challenges of tertiary institutions: the tertiary agricultural institution and that the institutions

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  • Programme des subventions ROCARE pour la recherche en éducation /

    ERNWACA Research Grants Programme

    Edition 2011/2012 edition

    CHALLENGES OF TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS: THE IMPLEMENTATION OF RURAL AGRICULTURAL

    DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES IN SIERRA LEONE

    Chercheurs/researchers

    • Mr. Saffa Barbee Massaquoi • Mr. Francis Tarawally • Miss Edna Bangali

    Parrain/Mentor :Dr. Joseph B.A. Kandeh

    Pays /Country

    Sierra Leone

    Recherche financée par le

    Réseau Ouest et Centre Africain de Recherche en Education (ROCARE)

    avec du soutien du projet Centre d’Excellence Régionale UEMOA

    et du Ministère des Affaires Etrangères des Pays Bas

    ----------------------------------------------------------

    Research financed by

    Education Research Network for West and Central Africa (ERNWACA)

    With project support from UEMOA regional Centre of Excellence

    and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands

  • i

    ABSTRACT

    Tertiary institutions offering agriculture programmes in Sierra Leone perform the roles of teaching, research and service to communities that are characterized by poverty, food insecurity and lack of basic amenities. Graduates from these institutions work as teachers, extension agents and agriculture officers in the communities to implement rural agricultural development programmes. The communities remain underdeveloped even though the institutions continuously produce hundreds of graduates in Agriculture every year. The essence of this research is to investigate why the rural agricultural communities in Sierra Leone remain underdeveloped, even though graduates in Agriculture are produced every year and many of them are employed in the rural communities? The research design is descriptive. The study generated qualitative and quantitative data. The population is 3,089 subjects comprising heads of departments, deans, students and community people. The sample size is 1,022; comprising 882 students; 18 deans and registrars and 125 community people. The study yielded findings which include the following: the programmes offered in the four tertiary education institutions investigated were Ph.D., M.Sc., B.Sc., B.Ed. TC, HTC, HND, OND, Short term in-service encompassing several weeks certificate programmes. Generally, human, financial and materials resources were available but minimally adequate in all the institutions thereby producing graduates with weak practical skills. The programmes offered had low to moderate impact on the lives of people manifested by varying levels of inadequacy/adequacy, accessibility and affordability of food in the communities. As a conclusion that the regions did not have equal or equitable distribution of tertiary agricultural institution and that the institutions did not offer equal numbers and types of programmes. However, each region had at least one tertiary education institution offering agricultural programmes which made tertiary agricultural education accessible to its people. The resources provided by government were grossly inadequate for the operations of the tertiary institutions in the country. Hence inadequate human (academic staff), finance (money for satisfactory salaries) and materials (tractors and other implements) resources posed serious challenges to the tertiary institutions nation-wide. Some recommendations made include: tertiary agricultural institutions should be equitably distributed in all the four regions of the country. Government should allocate sufficient funds to all levels of agricultural institutions for procurement of material resources to enhance successful implementation of agricultural programmes in rural agricultural communities. Adequate academic, supporting and farm technical staff should be employed in the institutions. Sufficient funds should be allocated by government for the operations of tertiary education institutions. Agricultural institutions should maintain demonstration farms for practical purposes.

  • ii

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Page

    CHAPTER ONE

    1.1 Background to the Study … … … … … … … 1

    1.1.1 Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa … … … … … 1

    1.1.2 Agriculture in Sierra Leone … … … … … … 1

    1.2 Statement of Problem … … … … … … … 1

    1.3 Aims and Objectives … … … … … … … 3

    1.4 Hypothesis … … … … … … … … … 3

    1.5 Justification of the Study … … … … … … … 5

    1.6 Delimitation … … … … … … … … … 6

    1.7 Limitation … … … … … … … … … 6

    CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

    2.1 Introduction … … … … … … … … … 7

    2.2 Agriculture Programmes in Tertiary Institutions … … … 8 2.3 Resource Base of Tertiary Institutions for Rural Agricultural Education / Training … … … … … … … 8 2.4 Relevance of Agricultural Education / Training Programmes In Agricultural Development … … … … … … 9 2.5 Impacts of Tertiary Agricultural Education Programmes in Agricultural Development … … … … … … 10 2.6 Challenges of Tertiary Education Institutions in Performing Their Roles for Rural Agricultural Development … … … 10 2.6.1 Lack of Funding … … … … … … … … 10

