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- 1.Chapter 2 Minerals
2. What is Matter
- Matter is anything that hasmassandvolume .
- OR: you could say
- anything that hasweightand takes upspace .
- is the amount of material is a substance or object.
- is the amount of space taken up by a substance or object.
- Weight: is the force of gravity on an object or substance.
5. Elements and Atoms
- Elements are:
- substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means.
- EX: nitrogen, gold, iron, and etc.
6. Each Element has a
- each symbol is based on the Greek or Latin alphabet. WHY?
- EX: gold - Au,oxygen - O, helium - He,Potassium - K, hydrogen - H
7. John Dalton
- Atomic Theory
- He believed that each element was made of tiny particles calledatoms .
8. Atoms are made of:
- 0 or no charge
9. Parts of an Atom
- Each electron is in anorbitalorshell . Each orbital can contain only a certain number of electrons.
Orbital or shell 11. Parts of an Atom
- 99.9% of an atom is the nucleus
12. Most atoms
- tend to have a neutral charge. This usually means that they have the same number of protons and electrons
- (6) protons - (6) electrons =
- neutral charge
13. Atomic Number
- the number of protons in an atom
14. Mass Number
- Gives the average number of protons and neutrons in an atom.
- Atomic # - mass # = # of neutrons
- are atoms of the same chemical element that have different mass numbers ( different number of neutrons).
16. 17. Compound
- 2 or more elements chemically combined.
- The smallest part of a compound is a molecule
- H 2 0is the formula for1 moleculeof water.
- H 2 SO 4is the formula for 1 molecule of sulfuric acid.
- CO 2
19. What is a Mineral?
- 1. Occur naturally
- 2. Isa solid
- 3. Has a definite chemical composition
- 4. Has its atoms arranged in an orderly pattern
- 5. Is inorganic
- May be elements or compounds
21. Most common elements in the crust are...
- 1. Oxygen
- 2. Silicon
- 3. Aluminum
- 4. Iron
- 5. Calcium
- 6. Sodium
- Most minerals are composed of 2 or more elements or bonded together.
- Ion- is a charged atom.
- 1 more electron then total of protons gives a negative charge to the atom.
23. Types of Bonding
- Ionic bonding - forms when electrons are gained or lost
- metals- make good positive ions( loose electrons)
- non-metals- make good negative ions(gain electrons)
24. 25. Types of Bonding
- Covalent bonding - forms when electrons are shared
- oxygen and silicon share electrons
- Metallic bonding forms when electrons are shared by metal ions
26. 27. Noble Gases
- These gases do not share electrons readily. Therefore they generally do not form bonds.
28. How minerals form
- 1.Volcanism- magma heating and cooling.
- 2.Precipitation- when water evaporates some of the dissolved substances in the water crystallize.
- 3.Pressure and Temperature form when existing minerals are subjected to changes in pressure and temperature. The atoms rearrange.
29. 4.Hydrothermal Solutions Chemical reactions take place when warm hydrothermal solutions come in contact with existing minerals. Also, when these solutions cool they can crystallize into new minerals. 30. Mineral Groups
- These groups are classified in groups according to their composition.
- Silicates Silicon and oxygen form a silicon-oxygen tetrahedron.
- 90%of all the minerals in the crust are:
- Carbonates are minerals that contain the elements carbon, oxygen, and one other metallic element.
- Oxides are minerals that contain oxygen and one or more other elements, which are usually metals.
- Sulfates and Sulfides minerals that contain the element sulfur.
- Halides minerals that contain a halogen ion plus one or more other elements.
- Native Elements a group of minerals that exist in relatively pure form. Gold, silver, copper, sulfur, graphite
- Crystals are solids with a regular geometric shape. Each side is called aface .
- Crystalsizedepends on how slowly or quickly they form.Slowercooling produces larger crystals.
- The crystalline structure of a mineral is dependent upon the bonding of the various atoms and ions.
- Bonds determine crystal shape or better the molecular shape.
35. Crystalline Shapes CUBIC ORTHORHOMBIC 36. Cubic 37. Halite 38. Graphite vs. Diamond 39. Graphite 40. Crustal Minerals
- 90%of all the minerals in the crust are:
- These formsilica tetrahedron