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  • CARS, TRAINS, PLANES AND PROUSTAuthor(s): Clayton AlcornSource: Nineteenth-Century French Studies, Vol. 14, No. 1/2 (Fall-Winter 1985-86), pp. 153-161Published by: University of Nebraska PressStable URL: .Accessed: 13/06/2014 06:34

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    Clayton Alcorn

    In his excellent study Proust's Nocturnal Muse, William Stewart Bell points

    out that the moments conventionally referred to as expriences proustiennes,

    or moments bienheureux, are only the most dramatic, the most complete, the

    ultimate solutions to the problems posed by time.1 Analogous experiences of

    a lower order occur frequently throughout A la recherche du temps perdu,

    preparing the way for the final revelations of Le Temps retrouv. One such

    experience is travelling. Georges Poulet has outlined the similarity between

    the two, emphasizing the great importance of the voyage in the novel:

    . . . toute l'uvre proustienne est pleine de ces dplacements. Ils y tiennent une place au

    moins aussi importante que les souvenirs. Entre ceux-ci et les voyages il y a d'ailleurs une

    incontestable analogie. Les uns et les autres sont des vnements qui rompent l'inertie du

    corps et la paresse de l'esprit. Ils crent un nouveau point de dpart en transportant l'tre

    en dehors du lieu matriel ou spirituel dans lequel il semblait astreint vivre. Surtout,

    voyages et souvenirs mettent brusquement en rapport des rglons de la terre ou de l'es

    prit qui, jusqu'alors, taient sans relation aucune.2

    The analogy between travelling and l'exprience proustienne is made

    possible by the strong connection between time and space: they are intrin

    sically bound, and to conquer one is to conquer both. The temporal aspect of

    Proust's work has traditionally been given more attention than the spatial;

    again, it is Georges Poulet who has brought the two into better perspective:

    "... de mme que l'esprit localise l'image remmore dans la dure, il la loca

    lise dans l'espace. Ce n'est pas seulement certaine priode de son enfance, que

    l'tre proustien voit sortir de sa tasse de th; c'est aussi une chambre, une

    glise, une ville, un ensemble topographique solide ..." (26-7). Not just a

    point in time, but also a point is space. And Proust himself also indicates the

    inextricability of the two dimensions in discussing the ways in which the auto

    has revolutionized our concept of distance: "Les distances ne sont que le rap

    port de l'espace au temps et varient avec lui. Nous exprimons la difficult que

    nous avons nous rendre un endroit, dans un systme de lieues, de kilom

    tres, qui devient faux ds que cette difficult diminue."3


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  • 154 Nineteenth-Century French Studies

    Significant elements of the analogy between Proust's moments bienheu

    reux and travelling depend to a major degree on the type of vehicle involved

    in the trip. Travelling by car offers a kind of similarity to the exprience

    proustienne which is different from the similarity found in train travel. Of

    course, neither one provides a complete Proustian experience, since travelling

    belongs in the lower order of experiences cited by Bell.

    The auto has modified our concept of distance by causing a rapprochement

    of places which the traveller had thought to be isolated or unreachable from

    each other in the course of a day or a half-day. This idea is developed most

    fully in Sodome et Gomorrhe when Marcel speaks of his afternoon rides in a

    car which he has rented to please Albertine. He refers to a spot called Beau

    mont, which, because of the time and effort which the horse-drawn carriage

    needed to attain it, seemed very high, very "curious," and essentially unsitu

    ated in terms of any known fixed points such as La Raspelire or Balbec. He

    always thought of Beaumont as unique and far-off, enjoying "un privilge

    spcial d'extraterritorialit" (II, 1005). But the auto, "qui ne respecte aucun

    mystre," amazed him one day by passing Beaumont just minutes after leav

    ing Incarville on the way to Parvilie (these two towns were familiar to him as

    stops on the train he frequently took to La Raspelire). Proust takes pains

    to emphasize his astonishment at the proximity of the special, "isolated"

    place to the othersthe discovery of which he might never have made without

    the experience of the auto ride.

