Can politics be avoided

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Prelims

PoliticsDefinitions: It is a process by which decisions are made within groups. Although the term is generally applied to behavior within governments, politics is observed in all human (and many non-human) group interactions, including corporate, academic, and religious institutions. The art and science of governance; the means by which the will of the community is arrived at and implemented; the activities of a government, politician, or political party. In its broadest sense, it is about individuals living together in a certain kind of order and under its given authority. Education is an important aspect of politics, for one of its aims is to see that those educated contribute, rather than destroy, the order of the society.

Scope of Politics: 1. Domestic Politics 2. International Politics Can we avoid politics? Is politics all dirty? Political Solution a settlement arrived at through negotiations and compromise amongst conflicting individuals or groups processes which are reality of politics.

Alternative definitions of politics have been proposed that fulfill the needs of differing perspectives. They include:

Dictionary defines, "the art and science of government". Textbook definitions, notably, a "process of conflict resolution in which support is mobilized and maintained for collective projects". Theorists, such as Harold Lasswell, who defined politics as "who gets what, when, where, and how." and Practitioners like: o Mao Zedong, who said "Politics is war without bloodshed while war is politics with bloodshed." o Otto Von Bismarck's cryptic remark, "Politics is the art of the possible." o Jovito Salonga defines as simply the capacity to say no to something dangerous and inimical to the public interest.

Are Statesmen and Politicians the same? A statesman is a person whose main preoccupation is the betterment of the state and its governed society. To accomplish this, he must be adept at the art of politics; that is to negotiate, persuade, and make compromise. He is a politician who puts affairs of the state above his other interest; he rule for the sake of the state. A politician is a person who uses their power to rule others solely to serve their own interests.

IMAGES OF POLITICS: 1. BOARD ROOM (BORO) business elites 2. BUREAUCRATIC cabinet secretaries 3. CONGRESS 4. CHIEF EXECUTIVE either local or national 5. COURT ROOM the judiciary 6. MULTI MEDIA 7. FAITH BASED 8. GAMES OF THE GENERALS 9. CIVIL SOCIETY 10.XMEN

Political science - is the study of political behavior and examines the acquisition and application of power. - is an academic and research discipline that deals with the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behavior.

THE ISMS OF POLITICS POLITICAL IDEALISM is the kind of politics that tells us in detail what is right. - It is the law of our being by which we desire what is right. 10 Point prescriptions on effective political leadership Niccolo Machiavelli. 1. The good prince must avoid despicable and hated. 2. The best fortress for a state and its prince is the love of the people. 3. It is safer to be feared than loved, but it is best to be feared as well as to be loved. 4. The good prince should abstain from taking the property of others, for men forget more easily the death of their father, than the loss of their patrimony. 5. It is better to trust in your power than in the goodwill of others. 6. Legislate good laws and back them with good arms. 7. Laws are the ways of men and force is the way of the beasts, but you cannot rely on law only. 8. Imitate the fox and the lion. The fox is the shrewd and cunning, the lion is strong and brave. If you want to be one or the other, it is better to be a fox. 9. Do not put your trust on mercenaries, for they can easily be bought by your adversaries. 10. Be prudent. Prudence is the ability of knowing, the nature of difficulties and making that, which is least harmful as good.

POLITICAL REALISM if you want to survive, even be successful, start by studying how people behave, not how they ought to behave. POLITICAL RATIONALISM Reason uses next the idea of freedom. Reason teaches all mankind who will but consult it, that being equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty or possessions. POLITICAL EXTREMISM the reality of today is the reality forever. - Believes that the world is sub divided.

LANGUAGES OF POLITICS: What is power? comes from the Latin term potere meaning to be able. It is being able, physically, intellectually, or a combination of both to achieve what one wants. It permeates (present in all aspects) politics. It is concerned with the authoritative allocation of scarce resources in society, about who gets what, when, and how. Lord Acton once said, power tend to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely.

