census of graduate research students in chemistry
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402 INDUSTRIAL AND ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY Vol. 16, No. 4
43-Percentage of total sulfur corrected = percentage of total sulfur - percentage of sulfur as barium sulfate - percentage of sulfur as antimony trisulfide. When barium carbonate is found the percentage of sulfur necessary to convert it to sulfate must be added to the total sulfur (corrected).
44-Percentage of ash (corrected) = percentage of ash - percentage of sulfur in ash (+ percentage of sulfur as barium sul- fate) - percentage of antimony in ash, calculated to Sbz04.
45-Percentage of rubber hydrocarbon = 100 - the sum of the following percentages, except when it is determined by the J. R. I. C. method as in Paragraph 34.
Organic acetone extract Ash, corrected Chloroform extract Carbon A!coholic alkali extract Glue Total sulfur corrected Total antimony as trisulfide
46. RUBBER AS COMPOUNDED-Percentage of rubber hydro- carbon plus 5 per cent of its weight is taken as rubber as com- pounded, except when the sum of the percentages of the ace- tone extract (corrected), chloroform extract, and alcoholic alkali extract is less than the figure represented by the arbitrary 6 per cent, as in many high-grade compounds. Percentage of rubber as compounded is then: percentage of rubber hydrocarbon
plus the sum of the percentages of the organic acetone extract, the chloroform extract, and the alcoholic alkali extract.
47. RUBBER BY VOLUME-Percentage of rubber by volume = Percentage of rubber as compounded (Paragraph 40) X
specific gravity of compound 0.94 (taken as the average specific gravity of crude rubber) 48-Ratio of organic acetone extract =
x 100 Percentage of organic acetone extract Percentage of rubber as compounded
Percentage of total sulfur, corrected Percentage of rubber as compounded
49-Ratio of sulfur to rubber =
x 100 STATEMENT OF RESULTS
PER CENT PER CENT Organic acetone extract Waxy hydrocarbons Total antimony Chloroform extract Alcoholic alkali extract Carbon Free sulfur Glue Total sulfur corrected Rubber hydrocarbon Ash corrected Rubber as compounded Cellulose Rubber by volume
Ratio of acetone extract to rubber as compounded Ratio of sulfur to rubber as compounded Specific gravity
Sulfur as barium sulfate
Sulfur as antimony trisulfide
Census of Graduate Research Students in Chemistry By J. E. Zanetti
DIVISION OB CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL TBCHNOLOGY, NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL, WASHINGTON, D. C.
HE present census of graduate research students in chemis- try was undertaken with the object of determining the T relative importance of the various fields of research in
chemistry as measured by the number of students who were at- tracted to the particular fields. It is hoped to make this census a yearly one, so as to follow the development of various fields and the effect of discoveries and outstanding personalities in attract- ing research students.
The census was limited to educational institutions, and these were requested to report the number of registered graduate students actually doing research at the beginning of the calendar year 1924. The graduate students reported included, therefore, those doing research not only for a Ph.D. degree, but for a mas- ters, chemical engineer, medical or pharmaceutical degree.
As this census was the first of the kind, i t was judged necessary to send blanks to all universities, colleges, schools of engineering and of agriculture, medical schools, and schools of pharmacy listed in the Educational Directory of the Bureau of Education of the Department of the Interior (1922-23), though i t was felt that the majority of these would have no research students to report. Accordingly, a census card and circular letter explain- ing the purpose of the census were sent to the heads of the depart- ment of chemistry of 615 universities, colleges, schools of engineer- ing and agriculture, 82 medical schools, and 66 schools of phar- macy, making a total of 763 institutions. Replies were received from 369 universities, colleges, schools of engineering and of agriculture, or 60 per cent of those to whom cards were sent; 52 replies were received from medical schools, or 62 per cent; and 31 from schools of pharmacy, or 47 per cent.
Although these percentages seem,quite small, i t is felt that the accuracy OF the census has not been seriously impaired by the number that sent in no reply. As will be shown below, most of the research students come from a very limited number of insti- tutions, and the number of scattered students who may not have been reported can hardly constitute more than a very small fraction of the whole.
1 Received March 4, 1924.
Of the 369 universities, colleges, schools of engineering and of agriculture that replied, only 139 reported research students; of the 52 medical schools, 32 reported research students; and of the 31 schools of pharmacy, 13 reported research students.