    This discovery of the close relationship between two geographical locations

    which were heretofore isolated and unconnected in a person's consciousness

    is analogous to the unexpected linking of two events which takes place during

    the exprience proustienne. The auto has done for space what the exprience

    proustienne does for time, or rather, the auto ride produces a phenomenon

    similar to that part of the exprience proustienne which demolishes the spatial

    barriers between the two moments (workings of the mmoire involontaire

    occur only in Paris, but they link that city with Combray, Balbec, Venice, and

    so on). During the moments bienheureux, there is a sense of living absolutely

    simultaneously in two points of time and space. The present is not erased; it

    is, rather, joined to the past in a marvelous, mystical manner.4 In the auto

    ride, the union is less perfect: it still requires some time to go from Beaumont

    to Incarville, although much less time than the traveller has been accustomed

    to. The experience is of a lower order, but its similarity is incontestable.

    A second similarity between the car and the mmoire involontaire is found

    in the manner in which an arrival by auto, rather than by train, enables one

    to become intimate with one's new surroundings in a brief period of time, to

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  • Clayton A /corn 15 5

    "get the feel of the place." After telling of his surprise at discovering that

    Beaumont is adjacent to Incarville and Parville, Proust elaborates on this


    Non, l'automobile ne nous menait pas ainsi feriquement dans une ville que nous voyions

    d'abord dans l'ensemble que rsume son nom, et avec les illusions du spectateur dans la

    salle. Il nous faisait entrer dans la coulisse des rues, s'arrtait demander un renseignement

    un habitant. Mais, comme compensation d'une progression si familire, on a les tton

    nements mmes du chauffeur incertain de sa route et revenant sur ses pas, les chasss

    croiss de la perspective faisant jouer un chteau aux quatre coins avec une colline, une

    glise et la mer, pendant qu'on se rapporche de lui, bien qu'il se blotisse vainement sous

    sa feuille sculaire, ces cercles, de plus en plus rapprochs, que dcrit l'automobile

    autour d'une ville fascine qui fuyait dans tous les sens pour chapper, et sur laquelle

    finalement il fonce tout droit, pic, au fond de la valle o elle reste gisante terre; de

    sorte que cet emplacement, point unique, que l'automobile semble avoir dpouill du

    mystre des trains express, il donne par contre l'impression de le dcouvrir, de le dtermi

    ner nous-mmes comme avec un compas, de nous aider sentir d'une main plus amoureu

    sement exploratrice, avec une plus fine prcision, la vritable gomtrie, la belle "mesure

    de la terre." (Il, 1005-6)

    The greater familiarity with one's destination afforded by the auto can be lik

    ened to the completeness of the exprience proustienne, which recalls totally

    every aspect of the past moment. For example, the narrator's limited volun

    tary memory of Combray was restricted to his aunt's house and the drame

    du coucher, but the Combray provided by the madeleine in the cup of tea is

    whole, complete in every detail: "Tout Combray et les environs, tout cela qui

    prend forme et solidit, est sorti, ville et jardins, de ma tasse de th" (I, 48). The above passage about automobile arrivals contains one of several com

    parisons Proust makes between cars and trains. In this case, the result is not

    very flattering to the trains: the auto gives to the traveller more of a sense of

    personal knowledge about the place, more of a feeling of accomplishment.

