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Carbon Sequestration in Agricultural Soils

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Alessandro PiccoloEditor

Carbon Sequestrationin Agricultural Soils

A Multidisciplinary Approachto Innovative Methods

EditorProf. Dr. Alessandro PiccoloUniversita di Napoli Federico IIOrdinario di Chimica AgrariaVia Universita 10080055 PorticiItalyalessandro.piccolo@unina.it

ISBN 978-3-642-23384-5 e-ISBN 978-3-642-23385-2DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-23385-2Springer Heidelberg Dordrecht London New York

Library of Congress Control Number: 2011943755

# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material isconcerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting,reproduction on microfilm or in any other way, and storage in data banks. Duplication of this publicationor parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the German Copyright Law of September 9,1965, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer. Violationsare liable to prosecution under the German Copyright Law.The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply,even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protectivelaws and regulations and therefore free for general use.

Printed on acid-free paper

Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com)

Preface

As part of the international quest to reduce greenhouse gas emissions into the

atmosphere and on recommendation of the Kyoto Protocol, this book highlights

alternatives to current soil management practices for turning agricultural soils into

sinks of organic carbon. While common agronomic practices are based on tradi-

tional knowledge of soil transformation processes, this book indicates that modern

or progressive understanding of complex biological systems in the soil ecosystem

may already be exploited to devise new soil management practices. Explored in this

book is the recent paradigmatic change in the chemical understanding of soil humus

which has prompted new mechanisms for the control of soil organic matter stability.

These mechanisms may be significantly more efficient at sequestering carbon in

soil than current agronomic practices.

The body of this book reports findings of two methods for soil carbon seques-

tration related to their application in agricultural field trials. These methods are

definitively based on the innovative understanding of soil organic matter chemis-

try as supramolecular association of small molecules (1) the protection from

mineralization of labile soil molecules by the hydrophobic domains present in

humified mature compost amended to soils, (2) the in situ oxidative photo-

polymerization of soil organic matter molecules after soil spreading with a

biomimetic water-soluble ironporphyrin catalyst.

The first method, although innovative in its mechanistic application, may be well

considered within the current accepted soil management practices which makes use

of exogenous organic matter (EOM). The second method is based on a catalytic

chemical technology that appears still foreign within the traditional agronomic

approach, to both the farming world and most agricultural scientists.

In the experience of the Editor of this book, proposing the catalytic mechanism

of carbon sequestration in agricultural soil to a scientific audience was hardly

received positively. There is a general skepticism of the use of biomimetic catalysts

in agricultural soils, perhaps because of the possible negative consequences on the

biological soil quality and the reduced nutritional functions of soils, due to a

restricted availability of soil humus for microbial transformation.

v

The criticism was a beneficial stimulus to scale up research ambitions from

laboratory or glasshouse to fully-fledged field agronomic trials, through which not

only the effectiveness of the soil carbon sequestration methods could be verified in

practice, but also the concerns about the eco-toxicological, biological, biotechno-

logical and nutritional effects of the catalytic soil treatment could be dissipated.

A multifaceted research project was presented to the Italian Ministry of Research

(MIUR) within the strategic FISR programme. The intention was to cover all

possible aspects inherent in soil organic matter transformations in agricultural

soils leading to enhanced soil carbon sequestration, while maintaining soil quality

and the high levels of crop productivity required by the farming market. The project

was titled Metodi Sostenibili per il sequestro del carbonio organico nei suoli

agrari. Valutazione degli effetti sulla qualita chimica, fisica, biologica ed agrono-

mica dei suoli, with the MESCOSAGR acronym. The project was approved, under

the coordination of this Editor, and was funded with a total budget of 2.5 Mio Euro

over a 3 years working span.

The MESCOSAGR project relied on the work of six research units belonging to

six different Italian Universities. In particular the University of Napoli Federico II

comprised: the group of Prof. Alessandro Piccolo, for the determination of

carbon and nitrogen sequestration in all treated soils, as well as the molecular

transformation of soil organic matter upon soil treatments; the group of

Prof. Fabrizio Quaglietta Chiaranda, for the evaluation of the agronomic effects

of treatments on soils of the University experimental farm (Torre Lama); the group

of Prof. Giancarlo Moschetti for the microbiological aspects of all projects treated

soils; the group of Prof. Amalia Virzo for the evaluation of soil biological quality

and emissions of greenhouse gases from field soils; the group of Prof. Stefano

Mazzoleni for the development of a new modelling approach to predict soil organic

matter dynamics in agricultural soils. The University of Torino was represented by

the group of Prof. Carlo Grignani who led the overall agronomic experiments and

conducted field trials at the University experimental farm (Tetto Frati). Dr. Giu-

seppe Celano was the head of the group of the University of Basilicata that had been

in charge of 13C and 15N isotopic measurements in soil samples and conducted

agronomic experiments under sorghum at the experimental farm of Battipaglia. The

University of Bari was present with the group of Prof. Pacifico Ruggiero for

the evaluation of genetic diversity in samples from treated soils. The University

of Reggio Calabria took care of microcosm experiments and measurements

of plant activities under the supervision of Prof. Maurizio Badiani. The group

of Prof. Attilio del Re of the Catholic University of Piacenza evaluated the

eco-toxicological parameters in all projectss soil samples and managed field trials

at the local University experimental farm.

This book thus reports the main research findings of the MESCOSAGR project

and amply responds to the queries placed by the early critics of the innovative

methods for carbon sequestration in soil. Briefly, the methods were able to fix

a significantly larger amount of carbon than that possibly sequestered by traditional

methods. Concomitant to such very positive project outcome, both proposed

vi Preface

methods did not significantly alter the productive, physical, chemical, and

biological potentials of the treated soils.

Readers will find in this book data and results of their own interest, but they will

also have the advantage of being able to cross reference with other interdisciplinary

subjects, thereby receiving a complete picture of the effects of the new soil

management methods and their potential for practical application in farm manage-

ment. I am also sure that the most perceptive soil scientists will find in the book

several hints for new confirmative experiments, further ground for speculating on

more soilplant-technology interactions and the possibility to develop new methods

or applications.

Finally, I take the chance to thank all the scientific and administrative collabora-

tors of the MESCOSAGR project who made it possible, despite the many logistic

difficulties often encountered, in reaching the projects ambitious objectives.

Portici, Italy Alessandro Piccolo

November 2011

Preface vii

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Contents

1 The Nature of Soil Organic Matter and InnovativeSoil Managements to Fight Global Changes and MaintainAgricultural Productivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Alessandro Piccolo

2 The Kyoto Protocol and European and Italian Regulationsin Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21Davide Savy, Antonio Nebbioso, Roco Dnica Cndor, and Marina Vitullo

3 Field Plots and Crop Yields Under Innovative Methodsof Carbon Sequestration in Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39Carlo Grignani, Francesco Alluvione, Chiara Bertora, Laura Zavattaro,

Massimo Fagnano, Nunzio Fiorentino, Fabrizio Quaglietta Chiaranda,

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