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CANCER PREVENTION FOOD. Prof. Irena Drmi Hofman University of Split School of Medicine University Hospital Split CROATIA. City of Split, Croatia. Learning with heart. OUTLINE. Cancer etiology Pathophysiology Nutrition and carcinogenesis Nutrients for cancer prevention. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • CANCER PREVENTION FOODProf. Irena Drmi HofmanUniversity of Split School of MedicineUniversity Hospital SplitCROATIA

  • City of Split, Croatia

  • Learning with heart

  • OUTLINECancer etiologyPathophysiologyNutrition and carcinogenesisNutrients for cancer prevention

  • 1. CANCER ETIOLOGYCancer involves the abnormal division and reproduction of cells that can spread throughout the bodyUsually thought of as a single disease, actually consists of >100 distinct types

  • Non-lethal damage of the cell is a basis of cancerogenesis

  • Lets start with numbersAm Cancer Soc (2009) Predicts lifetime risk for developing cancer: ~1/2 men and little more than 1/3 womenAlthough fewer Americans are dying from cancer (survival rate now 66% vs 50% in the 1970s)

  • Data suggests1/3 of 560,000 cancer deaths may be attributed to nutrition and lifestylePoor diet, physical inactivity, alcohol use, and overweight and obesityAlmost an additional 171,000 deaths are caused by tobacco use (Brawer et al., 2009)

  • 30% of cancer deaths attibuted to poor nutrition!Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance for Oncology Nutrition Practice (Robien et al., 2010)

  • MOST PREVALENT TYPES OF CANCER IN MENProstateLungs and bronchusColorectalUrinary bladder

  • MOST PREVALENT TYPES OF CANCER IN WOMENBreastLung and bronchusColorectalUterine cancer

  • CANCER PREVENTION GUIDELINESProtection from the sunReducing tobacco useMaintaining a healthy body weightIMPROVING DIETIncreasing regular physical activity

  • 2. PATHOPHISIOLOGYCarcinogenesis is the origin or development of cancerChanges in gene function cause normal cells to transform into cancerous cells

  • GENOMICSOncogenes are altered genes that promote tumor growth and change programed cell death (apoptosis)Tumor supressor genes are the opposite of oncogenes, they became dactivated in cancer cellsOnly 5-10% cancers are result of inherited genetic alteration

  • CANCEROGENESIS

  • WHAT IS CARCINOGEN?Physical, chemical or viral agent that induces cancerCarcinogenesis is a biologic, multistage process that proceeds in three distinct process:Initiation, promotion and progression

  • CANCEROGENESIS IS STEPWISE PROCESS

  • PHASES OF CARCINOGENESIS1. INITIATION involves transformation of cells produced by the interaction of chemicals, radiation or viruses with cellular DNATransformation occurs rapidly, but cells can remain dormant for a variable period until they are activated by a promoting agent (years or even decades)

  • PHASES OF CARCINOGENESIS2. PROMOTION: initiated cells multiply and escape the mehanism set in place to protect the body from the growth and spread of such cellsNeoplasm, new and abnormal tissue with no useful function, is established

  • PHASES OF CARCINOGENESIS3. PROGRESSION: tumor cells aggregate and grow into a fully malignant neoplasm or a tumor

  • COLON CANCER

  • NUTRITION AND CANCEROGENESISNutrition may modify the carcinogenic process at any stage, including carcinogen metabolism, cellular and host defense, cell differentiation, and tumor growthNutrition and diet contribute approx. 35% to causal factors for cancer (Greenwald et al., 2006)

  • NUTRITION AND CANCEROGENESISDiets contain both inhibitors (antioxidants: vit. C, E, A and carotenoids, Se and Zn and phytochemicals) and enhancers of carcinogenesis (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-PAH, that form with a grilling meat at high heat; alcohol)

  • CANCER PREVENTING FOOD PLAN

  • NUTRITION AND RISK FACTORS FOR CANCER

  • OBESITY AND BODY WEIGHT

  • OBESITYRisk factor for cancer and may account for 6% of all cancers (Polednak, 2008)Currently, 68% of all American adults are overweight or obese (Flegal et al., 2010)Caloric restriction, without malnutrition, have a positive effect on cancer prevention in animals (Longo et al., 2010)Translate to humans?