    But if, in travelling by auto, one is more sensitive to the gradual change in

    topography, the charm of the train lies in its ability to bring into vivid relief

    the difference between the point of departure and the destination, resulting

    in a clearer, more satisfying feeling that one has, indeed, travelled:

    Ce voyage, on le ferait sans doute aujourd'hui en automobile, croyant le rendre ainsi

    plus agrable. On verra qu'accompli de cette faon, il serait mme, en un sens, plus vrai

    puisqu'on y suivrait de plus prs, dans une Intimit plus troite, les diverses gradations

    selon lesquelles change la face de la terre. Mais enfin le plaisir spcifique du voyage n'est

    pas de pouvoir descendre en route et s'arrter quand on est fatigu, c'est de rendre la dif

    frence entre le dpart et l'arrive non pas insensible, mais aussi profonde qu'on peut, de

    la ressentir dans sa totalit, intacte, telle qu'elle tait en nous quand notre imagination

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  • 156 Nineteenth-Century French Studies

    nous portait du lieu o nous vivions jusqu'au cur d'un lieu dsir, en un bond qui nous

    semblait moins miraculeux parce qu'il franchissait une distance que parce qu'il unissait

    deux individualits distinctes de la terre, qu'il nous menait d'un nom un autre nom, et

    que schmatise (mieux qu'une promenade o, comme on dbarque o l'on veut, il n'y a

    gure plus d'arrive) l'opration mystrieuse qui s'accomplissait dans ces lieux spciaux,

    les gares, lesquels ne font presque pas partie de la ville mais contiennent l'essence de sa

    personnalit de mme que sur un criteau signaltique elles portent son nom. (I, 644)

    One enters the railway coach, a rather close, albeit not terribly confining

    environment, at a particular station. Nothing essential changes during the trip,

    except the coach's location, but upon stepping outside, often through the

    very door by which one had entered, one has the clear sense that the world

    surrounding the coach is completely different. The coach is somewhat like

    the human body during the exprience proustienne: the intense feeling that

    the subject is in a new location (although retaining the sense of one's present

    location, as we have seen)that one has instantaneously been transported to a

    different worldis a central element in the operation of involuntary memory.

    So the auto trip enables one to discover surprising geographical connec

    tions between two locations thought to be far apart, and it can also give to

    the traveller a more complete knowledge of the place he is visiting than the

    train can; but the train is better able to produce a sense that one's environ

    ment has changed, that the world is different. Coexisting difference and simi

    larity, as well as a sense of sensual completeness of the experience, are all key

    elements of the exprience proustienne. Thus, in a complementary way, train

    travel and auto travel provide different analogies to the moments bienheureux.

    In Le Temps retrouv, after the narrator's three experiences of mmoire

    involontaire in rapid succession have enabled him to feel real happiness and to

    sense that the source of that happiness, the source of what he calls "non une

    sensation d'autrefois mais une vrit nouvelle" (III, 878), lies within himself, he realizes that these sensations are a kind of sign or message that needs inter

    preting. And the only complete interpretation of them is to be found by using

    them as the basis for a work of art:

    En somme, dans un cas comme dans l'autre, qu'il s'agt d'Impressions comme celle que

    m'avait donne la vue des clochers de Martinville, ou de rminiscences comme celle de

    l'ingalit des deux marches ou le got de la madeleine, il fallait tcher d'Interprter les

    sensations comme les signes d'autant de lois et d'ides, en essayant de penser, c'est--dire

    de faire sortir de la pnombre ce que j'avais senti, de le convertir en un quivalent spiri

    tuel. Or, ce moyen qui me paraissait le seul, qu'cait-ce autre chose que faire une uvre

    d'art? (Ill, 878-9)

    Now art is intimately associated with the exprience proustienne-, one is

    tempted to say that for Proust, the moments bienheureux make art necessary.

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  • Clayton AIcorn 15 7

    It is also closely connected with travelling, and with the modes of travelling

    under consideration here.

    Indeed, the subject of art, beauty and esthetics arises directly or indirectly

    in all of the passages which treat at any length the attributes of a particular

    mode of transport. But art and travelling are in no case more closely linked

    than in the three major passages in the novel in which Marcel spies airplanes

    in the skies above him. The major difference between airplanes and the other

    means of transport is that Marcel never travels in one: they remain for him

    objects of dreams, hopes, and a bit of envy (directed toward the aviator), as

    the trains to Balbec or to Venice are before he actually travels on them. It is

    perhaps because of this that the scenes involving airplanes are the most emo

    tionally charged and intense of any discussions of modes of travel. A bit para

    doxically, one of them also resembles more completely than any experiences

    with autos or trains the genuine exprience proustlenne.

