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  • Chapter 11The Expanding Nation (1800-1815)

  • Chapter 11The Expanding Nation (1800-1815)Section 1Jefferson as President

  • The Republican VictoryThomas Jefferson (Republican) won the election of 1800Republican Party won control of both houses of Congress Jefferson had support for many of his plansInauguration marked the first time one political party had replaced another in power in the U.S. proof the U.S. could change leaders peacefullyRare achievement for a government at that timeJefferson supported will of majorityDid not favor mob rule as Federalists had claimedTried to comfort Federalists by promising to run the government fairly would not let party politics interfere

  • Jefferson in OfficeJefferson faced task of putting Republican ideas into practiceSelected members of his cabinetJames Madison Secretary of StateAlbert Gallatin Secretary of the TreasuryLowered military spending, reduced the size of the army (to 3,200), navy cut to 7 active ships opposed by FederalistsHoped saving money would allow them to pay down national debtWanted to get rid of domestic taxes (ex. Tax on whiskey)Even wanted to close down agencies that collected taxesRepublican-led Congress passed laws needed to carry out policiesAgreed to let Bank of United States continue as it was under Federalists

  • Jefferson in Office (continued)Jefferson had planned to allow Federalists to keep their government jobs, but his party pressured him to replace them with RepublicansUnder pressure from both parties, he replaced some but not all

  • Marbury vs. MadisonBefore Jefferson took office, Federalists passed a new law that created many new judgeships and other court officesBefore his term ended, Adams had appointed dozens of Federalists called the midnight judges by some because Adams waited until the last minute on his last day in officeWhen Jefferson took office some Federalists Adams chose had not received their commissionsJefferson ordered Secretary of State James Madison not to give out the papers

  • Marbury vs. Madison (continued)William Marbury affected by this decisionDemanded the Supreme Court force the executive branch to hand over his commissionClaimed the Judiciary Act of 1789 gave the Supreme Court the right to do thisChief Justice John Marshall a Federalist appointed by Adams agreed to hear Marburys case

  • Marbury v. Madison (continued)Supreme Courts decision in Marbury v. Madison all justices agreed Marbury had been treated unfairlyQuestion = did the Supreme Court have the power to force Madison to give Marbury his commission?Judiciary Act of 1789 = yesChief Justice Marshall = no he did not think the Constitution allowed Congress to give the Supreme Court new powersJudiciary Act of 1789 = unconstitutionalMarshalls ruling established the power of judicial review allows the Supreme Court to declare an act of Congress to be unconstitutional greatly increased the Courts legal authority

  • Chapter 11The Expanding Nation (1800-1815)Section 2The Louisiana Purchase

  • French LouisianaNapoleon conquered much of EuropeWanted to rebuild Frances empire in North AmericaFirst send troops to Louisiana, replace Spain as key European power in western N.A.Defeat in St. Domingue kept him from sending troopsSt. Domingue (present-day Haiti) led by Toussaint Louverture, enslaved Africans took over the colonyNapoleon needed control of this island to use as a supply baseU.S. leaders suspicious when France regained control of Louisiana France could block western growth of the U.S. and interfere with trade

  • The Louisiana PurchaseJefferson wanted to keep the French from controlling New Orleans but did not want warRobert Livingston, U.S. Ambassador to France, and James Monroe were told to try to buy New Orleans and West FloridaTalleyrand did not want to sell just New Orleans; asked for offer on all of LouisianaNapoleon willing to sell Louisiana becauseFrance was about to go to war against Great Britain, did not want to fight U.S. tooFrench still had no troops in LouisianaNapoleon wanted money to buy supplies for armies in EuropeU.S. owning Louisiana would challenge Great Britains power in North AmericaCongress authorized $10 million to buy Louisiana however Livingston and Monroe agreed to buy for $15 million

  • The Louisiana Purchase (continued)Treaty of purchase signed May 2, 1803Jefferson = strict constructionist did not believe the constitution allowed him to buy the territoryAgreed to the purchase because he believed it was best for the countrySenate approved the treaty October 20, 1803With the Louisiana Purchase, the U.S. almost doubled in sizeLouisiana territory stretched west from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains

