Case study on cloud computing
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<p> 1. Case study on cloud computing Organizations trying to meet the challenges of the modern world and its expectations permanently seek effective solutions for operating in competitive environment. Information technology tools and services are indispensable for efficient functioning of enterprises. Significant capabilities from adopting IS/IT attract both: the customers and the providers of this solutions. However, to gain the competitive advantage on market participants have to invest in innovative approach to conducting business. The emergence of the conception commonly known as cloud computing represents a fundamental change for information system (IS) and information technology (IT) implementation. The new idea rebuilds the way IT services are deployed, invented, developed, scaled, updated, maintained, and paid for. The main advantages and incentives for adopting cloud-based systems and services are their essential characteristics: on-demand self-Service, efficiency, broad network access, rapid elasticity, measured service and Business agility. WHAT IS CLOUD COMPUTING? Cloud computing is a pay-per-use model enabling convenient, on-demand network access to shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, services, storage, applications and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. This cloud model promotes availability and comprises five key characteristics: (i). On-demand self-service. A consumer can unilaterally provision computing capabilities, such as server time and network storage, as needed without requiring human interaction with each services provider. BI- 62 2. (ii). Ubiquitous network access. Capabilities are available over the network and accessed through standard mechanisms that promote use by heterogeneous thin or thick client platforms (e.g., mobile phones, laptops, and PDAs). (iii). Location-independent resource pooling. The providers computing Resources are pooled to serve all consumers using a multitenant model, with different physical and virtual resources dynamically assigned and reassigned according to consumer demand. The customer generally has no control over or knowledge of the exact location of the provided resources. Examples of resources include storage, processing, memory, network bandwidth, and virtual machines. (iv).Rapid elasticity. Capabilities can be rapidly and elastically provisioned to quickly scale up, and rapidly released to quickly scale down. To the consumer, the capabilities available for rent often appear to be infinite and can be purchased in any quantity at any time. (v) . Pay per use. Capabilities are charged using a metered, fee-for-service, or advertising-based billing model to promote optimization of resource use. Examples are measuring the storage, bandwidth, and computing consumed and charging for the number of active user accounts per month. Clouds within an organization accrue cost among business units and may or may not use actual currency. Choosing a cloud computing model is choice between the degree of control over resources and the degree of economic efficiency of operation. The company, opting for the full input in the cloud does not bear the cost of purchasing and maintaining an extended IT infrastructure. However, its operational activity is largely dependent on the quality of cloud service provider. For some customers, the migration of almost complete control over their own resources to external IT companies, often becomes a difficult condition to accept. Prospective customers can choose among main deployment models of cloud computing: 1. Private cloud: The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for exclusive use by a single organization comprising multiple consumers (e.g., business units). It may be owned, managed, and operated by the 3. organization, a third party, or some combination of them, and it may exist on or off premises. Services are accessible within the organization via intranet. This solution is the safest, but also the most expensive one. IT resources and services requires increased initial cost due to financial allocation in its deployment, maintenance and management. 2. Community cloud: The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for exclusive use by a specific community of consumers from organizations that have shared concerns (e.g., mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations). It may be owned, managed, and operated by one or more of the organizations in the community, a third party, or some combination of them, and it may exist on or off premises. It may be, for example, a separate company in the capital group engaged in the provision of ICT services. 3. Public cloud: The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for open use by the general public. It may be owned, managed, and operated by a business, academic, or government organization, or some combination of them. It exists on the premises of the cloud provider. 4. Hybrid cloud: The cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more distinct cloud infrastructures (private, community, or public) that remain unique entities, but are bound together by standardized or proprietary technology that enables data and application portability(e.g., cloud bursting for load balancing between clouds) 4. Whats New in the Clouds? The common question coming from those who are just beginning to look at cloud computing and the value it can bring to the enterprise seems to be Whats new in the clouds? Those who are deep into cloud computing already typically vendors and consultantsare actually having trouble answering that question, and for good reason: the concepts behind cloud computing have been in use for decades. Cloud computing can be thought of as time-sharing, or the ability to share computing resources among many different users. In the early days of computing, many companies actually shared a single computer that was located in a remote data center. The computer was able to allocate and manage resources for each user and each application, and users could request more computing time, or less, adjusting the amount of time they used the timesharing service. So, what does modern cloud computing offer that is new to enterprise IT? First is the ability to leverage components from different cloud resources and mix and match the solutions you are seeking. You can leverage storage as-a-service from one provider, database-as-a-service from another, and even a complete application development and deployment platform from a third. This ability to leverage just the resources you need from the solutions you want to drive, as well as in just the right amounts, is a clear value of modern cloud computing. Second is the commoditization of bandwidth, which allows enterprises to leverage cloud computing resources as if they are local. Thus, you can leverage storage and runtime resources as if they existed within your data center, something that was difficult just a few years ago. Finally, there is the availability of very innovative cloud computing providers. While the architecture and model of cloud computing is nothing new, the cloud computing players who provide the services are, including infrastructure- as-a-service players such as Amazons EC2 and platform-as-a-service players such as Googles App Engine. With cloud computing growing by eaps and bounds, better and more innovative cloud computing services are being built and released continuously. 