    The first of these scenes occurs during a horseback ride at Balbec. Marcel

    recognizes, unexpectedly, a location used by Elstir as a background for two

    "admirable watercolors" which he, Marcel, had studied some time before at

    the home of the Guermantes. This very recognition triggers a process that

    bears some resemblance to his moments bienheureux:

    Un instant, les rochers dnuds dont j'tais entour, la mer qu'on apercevait par leurs

    dchirures, flottrent devant mes yeux comme des fragments d'un autre univers: j'avais

    reconnu le paysage montagneux et marin qu'Elstir a donn pour cadre ces deux admira

    bles aquarelles, "Pote rencontrant une Muse," "Jeune homme rencontrant un Centaure,"

    que j'avais vus chez la duchesse de Guermantes. Leur souvenir replaait les lieux o je me

    trouvais tellement en dehors du monde actuel que je n'aurais pas t tonn si, comme le

    jeune homme de l'ge ant-historique que peint Elstir, j'avais, au cours de ma promenade,

    crois un personnage mythologique. (Il, 1028-9)

    So the airplane's appearance is carefully prepared by an association not only

    with a mythological setting but with a completely unexpected sense of having

    instantaneously travelled to another world ("en dehors du monde actuel").

    Thus, Marcel is already in a supercharged emotional state when he perceives

    the approach of the first plane he has ever seen:

    Tout coup mon cheval se cabra; il avait entendu un bruit singulier, j'eus peine le ma

    triser et ne pas tre jet terre, puis je levai vers le point d'o semblait venir ce bruit

    mes yeux pleins de larmes, et je vis une cinquantaine de mtres au-dessus de moi, dans

    le soleil, entre deux grandes ailes d'acier tincelant qui l'emportaient, un tre dont la

    figure peu distincte me parut ressembler celle d'un homme. Je fus aussi mu que pou

    vait l'tre un Grec qui voyait pour la premire fois un demi-dieu. Je pleurais aussi, car

    j'tais prt pleurer, du moment que j'avais reconnu que le bruit venait d'au-dessus de

    ma tteles aroplanes taient encore rares cette poque la pense que ce que j'allais

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  • 158 Nineteenth-Century French Studies

    voir pour la premire fois c'tait un aroplane. Alors, comme quand on sent venir dans

    un journal une parole mouvante, je n'attendais que d'avoir aperu l'avion pour fondre

    en larmes. (Il, 1029)

    Certainly Marcel is telling us that his experience is analogous to that of the

    poet and the young man in Elstir's paintingseven to the momentary vague

    fusion of the plane's wings with the bust of the pilot, as if man and gigantic

    bird were one, in the same manner as the centaur is the joining of man and

    horse. Simply put, the plane is the stuff of which modern mythology is made.

    And, as he will do in a later scene at Versailles, Proust ends with a comment

    on the liberty which the plane representsa liberty which Habit and Routine

    have stolen from him:

    Cependant l'aviateur sembla hsiter sur sa voie; je sentais ouvertes devant lui-devant

    moi, si l'habitude ne m'avait pas fait prisonniertoutes les routes de l'espace, de la vie; il

    poussa plus loin, plana quelques instants au-dessus de la mer, puis prenant brusquement

    son parti, semblant cder quelque attraction inverse de celle de la pesanteur, comme

    retournant dans sa patrie, d'un lger mouvement de ses ailes d'or il piqua droit vers le

    ciel. (Il, 1029)

    The importance of the airplane to Proust is underscored by the role of

    Elstir and his paintings in this experience. To most readers Elstir probably

    represents primarily modern art, based on contemporary subjects. In fact, as

    Roger Kempf reminds us, it is Elstir who has taught Marcel to see the specific

    beauty to be found in contemporary events and in modern objects.5 The

    painter, as erudite as he is talented, shows the young man that beauty exists

    not only in the work of the great masters of the past but also in the world

    around him today, with the ultimate result that, as Marcel tells us, he modi

    fies his attitude:

