canada in a changing world

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Canada in a Changing World Mac Rick Mercer

Canada in a Changing WorldRuth Writer

Political: Trials of NationhoodConservative rise to powerQuebec SovereigntyImpact of Western Politicians

Conservatives take PowerTrudeau retired in 1984 [died in 2000] LegacyConstitution in 1982 plus Charter of RightsWar Measures Act More crown corporationsPetro CanadaDeficit of $30 billion; debt of $150 billion; jobless rate 11%Even with these stats and criticsseen as popularLiberals selected John Turner as leader [June 1984]Election in September 1984Progressive Conservatives won with Brian MulroneyLawyer, businessman from QCConservative wins internationally [Reagan]

Quebec Sovereignty QC reluctant to sign Constitution in 1982Yet QC still bound by agreementRene Levesque retired in 1985 then PQ lost electionBourassa and Liberals in power 1985-94Left door open for discussions on Constitution signing

Meech Lake Accord1985-1990Prime Minister Mulroneys first attempt to have QC signLiberal Premier in QC [Bourassa]Conditions for signingStatement of Quebec as distinct societyIncreased provincial powersProvinces greater role in Supreme CourtNotwithstandingyet compensationAll provinces required to approve accord by 1990June 1990deadline for signing passedElijah HarperFirst Nations MP in Manitoba Clyde WellsPremier of NFL refused to allow vote

Charlottetown AccordAugust 92

More involvedfederal, provincial, territories, NativesCanada Clausedefine nature of Canadian characterEgalitarianismDiversityRecognize QC as distinct societyAboriginal self governmentExclusive provincial rights over:Natural resources including forestsCultural policy except CBC and NFBSupreme Court revamped to reflect QC status with 3 membersSenate Reformtriple E [elected, equal, effective]Canada voted54.3% NO.45.7% YES

Blue=Yes Red=No

Distrust of Progressive Conservatives and MulroneyPolitical difficultiesWesterners felt too much time on QuebecQuebecois complained not enough doneEconomy problematicConcern about Mulroneys economic plansFTA, NAFTARecession hit 1990GST passed in 1991 [7% on all except food and rent]Mulroney retired with $40 billion deficit in June 1993Kim Campbell--1993first female Prime Minister

Election of 1993ConservativesPM Kim Campbell [2 loss of 154 seats]Mulroney baggageLiberalsJean Chretien [177 a gain of 96] Lawyer from QCServed as Minister of Justice, Finance, and Indian Affairs [Trudeau]Bloc QuebecoisLucien Bouchard [54 gain of 44]Reform PartyPreston Manning [52 gain of 51]New Democratic PartyAudrey McLaughlin [4 loss of 35]

Chretien in power from 1993-2003 [won in 97 and 00]www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com

Parti Quebecois power QC 94

Jacques Parizeau Premier post Charlottetown defeatLucien Bouchard represented Bloc Quebecois in OttawaSeparatist spirit aliveAGAINSuggested another referendum like 1980October 1995Rest of Canadadiscouraged by attempt to separateParizeau disliked by both sidesin fightingBouchard took command of campaignBouchard fighterflesh eating diseasesymbolicOctober vote

QC voted 49.6% Oui--50.4% Non

Role of Western politicsWestern Canada distrust of Progressive ConservativesRole of national government over resourcesReform party began in 1987 as protest populist partyMoved to rightsocially conservativeLeaderPreston Manningson of Social Credit leaderSeen by many as extremistrace, sex, sexual preferenceLoyal opposition in 1997 election Discussions of Alliance Party 2000Name to have been the Conservative Reform Alliance PartyCRAPCaught the error in timeConservative Party it was

Election of 2004Paul MartinLiberal took over in Nov. 2003135 seatsStephen HarperConservative99Loyal OppositionCalgary ridingGilles DuceppeBloc Quebecois54 Jack LaytonNew Democratic Party19

Minority Government formed: Liberals had 38% of seatsIf NDP joined Liberals still only 154 with 154 in opposition,_2004#/media/File:Canada_2004_Federal_Election.svg

House of Commons upon 2004

To form government party must hold 155 seats of 308

Elections of 2006, 2008, 2011Stephen HarperConservative [124, 143, 166 majority]won bigger margins each time2011 first majority since 00 Paul MartinLiberal [103, 77, 34--Ignatieff lost riding]Bloc Quebecois [51, 49, 4]NDP [29, 37, 103 Jack Layton died shortly after election]Green [1, 0, 1]

May 2, 2011, resulted in Conservative majority

Election of 2011

Election of 2015

Results of 2015 Federal Election

Change of Leadership in Canada

EconomyGoing with the FlowConservativesMulroney/ReaganFree Trade Agreement result of Shamrock Summit 1985Took effect 1989Canadian exports to U.S.80%; 70% of imports from U.S.One third of Canadian workers jobs defined by USA trade3000 pagesread it --harkened to 1911 reciprocity issueVirtually all trade barriers dismantled by 2000Agriculture exceptionResources Culture

Mulroney and Reagan--FTA

NAFTA--1994CanadaUnited StatesMexico;

GSTGoods and Services TaxConservative plan under Mulroney--1991Federal sales tax7% Replaced a hidden 13.5% tax [MST]Now 5% as of 2008Except on sensitive essentialsFoodRentMedicalFinancial servicesOn top of provincial taxeseven higher i.e. 8% [HST] Total is likely 13% sales tax

Economic clubsGATT since 1940sG7 Nationsince mid 1980sG8G20

Diplomacy: Canadas role asMiddle Power

Canada as one of greatest democracies and economic leaderCanada joined OAS in 1980Commonwealth Nationone of 54 countriesLa Francophonieorganization of French speaking nationsSomalia1990sIran hostage crisismajor film--ARGOGulf War1991Canada sent ships and planesSpanish fishing trawler1995shots fired

September 11, 2001

Gander on in IraqWar in Afghanistan[see separate power point on 9/11: Halifax Explosion and September 11]

The Alberta Tar/Oil SandsPolitical issue when crude oil prices highNot much an issue when crude oil prices low

Canadas Cultural ComplexityWomenNativesImmigrantsCultural self-identification

WomenGained suffrage in 1917Feminism of the 1960s and beyondRoyal Commission Expansion of rightsWorkplaceequal pay for equal value--1977Abortionlegalized in 1969; 1988 decision upheld PoliticsKim Campbell; minority groups and feminismViolenceDomesticEcole Polytechnique Massacre1989Marc Lepine killed 14December 6day of remembranceMore stringent gun laws passed

NativesTrudeaus just societyNative peoples should have equal rights Reserves to be phased out in CanadaNatives reacted negativelyFirst Nations Assembly formed 1982Different perspectiveOvide MercrediTook p