chapter 18 the politics of late-nineteenth-century america
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DESCRIPTIONI. Chapter 18 The Politics of Late-Nineteenth-Century America. T h e G r e a t P o l i t i c a l D e b a t e o f t h e 1 8 8 0 ’s ? ? ?. I. The Politics of the Status Quo, 1877-1893. I.A. The National Scene. The Passive Presidency – Most arduous task = dispensing spoils (govt. jobs) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Chapter 18The Politics of Late-Nineteenth-Century AmericaThe Great Political Debate of the 1880s???I.
The Politics of the Status Quo, 1877-1893I.
The National SceneThe Passive Presidency Most arduous task = dispensing spoils (govt. jobs)President Garfield Assassinated by deranged office seeker Pendleton Act (1883), 1st step toward civil service reformI.A
The National SceneParty Politics President took back seat to Congress and Congress did littleTraditional contrast between parties was muddledTariff big issueCampaign Politics equal balance, politicians cautious not to offendI.A
The National SceneSectional Politics Reconstruction abandoned, mudslinging and personal attacks, pomp and ceremonyMa,Ma, wheres my paw?1884 - Democrats = Rum, Romanism and RebellionDebate over what to do with surplus????? I.A
The Ideology of IndividualismLaissez-Faire People support the government, but the government should not support the peopleGospel of Wealth Rags to Riches stories aplentyAndrew CarnegieWilliam Lawrence protestant ethicI.B
The Ideology of IndividualismSocial Darwinism Herbert Spencer human society evolved through competition and any interference with social progress is bad
The Supremacy of the CourtsCourts become the defenders of private property (and big business)Corporations are now people! 14th Amendment protects people from being deprived of life liberty or property used to restrain government regulationsManufacturing not interstate commerce and income tax unconstitutional
Cultural PoliticsParades, conventions and political paraphernaliaParty Loyalty heresy for protestant Northerners to be Democrat or Southerners to be Republican.
Well-Defined Voting BlocsDemocratic BlocRepublican BlocWhite southerners (preservation of white supremacy)CatholicsRecent immigrantsUrban working poor (pro-labor)Most farmersNorthern whites (pro-business)African AmericansNorthern ProtestantsAnti-immigrantMost of the middle classWestern FarmersII.A
IssuesDemocratic BlocRepublican BlocLow TariffAnti-ProhibitionPro-immigrantIncreasing money Supply inflationGreenbacks/free coinage of silverStates Rights
High TariffPro-voting rightsAnti-immigrantTight control on money supply Gold backed dollarFavor Blue Laws legislating moralityII.A
Organizational PoliticsAll politics is localBoth parties well organized structuresPrecinct and Ward localPrecinct-Ward-County-State-NationalPrecinct and Ward responsible for getting out the voteII.B
Organizational PoliticsMachine Politics internal organization of party made up of insiders working for party in exchange for public jobs or connections. Usually one man rule Party Boss.Inner conflict not over policy, but spoils. ie. Republicans, Stalwarts vs. Half-Breeds Results not all badII.B
Organizational PoliticsMugwumps Republican defectors who wanted an end to machine politics Elitist, not populist Influenced public debate regarding cleaning up political process Secret (Australian Ballot)II.B
Womens Political CultureSuffragists overcome division of reconstructionConcentrate on state campaignsWomen operated within their sphere to fight for change particularly prohibition (WCTU)II.B
StateDate BegunTerritory of Wyoming 1869Wyoming 1890Colorado 1893Utah1896Idaho 1896Arizona 1912Washington 1910California 1911Kansas 1912Oregon 1912Territory of Alaska 1913Montana 1914Nevada 1914New York 1917Michigan1918Oklahoma 1918South Dakota 1918
Race and Politics in the New SouthII.C
Race and Politics in the New SouthBlacks remain staunch RepublicansVoter intimidation and suppression commonDemocrats = Redeemers Class strife Elite vs. hill-country farmers (Populist), hard not to see need for cooperation with blacks Lukewarm at best
Race and Politics in the New SouthBlack Disenfranchisement Democrat leaders see alliance of poor white and Blacks as a threatReform Literacy Tests, Grandfather Clause exempted those who were entitled to vote BEFORE 15th AmendmentWere still poll taxes/property requirementsII.C
Race and Politics in the New SouthJim Crow Brand of White Supremacy emergesSegregation Supreme Court Upholds in Plessy v. Furguson = separate but equal Upholds disenfranchisement of blacks as long as race was not a specified criteria in Williams v. MississippiII.C
Race and Politics in the New SouthPublic vilification of blacks commonplaceLynchings and race riotsCausesYounger generation of BlacksCompetition for jobs w/ poor whitesPopulist threat to one party rule, elite power brokers accept demagogue politicians II.C
Race and Politics in the New SouthGrimes County Texas Populist/Republican coalition holds on until 1900 terrorism used to wrest control back to DemocratsII.C
1. How did Progressivism and organized interest groups reflect the new political choices of Americans?2. What reforms did American women, Urbanites, and African Americans seek?3. Evaluate and explain how and why President Roosevelt expanded the role of the Federal Government.How did President Wilson seek to accommodate his progressive principles to the realities of political power?