  • iii

    2.6.2 Weak Research and Innovation … … … … … … 10 CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction … … … … … … … … … 11 3.2 Study Area … … … … … … … … … 11 3.3 Study Design … … … … … … … … 11 3.4 Population and Sample Size … … … … … … 11 3.5 Sampling Procedure … … … … … … … 12 3.6 Instrumentation … … … … … … … …… 12 3.7 Data Collection … … … … … … … … 13 CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 4.1 Introduction … … … … … … … … … 14 4.2.1 Types of Agriculture Programmes in four Tertiary Institutions … 14 4.2.2 Hypothesis 1 … … … … … … … … 16 4.3 Discussions … … … … … … … … … 17 4.3.1 Tertiary Education Institutions and Types of Agriculture Programmes … … … … … … … … … 17 4.4 Availability of Resources (human, finance and material) … …. 19 4.4.1 Adequacy of Staff in the Four Tertiary Institutions … … … 19 4.4.2 Availability and Adequacy of Teaching and Learning Facilities In Four Tertiary Institutions … … … … … … 21 4.4.3 Availability and Adequacy of Farm Tools … … … … 21

  • iv

    4.4.4 Availability and Adequacy of Animal Input and Basic Amenities 24 4.4.5 Availability of Crop Production Input … … … … 24 4.4.6 Hypothesis 2 … … … … … … … … 26 4.5 Discussions … … … … … … … … … 27 4.5.1 Availability of Resources (human, finance, material) … … 28 4.6 Role of Tertiary Education in Rural Agricultural Development … 29 4.7 Discussions … … … … … … … … … 31 4.7.1 Role of Tertiary Education Institutions in Rural Agricultural Development … … … … … … … … 31 4.8 Challenges of Tertiary Institutions … … … … … 32 4.9 Discussions … … … … … … … … … 33 4.9.1 Challenges of Tertiary Education Institutions … … … 33 4.9.2 Inadequate Facilities in Tertiary Institutions … … … … 34 4.9.3 Weak Research in Tertiary Institutions … … … … 35 4.9.4 Poor Laboratory Facilities … … … … … … 35 4.9.5 Poor Working Environment in Tertiary Institutions … … … 35 4.9.6 Poor Information Communication Technology (ICT) Facilities … 35 4.10 Impact of Agricultural Programmes on Rural Agricultural Communities … … … … … … … … 35 4.11 Discussions ………. ……….. ………… …………. ……… 37 4.11.1 Impacts of Agricultural Programmes on Rural Agricultural Communities… … … … … … … … … 37

  • v

    4.12.1 Relevance of Agricultural Programmes offered in Tertiary Institutions … … … … … … … … … 38 4.12.2 Hypothesis 3 … … … … … … … … 40 4.13 Discussions … … … … … … … … … 41 4.13.1 Relevance of Agricultural Programmes offered in Tertiary Education Institution … … … … … … … 41 CHAPTER FIVE 5.1 Summary of Findings … … … … … … … 42 5.1.1 Types of Agriculture Programmes … … … … … 42 5.1.2 Resources Availability (human, finance and material) … … 42 5.1.2.1 Human Resources … … … … … … … 43 5.1.2.2 Financial Resources … … … … … … … 43 5.1.2.3 Material Resources … … … … … … … 43 5.2.1 The Role of Tertiary Education Institutions in Rural Agriculture Development … … … … … … … … 43 5.2.2.1 Teacher Training … … … … … … … … 43 5.2.2.2 Research … … … … … … … … … 43 5.2.2.3 Teacher In-service Training … … … … … … 44 5.2.3 Challenges of Tertiary Education Institutions … … … 44 5.2.4 Impact of Agricultural Programmes on Rural Agricultural Communities … … … … … … … … 44

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