cct: jamaican case study presented by faith innerarity

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Conference on Social Inclusion in Eastern Europe and Central Asia –Towards Mainstreaming and Results Sponsored by the World Bank and the Government of Hungary Budapest, 25-26 September 2007. CCT: Jamaican Case Study Presented by Faith Innerarity. Outline of Presentation. Overview: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • Conference on Social Inclusion in Eastern Europe and Central Asia Towards Mainstreaming and ResultsSponsored by the World Bank and the Government of Hungary Budapest, 25-26 September 2007 CCT: Jamaican Case StudyPresented by Faith Innerarity

  • Outline of PresentationOverview:Profile of JamaicaSocial Safety ReformDesign of PATHResultsInstitutional and Legislative FrameworkEducational impactHealth impactImpact on elderlyChallenges and Way Forward

  • Country ProfileJamaica is located in the North Western section of the Caribbean Archipelago, 145 kilometres south of Cuba, 161 kilometres west of Haiti and 898 kilometres south east of Miami. With an area of 10,991 square kilometres, it is the third largest island in the Caribbean. According to the 2001 Census, the population size is 2.6 million. It is a middle-income country with a GNP per capita of US$2,900 (World Bank Development Indicators July 2005). The level of human development has been classified as medium range by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Multi-ethnic population, with majority of African descent


  • Social Policy Agenda: JamaicaIntegration of economic and social Policies to achieve macro-economic stability while simultaneously pursuing social development objectives.Re-orienting social sector spending for increased equity and human development.Promotion of social inclusion through the reduction of poverty, risk and vulnerability among disadvantaged groups.

  • Social Safety Net Reform: RationaleAnalysis of social safety net programmes in 1999-2000 led to recognition of need to:Remove fragmentation and duplication in provision of social assistance benefits Develop system for more cost effective delivery of benefitsImprove targeting of beneficiariesIncrease coverage of the poorAdopt more developmental rather than welfare approach by establishing link between benefits and human capital investment

  • PATH: Principal Design Features

    Institutional changes Merger of principal social assistance programmes, new legislative framework, strengthening of institutional capacity in programme managementUse of scientific targeting mechanismIntroduction of conditional cash transfers to support human capital investment in education and healthCase management


    Categories Targeted Registered Beneficiaries (July 2007)NO.% NO.%Children 0-17 years168,000 71182,039 74.89Pregnant /LactatingWomen 11,000 5 819 0.34Elderly 33,000 14 51,583 21.22Persons withDisabilities (18-59 yrs) 19,000 8 5,633 2.32Destitute (18-59 years) 5,000 2 2,978 1.23Total236,000 100243,052 100

  • Programme Outcome: Administrative EfficiencyIncreased efficiency in programme delivery including significant reduction in administrative costPayments made to beneficiaries in more dignified manner (cheque payment through post offices and Cash Cards)Social workers interact more closely with beneficiariesBeneficiaries have access to wider range of social benefits

  • Programme Outcome: Targeting

    From the standpoint of redistribution and coverage of the poorest and most vulnerable PATH has been fairly successful in terms of its targeting mechanism. However, concerns in terms of errors of inclusion and exclusion have had to be addressed.

  • PATH Relative to Other Social Programmes: Distribution of Households Receiving Benefits by Quintile

  • PATH Beneficiaries by Quintiles and Area

    QuintileKMAOtherTownsRuralAll IslandCumulative12345Below PovertyLine76716107860221350655722155157582214515958799499100 n/a

  • PATH Beneficiaries Household Characteristics

    Source: PATH Participant Survey 2003, JSLC 2002

    Household CharacteristicPATHBeneficiaries (PATH 2003)Poor Jamaicans (SLC 2002)AllJamaica(SLC 2002)Household Size123-56 and over 9 735491313373623194118Presence of children85 6757Presence of Elderly413244Head of Household worked previous 12 months576472Main material of outer wallsWoodBlock and steelOther463717414118295417Has indoor tap/pipe 91438Uses Pit toilet807047Has electricityOwn:TVWashing MachineCar64

    55 1 167



  • Targeting Outcome: Exclusion Errors Urban PoorBeneficiary Identification System (BIS) has had to be reviewed to address, among other issues, the disproportionate selection of households from urban centres including the Kingston Metropolitan area. This is linked to the complexity of having a single poverty measurement instrument that can adequately capture the distinguishing features of rural versus urban poverty.