Power according to political theorist, Hannah Arendt, is "the human ability not just to act but to act in concert." It is considered integral in politics and is the subject of a great deal of debate and definitions have evolved over time. *The ability to get somebody to do something they wouldnt otherwise do. *The ability to set agendas. *Access to decision makers. *The ability to participate in decision-making. Influence - is the ability to persuade or convince others to accept certain objectives or behave in a certain way. Coercion - opposite of influence, it involves control by force; compliance is achieved through punishments or threats. Theories of power: *Majoritarian: The majority decides. Elections are typically decided on a majoritarian basis. *Pluralist: Different groups coalesce around different issues at different times, each competing for desired outcomes in decisions made by government. *Elitist: Wealthy and powerful elites tend to dominate decision-making, with relatively little meaningful competition. What is authority?

Authority is the ability to enforce laws, to exact obedience, to command, to determine, or to judge.

What is government?

A government is the body that has the authority to make and enforce rules or laws. An agency of the state that expresses the will of the people. -

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Agency of the state that expresses the will of the people. Comes from the Latin term gubernaculum which means a rudder gives direction.

What is legitimacy?

Legitimacy is an attribute of government gained through the acquisition and application of power in accordance with recognized or accepted standards or principles. It is a moral or ethical concept which involves perception of what is right.

What is sovereignty? Sovereignty is the ability of a government to exert control over its territory free from outside influence. Max Weber identified three sources of legitimacy for authority, known as the tripartite classification of authority. He proposed three reasons why people follow the orders of those who give them: 1. Traditional Traditional authorities receive loyalty because they continue and support the preservation of existing values, the status quo. Traditional authority has the longest history. 2. Charismatic Charismatic authority grows out of the personal charm or the strength of an individual personality. Charismatic regimes are often short-lived, seldom outliving the charismatic figure that leads them. Examples of Charismatic regimes include: Julius Caesar, Augustus, Hitler, Napoleon, Mao, and Fidel Castro. 3. Legal-rational Legal-rational authorities receive their ability to compel behavior by virtue of the office that they hold. It is the authority that demands obedience to the office rather than the office holder. Modern democracies are examples of legal-rational regimes. People also abide by legal-rational authority because it makes sense to do so for the greater good of society.

Ten Lessons from Presidents There are as many styles of leadership as there are leaders. That is very evident from three American presidents whose legacies loom large thirty years and more after they left office: Lyndon Johnson, John F. Kennedy, and the one of the greatest president of this century, Franklin Roosevelt.

Timing is (almost) everything. Knowing when to introduce an initiative,

when to go before ones constituents and when to hold off is a crucial skill. As president, Johnson mastered one of the great skills of leadership knowing when to go forward with each of his goals. He had an instinctive sense of timing about when to introduce a bill, and a sense of which ones would create momentum rather than divisiveness for the next bill. For instance, Johnson introduced the Voting Rights Act on the heels of the bloody march on Selma, Alabama, when police assaulted peaceful demonstrators and Congress faced overwhelming public pressure to act. On the wall of the oval office Johnson kept a map that showed him, which bills were in which committee at every moment. He would come to his office at 5:00 A.M. and start calling the congressmen and senators who he knew were going to have to vote on a provision of the bill that day. If they didnt answer the phone, he would talk to their wife, husband, son, daughter, or grandchild, and he would make each senator and his family feel that the senator was the key to success.(Cohen,1999).1 John F. Kennedy on the other hand, he did not possessed the instinctive sense of timing that allowed Johnson to capitalize on dramatic moments and build on each success. By contrast, Kennedy introduced a series of bills when he first came into office that by the time of his death were stymied.

Anything is possible if you share the glory. Giving others a chance to

claim credit is an easy and effective way to get results. Johnson for instance, was able to share credit to the Congress. He understood that he had to make the Congress feel that his landmark legislation was their triumph as well.