    . . . maintenant, tout ce que j'avais ddaign, cart de ma vue, non seulement les effets

    de soleil, mais mme les rgates, les courses de chevaux, je l'eusse recherch avec passion

    pour la mme raison qu'autrefois je n'aurais voulu que des mers temptueuses, et qui

    tait qu'elles se rattachaient, les unes comme autrefois les autres, une ide esthtique.

    (I, 897)

    Nevertheless, in this scene we are reminded that the young Elstir went

    through a "mythological period." And earlier in the text, during Marcel's first

    visit to Balbec, there is revealing commentary on this mythological period and

    on its meaning. Marcel begins by expressing his disappointment in the plain

    ness and apparent lack of beauty of the aging Madame Elstir; he is surprised

    to hear her husband call her, with obvious sincerity and affection, "ma belle

    Gabrielle." But it is Elstir's mythological paintings which eventually give him

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  • Clayton AI corn 15 9

    the solution to this puzzle: Elstir's wife holds for him a kind of beauty that,

    during this so-called "mythological period" of his youth, he had sought to

    create with an all-consuming fervor:

    Plus tard, quand je connus la peinture mythologique d'Elstir, Mme Elstir prit pour moi

    aussi de la beaut. Je compris qu' un certain type idal rsum en certaines lignes, en

    certaines arabesques qui se retrouvaient sans cesse dans son oeuvre, un certain canon, il

    avait attribu en fait un caractre presque divin, puisque tout son temps, tout l'effort de

    pense dont il tait capable, en un mot toute sa vie, il l'avait consacre la tche de dis

    tinguer mieux ces lignes, de les reproduire plus fidlement. Ce qu'un tel idal inspirait

    Elstir, c'tait vraiment un culte si grave, si exigeant, qu'il ne lui permettait jamais d'tre

    content; cet idal, c'tait la partie la plus intime de lui-mme: aussi n'avait-il pu le consi

    drer avec dtachement, en tirer des motions, jusqu'au jour o il le rencontra, ralis

    au dehors, dans le corps d'une femme, le corps de celle qui tait par la suite devenue

    Madame Elstir et chez qui il avait pucomme cela ne nous est possible que pour ce qui

    n'est pas nous-mmes-le trouver mritoire, attendrissant, divin. (I, 850-1)

    Proust finishes by explaining that now, the older Elstir is tired of seeking to

    bring this beauty out of himself and is content, perhaps even grateful, to find

    it incarnated in another; that is why he finds his wife so beautiful.

    Of the three great artists Proust gives usBergotte, Elstir, and Vinteuil

    Elstir has the greatest influence on Marcel: it is he who teaches him the most,

    in his conversations, in his art, and in the way he has lived his life. Elis single

    minded, fervent effort to create this beauty, or to give a physical form to the

    ideal he felt within himself ("la partie la plus intime de lui-mme") is the same

    effort that Marcel has already begun to make, sporadically and unsuccessfully.

    So the airplane's connection with Elstir's art, especially in such an emotional

    way, its further connection to myth, and the realization of the significance of

    Elstir's mythological period, show indisputably that for Proust the airplane is

    much more than a machine which carries people from one point to another:

    it contains meanings and connotations which speak to his very soul.