Resisting White SupremacySome resisters (often paid with life)Ida B. WellsAtlanta Compromise Booker T. Washington = AccommodationistTuskegee Institute Promote education, work property ownership = civil rightsII.C
The Crisis of American Politics1890s Democrat victories seem to usher in new Democrat ageMcKinley Tariff - Prohibition Party siphon Republican votesPanic of 1893 profound political consequences Unemployment over 20%Falling grain/cotton pricesII.D
The Populist RevoltFarmers Alliances tap into anti-monopoly, big business sentimentBecame politicized and abandoned traditional Republican/Democrat alliancesLocal-State-NationalPeoples Party (Populist) crated 1892
The Populist Revolt1892 James Weaver presidential candidate1,000,000,000 votes, 4 statesRoots in Grange Social clubs = women active (Mary Elizabeth Lease, raise less corn and more hellPitted themselves (producers, including labor)) against money power II.D
To what extent did the Populist revolt reshape American politics?Do Now Copy reading quiz questions for Wednesday.1. How did Progressivism and organized interest groups reflect the new political choices of Americans?2. What reforms did American women, Urbanites, and African Americans seek?3. Evaluate and explain how and why President Roosevelt expanded the role of the Federal Government.4. How did President Wilson seek to accommodate his progressive principles to the realities of political power?
The Populist RevoltIdeology Opposed Laissez-Faire1892 PlatformNationalization of RailroadsProtection of land from monopoliesGraduated Income TaxSubtreasury PlanFree Coinage of Silver
The Populist RevoltFree Silver Coinage of Silver would increase the money supply (inflation) and secure funding for populist candidates from silver mining industryDouble edged sword Labor did not want inflationary cycle
Money and Politics
II.DMoney Policy Always a contentious issueDebtors and commodity producers vs. sound money creditors, fixed incomes
Money and PoliticsHistory Before Civil War $ printed by state chartered banksU.S. Banking Act of 1863 Feds print greenbacksAfter war sound money interests lobby for specie printed money to be backed by gold and silver in treasuryEra of chronic deflation and tight credit
Money and PoliticsHistory Continued.Silver becomes more valuable as a metal than money and silver coins disappear.1873 silver dropped as currencyInflationists urge govt to resume bimetallic policy purchasing silver at a ratio of 16-1 with goldThis would greatly increase $$ supply
Money and Politics
II.DCleveland and SilverCoxeys ArmyPullman Strike Tariff still highRefuses to cave on Silver IssueNegotiations with Wall Street reinforced image he was in cahoots with big business.
Money and Politics
II.DElection of 1896 Dems abandon Cleveland, Nominate William Jennings Bryan passionate advocate of Free SilverCross of Gold Speech
Gold / Silver Bug Campaign Pins
William Jennings Bryan (1860-1925)The Great Commoner
Bryants Cross of Gold SpeechYou shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns; you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold!
Bryan: The Farmers Friend (The Mint Ratio)18,000 miles of campaign whistle stops.
Money and Politics
II.DPopulists also nominate WJB due to Silver IssueRepublicans nominate William McKinley campaign orchestrated by Mark Hanna massive money raising campaign Revolutionary and AnarchisticBryans religious fervor did not sit well with labor
1896 Election Results
Money and Politics
II.DRepublicans make electoral inroads into citiesMcKinley winsPopulism Dies, and with it liberal reform.for now!
Gold Triumphs Over Silver1900 Gold Standard Actconfirmed the nations commitment to the gold standard.A victory for the forces of conservatism.
The Wizard of Oz by L. Frank Baum
1964: Henry Littlefields Thesis?
Mark Twain coined the phrase referring to the superficial glitter of the new wealth.It also refers to the politics of the era all show with little substance (era of forgettable Presidents) characterized by patronage, corruption an