Trust, once broken, is seldom restored. It is the most fragile yet

essential attribute to leadership. No leader can afford to take his word lightly. A leader should not break trust. Its a disastrous decision in any institution, but particularly when lives are at risk. In Johnsons speeches he kept on promising that there was a light at the end of the tunnel a promised that proved fatal when he was unable to1

keep his word. This happened when he made a fatal decision with respect to the war in Vietnam. In contrast to Johnson, Roosevelt never promised that victory would be quick or easy. After giving people his sober estimates, however, he said he was certain eventually a democracy would beat out a dictatorship because a democracy releases the free energies of a free people while the most efficient dictatorship never can.

Leadership is about building connections. Effective leaders

make people feel they have a stake in common problems. Kennedys strength and weaknesses as a leader were the mirror image of Johnsons. Johnson was brilliant in small groups, making deals with individual congressmen, making Congress feel part of a team effort to create the Great Society; Kennedy was never really comfortable with the world of legislative politics. He didnt enjoy the backroom schmoozing and didnt believe in the process of political give-andtake. His ambitions were always a step beyond the House and Senate, and his colleagues there felt that he wasnt really one of them.

Leaders learn from their mistakes. To succeed, leaders must

acknowledge and understand and improve on their shortcomings. One of Kennedys best temperamental qualities is his ability to learn from mistakes. For example, after he made the disastrous mistake at the Bay of Pigs, authorizing an ill-advised, ill-prepared intervention in Cuba, he reshaped his foreign policy decision-making structure. Never again he depend on a narrow group of advisers who may have leaded their own agendas. Roosevelt on the other hand, understood the need for personal renewal, and he drew sustenance from a remarkable group of people around him.

Confidence not just in oneself counts. Most leaders are

self-confident, sometimes to a fault; the real gift is the ability to extend faith in oneself to others. That means actually believing in their gifts. Probably Roosevelts greatest gift as a leader was his absolute confidence in him and, more important, in the American people. It was a confidence shaped in part by his parents, by the possession of his talents, and by the transforming experience of triumphing his polio. It was a confidence so deep that it provided an inner well of security through the worst days of World War II. Contrast that with Johnson waking in the night, worrying about whether the bombing targets he had chosen had been right. Roosevelts confidence allowed him to be flexible, to try everything and meet defeat with serenity, knowing hed do better next time.

commitment.

Effective partnerships require devotion to ones partners.

Attention to the needs of the remote plant or institution pays off with energetic In the case of Roosevelt, it was useful to consider his complicated and difficult relationship with Eleanor (his wife). It was a historic partnership that points up the importance for all leaders to have a counterpoint to themselves, someone who mirrors their strengths and weaknesses, as in many ways Eleanor did for Franklin Roosevelt. She was always concerned with what should be done; he was concerned with what could be done. She was the idealist, he was the practical force. (Cohen,1999).2

Renewal comes from many sources. Leaders must know

themselves and find their own sources of strength. For Johnson, his retirement was almost unbearable to him, because he knew he had failed at the moment that his triumph had almost been achieved. In the end, his greatest enemy was not his political or military adversaries, but his own arrogance. Roosevelt on the other hand, understood the need for personal renewal, and he drew sustenance from a remarkable group of people around him.

is itself a key talent.

Leaders must be talent brokers. The ability to identify, recruit,

and effectively manage the best and brightest people including people unlike oneself To be sure, every leader uses talent differently. Roosevelt deliberately appointed to his cabinet people of diverse points of view who werent afraid to challenge one another, or him. Indeed, their public squabbles often-deflected criticism away from him. Language is ones most powerful tool. Without the ability to communicate, leaders can possess all the other attributes and still fail to have an impact. Kennedy understood the power of language, the importance of symbolism, humor, and image to give the public a sense of connection to the presidency. He made millions of people feel that they were a part of the New Frontier. Thats the mystery and the art of leadership the ability to mobilize people to feel included and to care about the tasks ahead. Kennedy made politics exciting and fulfilling. He conveyed the most important sense that a leader can convey: that the problems of the society, however large they might seem, can be solved by public connection.

