the emotions and events of a story through music Most prolific writer of late 19 th -century program music Professor at the Moscow Conservatory Supported by patroness Madame Nadezdha von Meck and Tsar Alexander III Compositions include every genre of Romantic Era music Primarily known today for his program music and ballets
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  • Tone Poem Romeo and Juliet (1869; rev. 1880 Like Berlioz, found extramusical inspiration from Shakespeare Romeo and Juliet, The Tempest, Hamlet Free, not literal, representation of the principal dramatic events
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  • Tchaikovskys Ballets Ballet: Dramatic dance in which characters and steps tell a story Tchaikovsky's talents uniquely suited to ballet Short segment style; could create one striking melody/mood after another Swan Lake (1876), Sleeping Beauty (1889), The Nutcracker (1892) Dance of the Reed Pipes from The Nutcracker Ternary form Evokes the sound of shepherds playing pan-pipes Clear meter
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  • Music and Nationalism Arose from the political upheaval of the 19 th -century Desire to maintain ethnic identity and support national pride National anthems, native dances, protest songs, victory symphonies Use of indigenous musical elements Folksongs, Scales, Dance rhythms, Local instrumental sounds, Programs based on national subjects Evocative titles Liszt - Hungarian Rhapsodies Rimsky-Korsakov Russian Easter Overture Dvok Slavonic Dances Smetana M vlast (My Fatherland) Sibelius Finlandia
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  • Russian Nationalism: Modest Musorgsky (1839-1881) Russia was one of the first countries to develop its own national style of art music, distinct and separate from the traditions of German orchestral music and Italian opera Modest Mussorgsky Everything Russian is becoming dear to me. Night on Bald Mountain (tone poem, 1867), Pictures at an Exhibition (set of character pieces, 1874), Boris Godunov (opera, 1874)
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  • Pictures at an Exhibition (1874) Originally for piano; orchestrated by Maurice Ravel in 1922 Each movement depicts a different drawing or painting by Victor Hartmann (1833-1873) Promenade: Opens the work and serves as transition between movements Solo contrasts with full brass then full orchestra Irregular meter and use of pentatonic scale
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  • Polish Ox-cart: Creates a sense of time and movement Two-note ostinato Crescendo and decrescendo as the cart approaches and slowly disappears Begins and ends with the lowest sounds; orchestrated with tuba and double basses The Great Gate of Kiev: Impression of a parade passing through a great arch Rondo form: ABABCA Use of different musical styles in each section