    In the passage already cited concerning the automobile's revolutionizing

    our concepts of distance, Proust makes a clear connection between this proc

    ess and artistic conceptions: "L'art en est aussi modifi, puisqu'un village, qui

    semblait dans un autre monde que tel autre, devient son voisin dans un pay

    sage dont les dimensions sont changes" (II, 996-7). The second appearance

    of an airplane in the novel gives us a concrete example of this kind of modifi

    cation of our concept of distance, along with a suggestion-a very strong sug

    gestion-of its effect on art. While Marcel and Albertine are visiting Versailles,

    an airplane flies overhead and the noise of its engine has a profound effect

    on Marcel. Like the earlier scene, the passage is charged from the beginning

    (although not so heavily) with emotional esthetic experiences: before the

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  • 160 Nineteenth-Century French Studies

    plane appears, Marcel is deeply moved by the beautiful blue sky, and thinks

    of his grandmother, who also appreciated such beauty:

    Le ciel tait tout entier fait de ce bleu radieux et un peu ple comme le promeneur cou

    ch dans un champ le voit parfois au-dessus de sa tte, mais tellement uni, tellement

    profond, qu'on sent que le bleu dont il est fait a t employ sans aucun alliage, et avec

    une si inpuisable richesse qu'on pourrait approfondir de plus en plus sa substance sans

    rencontrer un atome d'autre chose que de ce mme bleu. Je pensais ma grand'mre qui

    aimait dans l'art humain, dans la nature, la grandeur, et qui se plaisait regarder monter

    dans ce mme bleu le clocher de Saint-Hilaire. Soudain j'prouvai de nouveau la nostalgie

    de ma libert perdue en entendant un bruit que je reconnus pas d'abord et que ma grand'

    mre et, lui aussi, tant aim. C'tait comme le bourdonnement d'une gupe. (Ill, 406)

    Even though Marcel does not know at first what the sound is, it has already

    affected him with a sense of nostalgia for "lost liberty," reminiscent of the

    comment he made in the first airplane scene that all the paths of space and

    life are open to the aviator, as they would be to him, if he were not the pris

    oner of Habit.

    After finishing his description of the plane's appearance, Proust speaks of

    the "beauty" of the sound of an airplane engine. Now "beauty" is a word

    which Proust would not use in an offhand manner. In this case, his point is

    that the source of the beauty is a device which has, specifically, modified the

    concept of distance. He suggests that the plane's engine, signifying as it does

    the possibility of a faster journey than had been possible until then, represents

    to the first generation to hear it a freedom from the restraints of time, as the

    train whistle had represented the same freedom when the railroads were new:

    "Peut-tre, quand les distances sur terre n'taient pas encore abrges depuis

    longtemps par la vitesse comme elles le sont aujourd'hui, le sifflet d'un train

    passant deux kilomtres tait-il pourvu de cette beaut qui maintenant, pour

    quelque temps encore, nous meut dans le bourdonnement d'un aroplane

    deux mille mtres..." (Ill, 407). Here we have two essentially utilitarian

    sounds-one designated as a warning, the other a result of the functions of

    a machinewhich Proust finds beautiful to the extent that they represent a

    freedom from servitude to time. The difference between them and art, of

    course, is that they eventually lose much of their evocative poweryet more

    victims of that old enemy Habitand great art does not. But in the same way

    that these sounds suggest a modification of our concepts of distance they sug

    gest a modification of our conception of beauty, and thus of art, as Proust

    explained in his discussion of automobile rides.

    There are of course many other examples of the relationship between trav

    elling, the exprience proustienne, and art and beauty. In some cases, there

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  • Clayton AIcorn 161

    are similar experiences occurring in different modes of transportation (such as

    the phenomenon of inanimate objects, like the steeples of Martinville seen by

    the young Marcel in Dr. Percepied's carriage, seeming to move according to

    the twists and turns of the vehicle's path; for a discussion of this see Poulet,

    pp. 96-105). At other times Proust speaks of experiences particular to one

    form of transport, which for him contain an esthetic value, the highest value

    in his eyes. As with all other elements in his work, Proust used the vehicles

    therein purposefully and after much consideration. He was fortunate to live

    in a time of great developments in travel. He saw their importance not only

    to society but to the human spirit, and exploited them magnificently in his

    great novel.