  • OBESITYPositive association of BMI and cancers of the esophagus, pancreas, gallbladder, liver, breast (postmenopausal), endometrium, kidney, colon and rectum (Toles et al., 2008; WCRF and AICR, 2007)BMI should be between 21 and 23 (throughout childhood at lower end of normal BMI)

  • Obesity, age, hyperglycemia and the incidence of metabolic syndrome play a role in the circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)Stimulates the growth of cancer cells (prostate, breast, lung, colon) and inhibit their death (Blackburn, 2007; Pollack, 2008)

  • REDUCE FAT

  • DIETS HIGH IN FAT Often contain significant ammounts of meatLink between meat and colorectal cancer: production of carcinogens from a high-fat diet, from heterocyclyc amines (HCAs), and/or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from cooking; formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) from processing (WCRF and AICR,2007)

  • DIETS HIGH IN FAT Saturated fat in red meats may be associated with an increased risk of colorectal, endometrial, and possibly lymphoid and hematologic cancers (Ferguson, 2010; WCRF and AICR, 2007)

  • Reduce Fat

    saturated fats may increase the risk of developing cancer. Further, diets high in fat have been linked to obesity which in turn has been linked with increased risk of some cancers

  • Why reduce fat

    Reduce the amount of saturated fat in your diet by limiting your consumption of red meat and full-fat dairy products and avoid foods that trans fats Keep your overall fat intake to less 20% of your total calories each day (for a 2,000-calorie diet, < 45 grams) and choose foods that are rich in -3 essential fatty acids

  • FRENCH FRIES OR CANCER FRIES? French fries are made with hydrogenated oils and then fried at high temperatures (80X more fat). They also contain cancer- causing acryl amides which occur during the frying process.

  • Consumption of Red Meat

  • Eliminate or Limit Red Meat

    The China Study and several medical studies indicate a relationship between consuming animal proteins and increased risk for cancer It's been suggested that diets high in animal fat may increase the body's levels of bile, which can feed tumors. In cultures where meat is minimally consumed or not consumed at all, the incidences of certain cancers are markedly lower than in the Western countries

  • Eliminate or Limit Red Meat

    Consider eliminating or limiting your consumption of red meat and other animal proteins, seem to reduce the risk of developing breast and prostate cancer. Consider using soy milk?

  • Processed meats and bacon Also high in the same sodium nitrates found in hot dogs, bacon, and other processed meats raise the risk of heart disease. The saturated fat in bacon also contributes to cancer

  • ALCOHOLIncreased risk for cancers of the mouth, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, lung, colon, rectum, liver and breast (World Cancer Research Fund, and American Institute for Cancer Research, 2007)

  • Reduce saltContains 55 mg Na / bottle ~ as in 1 pizza Na, thirsty salt, sugar to improve the taste

  • FOOD ADDITIVES?

  • SHORT LIST OF DANGEROUS ADDITIVESArtificial Sweeteners (Aspartame, Acesulfame-K ; Stevia is the choice)Monosodium Glutamate Artificial Food Colorings Sodium Nitrate/Sodium Nitrite Sulfur Dioxide and bisulphiteHigh Fructose Corn SyrupTrans Fats Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydrozyttoluene (BHT)Potassium Bromate

  • Increase Fiber

  • Increase Fiber Help move potential carcinogens through the intestines faster, lessening the amount of time the intestinal wall is exposed to them Fiber is also thought to help absorb bile acids, thus preventing decaying food from encouraging harmful changes in cells

  • Increase Fiber Try to eat at least 25 gr of fiber today from a variety of sources, with an emphasis on whole grains, legumes and fresh vegetables Start by trading your favorite breakfast for bran cereal or slow-cooked oatmeal, adding beans to soups and salads and transitioning from "white foods" like bread and pasta to their whole-grain counterparts

  • Eat More Raw Fruits and Vegetables

  • More Raw Fruits and Vegetables Gradually increase intake until you're eating 5 to 9 servings daily. If you don't like your vegetables raw, prepare them lightly steamed or blanched (3 min)

  • Eat More Raw Fruits and Vegetables Plants produce phytochemicals to protect themselves and these phytochemicals may support the body's immune system and many have antioxidant properties that help prevent certain types of cancer.FRUITS AND VEGETABLES ALKALIZE YOUR BODY!

  • Change Your Oil

  • Change Your Oil

    Avoid vegetables oils that are high in saturated fats. Choose cold, expeller-pressed olive oil, canola oil, sunflower oil, flaxseed oil or walnut oils for cooking, each of which contains good amounts of heart-healthy monounsaturated fats and offers a higher ratio of -3 to -6 essential fatty acids

  • Change Your Oil

    On the occasions when you do cook with oil, be sure to cook at medium to medium-low heats. Heat changes oil's molecular structure and heating to the point of smoke may create carcinogenic compounds in the oil. For high-heat cooking needs look for specially formulated high-heat canola oils or choose grapeseed oil which retains its molecular structure at higher temperatures

  • Drink Green TeaGreen tea and black tea contain the antioxidant-rich polyphenols, which appear to prevent cancer cells from dividing. Dry green tea leaves also contains catechins, which may inhibit the growth of cancer cells. Consider transition