5. There are clear differences between early time sharing and modern cloud Computing, but those who have been around for awhile see some very familiar Patterns. As we move forward with cloud computing, the idea is to leverage cloud computing as another tool in the shed that has the potential to make your enterprise architecture more cost effective and efficient. However, as with any new technology trend, cloud computing is not a silver bullet that you can shoot at every conceivable IT problem and expect good results? There is nothing here we have not dealt with before, so it should not be that scary, and we should understand the value of cloud computing and other architectural options. Services on cloud computing: 1. Storage-as-a-service Storage-as-a-service, as you may expect, is the ability to leverage storage that physically exists remotely but is logically a local storage resource to any application that requires storage .This is the most primitive component of cloud computing and is leveraged by most of the other cloud computing components. There are a few core benefits. First, you can expand the amount of disk space available as you need it and pay only for what you use. You can reduce the amount of disk spaceand thereby costas the need declines. This makes storage-as-a-service solutions cost effective only for larger volumes of data, typically more than 500 gigabytes, either through direct access or by using the disk as if it were local to your client computer. You can also use the storage-as-a- service provider as a redundant backup for critical files. Second, you do not have to maintain the hardware. Drives can go down and you do not have to replace them; it is all a part of the service. When compared with an on-premise solution where you have to physically repair the drive, storage-as-a-service removes you from having to deal with that issue. Finally, the storage-as-a-service provider provides the disaster recovery system for you, and getting back deleted files or entire directories is part of the service. The provider backs up and restores the file system as you require. You do not have to pay someone to handle that task 6. within the data center, and local staff will not have the responsibility of maintaining the storage systems properly. However, there are some drawbacks to storage-as-a-service. First, you are dependent on the Internet as the mechanism to connect to your storage as-a-service provider, and if the network goes down, you lose that connection. If a mission-critical need is compromised by a rare and temporary loss of access to your storage, then perhaps storage-as-a-service is not something that makes sense. In many instances, those who leverage storage-as-a-service are surprised to find that they cannot access their shared disk space when not connected to the Internet, such as when on a plane. Second, performance can be an issue. When compared to on-premise storage, where the disks are physically located near the applications that leverage them, storage-as-a-service does not provide the same performance. Thus, if performance is a critical success factor, storage-as-a-service may not be the approach you want to leverage. Performance is usually about half the speed on a typical Internet connection when compared with a local network. Of course, you can use faster connections, but the cost of implementing a higher speed network connection quickly diminishes the cost savings of storage-as-a-service. Finally, the cost of the storage-as-a-service provider can be prohibitive when compared with an on-premise solution. While SOA using cloud computing is cost effective in some instances, in many instances it is not. The cost effectiveness of cloud computing is enterprise and domain dependent. 2. Database-as-a-service Database-as-a-service provides the ability to leverage the services of a remotely hosted database, sharing it with other users and having it logically function as if the database were local. You can self-provision a database, create the tables, load the data, and access the data using the interface provided, all on demand and via cloud computing. Like storage-as-a-service, database-as-a-service provides access to a resource that you neither own nor host and thus saves you the hardware, software, and maintenance costs. With the self-provisioning capabilities Database services include everything that you can do with a local database, such as setting up the tables and the relations among them, adding data, extracting data, 7. and deleting data. Database-as-a-service providers provide not only basic database functions but also brand-specific services such as Oracle, Sybase, and Microsoft, so you can leverage proprietary features if you need them. An effective database-as-a-service provider should be able to offer database services that appear local in terms of performance and functionality. However, as with the storage-as-a- service offerings, there is always trade-offs. The benefits of database-as-a-service include, first, the ability to avoid hardware and software costs by leveraging a remote database that you use as You need it and just what you need to use. As many IT professionals already know, database licensing costs are a major part of the software budget, and avoiding those costs will go right to the bottom line. Database-as-a-service has a few drawbacks as well. First, there are legal, compliancy, and privacy issues around data, and in some instances, leveraging remote databases is illegal and/or not within compliance for some types of data. You must check before hosting data remotely, but in most cases, remote hosting is just fine and should meet your security requirements. 3. Information-as-a-service Information-as-a-service refers to the ability to consume any type of remotely hosted informationstock price information, address validation, credit reporting, for example: Through a well-defined interface such as an API . Over a thousand sources of information can be found these days, most of them listed www.programmableweb.com. While they typically serve up information using standard Web Services APIs, some use proprietary interfaces. Therefore, as you must for database-as-a-service, you need to consider the interfaces offered by formation- as-a-service providers. Typically, APIs function like this: GetSSNName(SSN_Number); or GetSSNName(333-33-3333); with the return of "John H. Smith"Pretty simple. But that is just one type of API. Others are more complex, perhaps returning complete structures with information bound to those structures. 4. Process-as-a-service 8. Process-as-a-service refers to a remote resource that can bind many resources together, either hosted within the same cloud computing resource or remotely, to create business processes . An example would be to create a business process that defines how to process an invoice on remote cloud-delivered systems and then have that process invoke any number of cloud-based or on-premise services to form the business process. The SOA gains the value of agility because processes are easier to change than applications. You can think of processes as a sequence of events that must occur in a certain order, leveraging any number of services and portions of data. For example: Process Ship Product a. Transmit order to warehouse. b. Process shipping provider. c. Price shipping. d. Turn over to shipping provider. e. Track shipment. f. Report to custom...</p>
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