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Ideology it is what people believe about politics and how government should be run. An ''ideology'' is an organized collection of ideas. The word ideology was coined by Count Destutt de Tracy in the late 18th century to define a "science of ideas." An ideology can be thought of as a comprehensive vision, as a way of looking at things, as in common sense and several philosophical tendencies, or a set of ideas proposed by the dominant class of a society to all members of this society. - The word "ideology" was coined long before the Russians coined "intelligentsia", or before the adjective "intellectual" referred to a sort of person (a substantive). Meta-ideology - It is the study of the structure, form, and manifestation of ideologies. It posits that ideology is a coherent system of ideas, relying upon a few basic assumptions about reality that may or may not have any factual basis, but are subjective choices that serve as the seed around which further thought grows. According to this perspective, ideologies are neither right nor wrong, but only a relativistic intellectual strategy for categorizing the world. Ideologues is a person who believes in ideology. David W. Minar describes six different ways in which the word "ideology" has been used:1. As a collection of certain ideas with certain kinds of content, 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

usually normative; As the form or internal logical structure that ideas have within a set; By the role in which ideas play in human-social interaction; By the role that ideas play in the structure of an organization; As meaning, whose purpose is persuasion; and As the locus of social interaction, possibly.

For Willard A. Mullins, an ideology is composed of four basic characteristics: 1. 2. 3. 4. It must have power over cognitions It must be capable of guiding one's evaluations; It must provide guidance towards action; It must be logically coherent.

Political ideologies - a political ideology is a certain ethical, set of ideals, principles, doctrines, myths or symbols of a social movement, institution, class, or large group that explain how society should work, and offer some political and cultural blueprint for a certain social order. A political ideology largely concerns itself with how to allocate power and to what ends it should be used. It can be a construct of political thought, often defining political parties and their policy. - Political ideologies regard policies of many different aspects of a society, the most central of which are: economy, education, criminal law, management of criminals, minors, animals, environment, immigration, eugenics, race, use of the military, forced nationalism, and forced religion. Political spectrum - A political spectrum is a way of comparing or visualizing different political positions. It does this by placing them upon one or more geometric axes.

LEFTIST

CENTRIST

RIGHTIST

- They view men as - They view men as - They view men as good individual. rational. evil. - Government is not Government is - Government must needed. needed for control everything. intervention.

- No prescribed law.

- Laws exist and are - There are laws to be being followed. implemented to achieve order in the society.

- The terms Left and Right to refer to political affiliation originated early in the French Revolutionary era, and referred originally to the seating arrangements in the various legislative bodies of France. The aristocracy sat on the right of the Speaker (traditionally the seat of honor) and the commoners sat on the Left, hence the terms Right-wing politics and Left-wing politics.

POLITICAL IDEOLOGIES1. Anarchism It is a manner of organizing society, derived from the Greek ("without archons" or "without chiefs"). It is made up of the Greek words av (meaning: absence of [and pronounced "an"] and apxn (meaning: authority or government [and pronounced "arkhe"]). Today, dictionary definitions still define anarchism as the absence of government. These modern dictionary definitions of anarchism are based on the writings and actions of anarchists of history and present. Anarchists understand, as do historians of anarchism and good dictionaries and encyclopedias, that the word anarchism represents a positive theory. Professor Noam Chomsky said that "...anarchism isn't a doctrine. It's at most a historical tendency, a tendency of thought and action, which has many different ways of developing and progressing and which, I would think, will continue as a permanent strand of human history." Pierre Joseph Proudhon became a leading anarchist figure in the world. His book What is Property? incorporated greater meaning to the word anarchism; anarchism became not only a rejection of established authority but a theory opposing ownership of land and property as well. Thus "anarchism," in its most general meaning, is the belief that all forms of rulership are undesirable and should be abolished. Anarchism also refers to related philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of coercive institutions. The word "anarchy", as most anarchists use it, does not imply chaos, nihilism, or anomie, but rather a harmonious anti-authoritarian society that is based on voluntary association of free individuals in autonomous communities, mutual aid, and selfgovernance. The word "anarchist" originated as a term of abuse. According to Murray Rothbard, Taoist Chuang-tzu was possibly "the world's first anarchist"; Chuang-tzu said, the world "does not need governing; in fact it should not be governed" and "Good order results spontaneously when things are let alone. As an organized movement, anarchism is largely dead, but it retains importance as a philosophical attitude and a political tendency, and to lesser degree as a source of social protest. In recent years they have mounted highly visible, sometimes violent or destructive public protests at international conferences attended by representatives of