    Dept. of International Communications

    & Culture

    State University College at Cortland

    Cortland, NY 13045

    1. William Stewart Bell, Proust's Nocturnal Muse (New York, Columbia University

    Press, 1962). 2. Georges Poulet, L'Espace proustien (Paris, Gallimard, 1963), p. 92.

    3. A la recherche du temps perdu, 3 vols. (Paris, Gallimard, Bibliothque de la Pliade,

    1954), II, p. 996. All subsequent page references incorporated in the text are to this edi


    4. "... la cause de cette flicit,... je la devinais en comparant ces diverses impres sions bienheureuses et qui avaient entre elles ceci de commun que je les prouvais la

    fois dans le moment actuel et dans un moment loign, jusqu' faire empiter le pass sur le prsent, me faire hsiter savoir dans lequel des deux je me trouvais; au vrai, l'tre qui alors gotait en moi cette impression la gotait en ce qu'elle avait de commun

    dans un jour ancien et maintenant, dans ce qu'il avait d'extra-temporel, un tre qui n'ap

    paraissait que quand, par une de ces identits entre le prsent et le pass, il pouvait se

    trouver dans le seul milieu o il pt vivre, jouir de l'essence des choses, c'est--dire en

    dehors du temps" (III, 871 ). 5. Roger Kempf, "Sur quelques Vhicules," L 'Arc, No. 47 (1971 ), p. 50.

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    Issue Table of ContentsNineteenth-Century French Studies, Vol. 14, No. 1/2 (Fall-Winter 1985-86), pp. 1-200Front MatterMYTHE DES ORIGINES ET SOCIT DANS "UNE TNBREUSE AFFAIRE" DE BALZAC [pp. 1-18]LITTRATURE ET IDOLOGIE: "LE ROUGE ET LE NOIR", CHRONIQUE DE 1830: A Alain Meyer [pp. 19-27]CHATEAUBRIAND'S RANC AND CARDINAL DE RETZ [pp. 28-36]FLAUBERT'S PHARMACY [pp. 37-50]TWO PROSE POEMS BY BAUDELAIRE: "LE VIEUX SALTIMBANQUE" AND "UNE MORT HROIQUE" [pp. 51-60]L'IMAGE DE LA FEMME DANS LES PREMIERES UVRES DE GERMAIN NOUVEAU: LA CLEF D'UNE VOLUTION LITTRAIRE [pp. 61-79]LAMENNAIS, L'IRREDUCTIBLE CROYANT [pp. 80-102]DEUX FRERES EN QUETE DE PEUPLE: LES GONCOURT [pp. 103-109]APPROACHES TO SYMBOLISM IN THE WORK OF ERNEST RENAN [pp. 110-129]LES LIGNES DE RVOLTE DANS LA TRILOGIE DE "JACQUES VINGTRAS" DE JULES VALLS [pp. 130-137]LOTI AND INDOCHINA: A MYTH IN THE MAKING [pp. 138-152]CARS, TRAINS, PLANES AND PROUST [pp. 153-161]REVIEWSLITERATUREReview: untitled [pp. 162-164]Review: untitled [pp. 165-166]Review: untitled [pp. 166-167]Review: untitled [pp. 167-168]Review: untitled [pp. 168-170]Review: untitled [pp. 170-171]Review: untitled [pp. 171-172]Review: untitled [pp. 173-174]Review: untitled [pp. 174-175]Review: untitled [pp. 175-177]Review: untitled [pp. 177-179]

    ART &LITERATUREReview: untitled [pp. 179-181]Review: untitled [pp. 181-183]

    ART, SCIENCE &LITERATUREReview: untitled [pp. 183-184]

    COMPARATIVE STUDIESReview: untitled [pp. 184-186]Review: untitled [pp. 186-188]Review: untitled [pp. 188-190]

    NATURAL HISTORY &LITERARY THEORYReview: untitled [pp. 190-191]

    SOCIAL HISTORYReview: untitled [pp. 191-193]

    NEWS [pp. 194-199]Back Matter