  • Distribution of PATH Beneficiaries Compared with Distribution of Poor and Share in Total PopulationBy Parish (Percentages)*Based on Population Census 2001

    ParishPercentage PATH Beneficiaries in Parish Oct. 2006Percentage Jamaicas Poor in Parish (SLC 2002) Parish Share in Total Population *Kingston & St. Andrew7.9720.924.8St. Thomas5.065.13.5Portland5.115.03.1St. Mary7.395.94.3St. Ann8.48126.4Trelawny3.874.42.8St. James5.544.56.8Hanover5.121.82.6Westmoreland7.635.15.4St. Elizabeth10.545.85.6Manchester9.128.97.1Clarendon12.9712.69.2St. Catherine11.135.818.4Total100100100

  • Education OutcomePATH has resulted in increased school attendanceThere is, however as yet, no significant evidence that other outcomes such as advancement to the next grade or test scores have been impacted by participation in the programme.

  • Education Compliance Rates

  • Health OutcomeThere has been an increase in preventative health visits for children in the programme Health care visits for children 0-6 years increased by 38%.As yet, there is no evidence of improvement in health status as a result of the programme

  • Supply Challenges

    In respect of PATH compliance requirements a number of supply side difficulties have been encountered in relation to the physical and human capabilities of health facilities and schools.

    Specific concerns include the need to expand primary health care capacity at the community level and increase secondary school places for the 15-17 years age group for which a gap still exist.

  • Need for Expanded Beneficiary Support ProgrammesIn terms of the beneficiary households, the high cost of transportation, especially in rural areas has impacted negatively on affordability of schooling. Special measures are therefore required to address this issue.Availability of subsidised lunches has been found to be critical for attendance and in this regard, the School Feeding Programme needs to be strengthened.

  • Slow Pace of Legislative ChangeThe new social protection legislation, the National Assistance Act, which will repeal the Poor Relief Law of 1886, is critical for the achievement of the goals of the Social Safety Net Reform but the pace of legislative change has been slow.Finalization of post project institutional structure depends on passage of new legislation.

  • Legislative and Institutional Framework

  • Coverage GapsIncidence of poverty 14.8% in 2005Poverty Line 2005Individual J$63,717Family of five J$240,816Estimated 394,000 persons are below the poverty line PATH covers 236,000Approximately 158,000 persons below the poverty line are not covered by PATH These are mainly the working poor

  • Working Poor The working poor are individuals engaged in either paid or self employment who belong to households with an adult equivalent per capita household expenditure (or income) that falls below a specified poverty line (Labour Market and Poverty Studies Unit, University of the West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago)

  • Working Poor: Results of ILO Study

    Males dominate the working poorThe working poor are clustered in the 25 to 44 age groupThe working poor have lower levels of educationThe working poor are employed in a variety of sectors, but most are found in agriculture, community and social services, construction and wholesale/retail sales.The working poor work fewer hours than their non-poor counterpartsIn Jamaica 34% of the working poor are in agriculture.

  • Coverage Gaps: Elderly/IncapacitatedFood Stamp programme catered to 88,641 elderly/incapacitated persons in 2002 when it was merged with PATH.PATH currently provides benefits for 51,583 elderly persons and 5,633 adults with disabilities between 18-59 years (57,216).Gap of over 32,000 exists in respect of number of elderly and persons with disabilities receiving social assistance benefits when both programmes are compared.It should be noted however, that some of the persons receiving Food Stamps were not below the poverty line.

  • Distribution of National Insurance Scheme Pensioners (2007)

  • Coverage Gap: Elderly

  • Age Dimension of PovertyChildren (0-18 years)are over-represented among the poor. They account for 52.3% of persons in poverty while constituting 38.2% of the overall population.

    Sixty one percent (61%) of the poor are under 25 years.

    Consistent with their overall share of the population, the elderly (60 years and over) account for 9.6% of the poor

    Source: Economic and Social Survey of Jamaica 2001

  • Long Term Options for Expanded Safety NetWelfare to work initiative focusing on persons in the economically active age-group in PATH beneficiary and other poor households.Young school leavers focus on school to work transition process with link to Jamaica Youth Employment Network (JYEN) an