chapter 14 new movements in america section 1: immigrants and urban challenges

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  • Chapter 14 New Movements in America Section 1: Immigrants and Urban Challenges
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  • What are the main ideas? 1. Millions of immigrants arrived in the U.S despite anti-immigration movements. 2. Industrialization led to the growth of cities. 3. American cities experienced urban problems due to rapid population growth. Remember the Big Idea! The population of the United States grew rapidly in the early 1800's with the arrival of millions of immigrants!
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  • Millions of Immigrants Arrive! Large numbers of immigrants crossed the Atlantic in the mid- 1800s to begin new lives in the United States. More than 4 million came between 1840 and 1860, mostly from Europe. More than 3 million of them were from Ireland and Germany.
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  • Push-Pull Factors of Immigration
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  • Remember the Push-Pull Factors! Push Factors Starvation Poverty Lack of political freedom Pull Factors Jobs Greater freedom and equality Abundant land
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  • Why did they leave for America? Irish Immigrants Fled Ireland because of potato famine in 1840s Most were very poor. Settled in cities in Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania Men worked at unskilled jobs or by building canals and railroads. Women worked as domestic servants for wealthy families. German Immigrants Some educated Germans fled for political reasons. Most were working class and came for economic reasons. Many became farmers and lived in rural areas. In cities they had to take low- paying jobs, such as tailors, seamstresses, bricklayers, servants, clerks, and bakers.
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  • Lets Recall!! What two groups formed the majority of immigrants to the United States during the mid-1800's? The Irish and the German How did the Irish and German immigrants tend to differ? The Irish came to escape the potato famine, starvation and disease. They were mostly poor and Catholic. Most Irish settled in cities and worked unskilled jobs. The Germans came to escape political persecution and pursue economic opportunities. The were Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish. They settled in the Midwest for farming and tended to have some money.
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  • Anti-Immigration Movements
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  • Vocab 1: Implicitly Something that is understood though not clearly put into words.
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  • Vocab 2: Nativists Those Americans and others who opposed immigration.
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  • Vocab 3: Know-Nothing Party A nativists founded political organization that supported measures making it difficult for foreigners to become citizens or hold office.
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  • Anti-Immigration Movements Many native-born Americans feared losing jobs to immigrants, who might work for lower wages. Most Americans were Protestants before the new immigration. Conflict between Protestants and newly arrived Catholic immigrants Americans who opposed immigration were called nativists. Nativists founded a political organization called the Know- Nothing Party in 1849 to make it difficult for immigrants to become citizens or hold public office. Wanted to keep Catholics and immigrants out of public office Wanted immigrants to live in United States for 21 years before becoming citizens
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  • Lets Recall!! How did immigration change the American labor force in the mid-1800's? Many immigrants migrated to the Midwest for farming while others stayed in Northeastern cities filling the need for cheap labor. How did anti-Catholicism contribute to the creation of the Know-Nothing Party? Nativists formed the Know-Nothing party in part to keep Catholics out of public offices.
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  • Rapid Growth of Cities
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  • Vocab 4: Middle Class The new social and economic level between the wealthy and the poor.
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  • Industrialization led to the growth of cities! Industrial Revolution led to creation of new jobs in cities. Drew rural Americans and immigrants from many nations Transportation Revolution helped to connect cities and make movement easier. Rise of industry and growth of cities led to creation of new middle class. Merchants, manufacturers, professionals, and master craftspeople New economic level between wealthy and poor People found entertainment and enriched cultural life in cities. Cities were compact and crowded during this time.
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  • Lets Recall!! In which regions did U.S cities grow the most during the early 1800's? Northeast and Mid-Atlantic What types of jobs did the new middle class hold? Skilled labor such as master craftspeople and business owners such as merchants, manufacturers, and professionals.
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  • Urban Problems!!
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  • Vocab 5: Tenements Poorly designed apartment buildings that housed large numbers of people.
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  • Urban problems!! What urban problems problems developed as a result of rapid growth in the mid-1800's? Many city dwellers, particularly immigrants, lived in tenements: poorly designed apartment buildings that housed large numbers of people. Public services were poorno clean water, public health regulations, or healthful ways to get rid of garbage. Cities became centers of criminal activity, and most had no organized police force. Fire was a constant and serious danger in crowded cities. Despite the problems, do you think immigrants preferred life in America to that in their home countries?


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