the governments and corporations of major industrialized nations, such as meetings of the Group of Seven, the World Trade Organization, and the World Economic Forum.

Criticisms of anarchism Violence Since anarchism has often been associated with violence and destruction, it has been portrayed as being inherently violent. This is a matter of much debate between anarcho-pacifists and those who argue for the right to use violence in self-defence, whether of individuals or of class interests. Utopianism Anarchism is often criticised as unfeasible or plain utopian, even by many who agree that it's a nice idea in principle. 2. Socialism It refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. It championed public ownership, a planned economy, and state intervention in market forces. As an economic system, socialism is usually associated with state or collective ownership of the means of production. This control, according to socialists, may be either direct, exercised through popular collectives such as workers' councils, or it may be indirect, exercised on behalf of the people by the state The term "socialism" was first used in the context of early-19th century Western European social critics. Public ownership of productive resources; may have some form of democratic government. *Strength: May do a better job of ensuring provision of minimum human needs. *Weakness: Lack of private ownership means opposition lacks resources to politically oppose government. Economically less productive, resulting in lower overall standard of living. 3. Communism

It is a political ideology that seeks to establish a future classless, stateless social organization based upon common ownership of the means of production. It can be classified as a branch of the broader socialist movement. The term communism also refers to a variety of politics claiming the establishment of such a social organization as their fundamental intention. It is a higher and more radical stage of Socialism. In ancient Greece the idea of communism was connected to a myth about the "golden age" of humanity, when society lived in full harmony, before the development of private property. The word "communist" itself was coined in 1840 by Goodwyn Barmby, after the French word communisme. Theories within Marxism as to why communism in Eastern Europe was not achieved after socialist revolutions pointed to such elements as the pressure of external capitalist states, the relative backwardness of the societies in which the revolutions occurred, and the emergence of a bureaucratic stratum or class that arrested or diverted the transition press in its own interests. Comparing "Communism" to "communism"

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communism and derived words are written with the lowercase "c" except when they refer to a political party of that name, a member of that party, or a government led by such a party, in which case the word "Communist" is written with the uppercase "C." Thus, one may be a communist (an advocate of communism) without being a Communist (a member of a Communist Party or another similar organization).

4. Marxism - is the philosophy, social theory and political practice based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century German socialist philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary. Marx, often in collaboration with Friedrich Engels, drew on G.W.F. Hegel's philosophy, the political economy of Adam Smith and David Ricardo, and theorists of 19th century French socialism, to develop a critique of society which he claimed was both scientific and revolutionary. The four basic elements in Marxist ideology can be summarized as follows: 1. Capitalism is unjust and doomed. 2. Capitalism has internal contradictions which provide economic depressions. 3. Capitalism should be abolished and replaced with the collective ownership of the means of production. 4. The Communist party, the instrument of the working class will provide the means to carry out the overthrow capitalism, which will lead to the new society and the withering away of the state. Largely public ownership of productive resources; no meaningful political participation outside of party apparatus.