  • Mission of DiscoveryLittle was known about western American Indians or western landsJefferson wanted to see if there was a river route to the Pacific OceanJefferson asked Congress to fund a western expedition led by Meriwether LewisLewis chose William Clark to be co-leaderTold to explore the Missouri River, form peaceful relations with American IndiansTo prepare Lewis studied botany, surveying, etc.; gathered suppliesLewis and Clark selected frontiersmen to join their Corps of Discovery

  • The Lewis and Clark ExpeditionStarted in St. Louis of present-day Missouri in May 1804Corps of Discovery traveled up the Missouri River, encountered Mandan and SiouxSacagawea, a Shoshone from the Rocky Mountains, and her husband, a French fur trader who lived with the Mandan, offered to guide the expeditionLewis and Clark kept journals regarding the people, places, things they encountered trip = long, difficult, exhaustingAfter crossing the Rocky Mountains, they followed the Columbia River to the Pacific OceanWere not successful in finding a river route across the WestLearned much about western lands and paths across the RockiesEstablished contact with many American Indian groupsCollected a lot of information about western plants and animalsArrived by canoe back in St. Louis in late Sept. 1806

  • Pikes ExplorationZebulon Pike sent on mission to the West to find the starting point of the Red RiverRuns through Louisiana and along part of the northern border of present-day TexasBelieved by the U.S. to be part of the Louisiana Territorys southwestern border with New SpainPike may have had instructions to spy on Spanish outposts in the SouthwestLed small expedition to the Rocky MountainsTried to climb the mountain known today as Pikes PeakHeaded south in to present-day New MexicoPike imprisoned by the Spanish while exploring along the Rio Grande in Spanish-held landsAccused of being a spy

  • Chapter 11The Expanding Nation (1800-1815)Section 3The Coming of War

  • Danger on the High SeasAlgiers = one of several North African lands known as the Barbary StatesCountries practiced piracy, held foreign citizens captive for ransomU.S. originally agreed to make payments to them to protect their ships and citizensEventually refused to pay, send U.S. Navy to end pirate raidsU.S. faced greater threats on high seasGreat Britain and France went to war in 1803 U.S. drawn into conflictEach country wanted to stop the U.S. from supplying goods and war materials to the otherBritain passed series of acts allowing British navy to search and seize ships carrying war supplies to France; French declared no country could ship supplies to Britain

  • Danger on the High Seas (continued)Many American merchants ignored foreign lawsBritish and French navies captured many American merchant shipsBritish searched for sailors who ran away from British navyForced them back to the ship, sometimes Americans by accident (impressment forcing people to serve in the army or navy)British (Leopard) ship stopped U.S navy ship (Chesapeake) tried to remove 4 sailorsU.S. Captain refused, British opened fire and took 4 sailors by force

  • A Trade WarDebates over how to respond to Great Britains violations of U.S. neutralitySome said war, others favored an embargo banning of trade against BritainJefferson and Republicans favored an embargoEmbargo Act law banned trade with foreign countries; hoped to punish Britain and France and protect American ships from captureMain effect was to hurt American merchants lost great deal of moneyPopularity of the Federalist Party rose, Jeffersons support fell as embargo continuedAct had little effect on Britain or France; American merchants smuggled goods to EuropeNon-Intercourse Act replaced the Embargo Act in 1809banned trade only with Britain, France and their coloniesStated U.S. would start trading with the first side that stopped violating U.S. neutrality (wanted to pressure Britain and France to stop taking American ships)

  • The Rise of TecumsehBritish, American Indians and American settlers clashed in the westEarly 1800s, thousands of American setters entered the Northwest TerritoryStarted farms and settlements on what had once been American Indian landU.S. gained control of much through Treaty of Greenville upset American Indians leaders who did not agree to the treatyBritain wanted to stop rapid western growth to protect its interests in CanadaDid not want to fight U.S., but gave military aid to American Indian nations in the Northwest TerritoryTecumseh Shawnee chief skilled military leader and brilliant speakerHoped to unite American Indians of the Northwest Territory, the South, and the eastern Mississippi ValleyFounded village for followers near the Wabash and Tippecanoe Rivers

  • War on the FrontierWilliam Henry Harrison governor of Indiana Territory believed Tecumseh to be a serious threat to American powerHarrison and Tecumseh metHarrison urged him to follow treatiesTecumseh stated no single chief could sell land belonging to all American Indians who used itHarrison warne

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