The total number of graduate research students in chemistry reported was 1700, distributed in the various fields, as shown in Table I: 863 of these, or 52 per cent, were reported by 12 uni- versities and colleges, including all their departments (medical school, school of pharmacy, etc.); 1193, or 70 per cent, were reported by 25 universities and colleges, including all depart- ments; 1357, or SO per cent, were reported by 40 institutions, including all departments.
TABW I-NUMBER OF GRADUATE RESEARCH STUDENTS IN VARIOUS FIELDS OR CHEMISTRY
General & Physical 240 Inorganic 101 Pharmaceutical 20 Colloid 69 Analytical 71 Nutrition 48 Catalysis 51 Metallur ical 38 Food 35 Subatomic and Ra- Organic fAli- Industrial and En-
dio 20 phatic) 172 gineering 203 Electro-inorganic 38 Organic (Aro- Agricultural 91 Electro-organic 18 matic) 280 Sanitary 9 Photo and Photog- Physiological 172
24 Pharmacological 30 - - - rwhy 460 834 406
In the group of twelve universities and colleges which reported 52 per cent of the total number, the highest number reported by any individual institution was 122, followed by 115 for the next competitor, The numbers fell rapidly, the third and fourth re- porting 93 and 91, respectively. The lowest number of research students reported by any one institution in that group was 47.
The distribution of these 1700 students among the various fields of research is of interest. The physico-chemical group (general, colloid, catalysis, subatomic, electrochemistry, photo- chemistry) appears to attract more students than any other; 460 research students are working in this group. There appears to be only a very small number working in subatomic and radio chemistry, but this is doubtless due t o the fact that most of the work in subatomic phenomena is being done in the physical rather than in the chemical laboratories. Organic chemistry
Total number of research students reported.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
April, 1924 INDUSTRIAL AND ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY 403
FIG. I-GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF GRADUATE RESEARCE STUDENTS IN CHEYISTRV
comes next, with 420 research students. It is interesting to note that 41 per cent of these are working in the aliphatic series. Opinions expressed by competent observers before the figures were gathered, were to the effect that the proportion of research students in the aliphatic series to those in the aromatic would be at least 1 to 3; it is not even 2 to 3. Thislarge number is proba- bly due to the great increase, in recent years, in research in the aliphatic hydrocarbons and in the sugars. The medical group (physiological, pharmacological, pharmaceutical, and nutrition) is unexpectedly large, 270 research students being at work in those fields. Industrial and engineering comes fourth, with 203 re- search students; and inorganic chemistry, with 101 research stud- ents, appears to be attracting a considerable number of workers.
The geographical distribution of these students is also of interest. There seems to be no definite relation between population or industrial development of a state and the number of graduate research students in chemistry in its universities.
TABLI: 11 -NUMBER OF GRADUATE RESEARCH STUDENTS REPORTED B Y
New York Massachusetts Illinois California Wisconsin Iowa Minnesota Pennsylvania Ohio Connecticut Missouri Michigan Maryland Washingtbn Colorado Indiana Texas New Jersey Nebraska Louisiana Virginia Oklahoma North Carolina Kentucky Alabama District of Columbia
55 Arizona 52 Kansas 48 Nevada 39 New Hampshire 31 North Dakota 26 West Virginia 26 Vermont 25 Idaho 24 Hawaii 21 Arkansas 18 Mississippi 16 Delaware 15 Montana 14 New Mexico 12 Port0 Rico 11 Wyaming 10 -
1613 Total ...... ,. . - ......... 1700
While it is true that the highest numbers correspond to the states of New York, Massachusetts, and Illinois, intensely in- dustrial states, Wisconsin, Iowa, and hlinnesota, which can hardly be compared with Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Ohio so far as industrial development is concerned, outnumber these states in graduate research students. Moreover, in the State of Delaware, intensely industrial, no research students in chemistry were reported.
In order to have students, universities with suitable research facilities must be built, of course, and it is well worthy of note that the chiefly agricultural states mentioned above have in the last twenty years built up departments of chemistry that appear to be attracting more research students than similar institutions in more populated and more industrial states. Is it lack of sup- port by the industries or foresight of the agricultural population? Possibly both.
Emphasis must be laid on the fact that this census is limited to graduate students only, and that it does not include felIows who are