*Strength: Meets minimum human needs. *Weakness: No meaningful political participation; government not amenable to change in response to public pressure; economically backward and results it lower overall standard of living. Eventually tends toward political repression because there is no check on government power 5. Liberalism It is an ideology, philosophy, and political tradition that holds liberty as the primary political value. Liberalism has its roots in the Western Enlightenment, but the term now encompasses a diversity of political thought, with adherents spanning a large part of the political spectrum, from left to right. In the context of economics, the term "liberalism" refers to economic liberalism, which is associated with the political ideology of liberalism itself. The word "liberal" derives from the Latin liber ("free"), from which the term "liberty" also comes. John Locke was the most influential of the early liberals, who are referred as classical liberals. He argued that all human beings have the right to life, liberty, and property and that they create government to protect and preserve these basic rights. If the government fails in this task, Locke said, the people have the right to overthrow it. Classical Liberals called for equality before the law and equality of right in respect to person and property. John Stuart Mill, Jean Jacques Rosseau and Adam Smith are some of the proponents of Liberalism. Adam Smith with his laissez faire. He maintained that government had only three duties:

To defend against foreign attack. To establish an administration of justice. To undertake providing goods or projects which are not profitable in a free society, but which will provide collective benefits and to ensure that all individuals pay a fair share toward them.Broadly speaking, liberalism seeks a society characterized by freedom of thought for individuals, limitations on power, especially of government and religion, the rule of law, the free exchange of ideas, a market economy that supports relatively free private enterprise, and a transparent system of government in which the rights of minorities are guaranteed. There are three important aspects to classical liberal thought; Political it is concerned with basic political rights.

Morally it affirms basic values including freedom and dignity. Economics it is dedicated to the right to private property and free enterprise. Minimum government involvement in the economy and private life; leaves most decisions aside from foreign affairs and defense policy up to private citizens. *Strength: Offers complete freedom of choice on a range of issues. *Weakness: Does not address externalities generated by capitalism; may not provide for public goods (such as roads, health care, retirement programs). 6. Conservatism It is a philosophy defined by Edmund Burke as "a disposition to preserve, and an ability to improve. The term derives from conserve; from Latin conservare, to keep, guard, observe. Edmund Burke was the earliest figure to attempt to refine and clarify the ideology that became known as conservatism. Early conservatives were skeptical of the value of change. They argued that one must be cautious of the untried and unproven, and respect the habits and customs that have served well in the past. They wanted change to be gradual. To a conservative, the goal of change is less important than the insistence that change be effected with a respect for the rule of law and traditions of society. Conservatism is tethered to the traditions of a given society and therefore it cannot hold any single or universal meaning across the world. 7. Fascism It was the authoritarian political movement that ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. It is a radical authoritarian political philosophy that combines elements of corporatism, totalitarianism, extreme nationalism, militarism, anti-communism and antiliberalism. Fascism is also typified by totalitarian attempts to impose state control over all aspects of life: political, social, cultural, and economic. The fascist state regulates and controls (as opposed to nationalizing) the means of production. Fascism exalts the nation, state, or race as superior to the individuals, institutions, or groups composing it. Fascism uses explicit populist rhetoric; calls for a heroic mass effort to restore past greatness; and demands loyalty to a single leader, often to the point of a cult of personality

The word "fascism" comes from fascio (plural: fasci), which may mean "bundle," as in a political or militant group or a nation, but also from the fasces (rods bundled around an axe), which were an ancient Roman symbol of the authority of magistrates. Fascism is associated by many scholars with one or more of the following characteristics: a very high degree of nationalism, economic corporatism, a powerful, dictatorial leader who portrays the nation, state or collective as superior to the individuals or groups composing it. Nazism was the ideology held by the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, commonly called NSDAP or the Nazi Party), which was led by Adolf Hitler. The word Nazism is most often used in connection with the government of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945 (the "Third Reich"), and it was derived from the term National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus, often abbreviated NS). It is the brainchild of Adolf Hitler (1889-1945). He was imprisoned and wrote the book entitled My Struggle Adherents of the Nazi ideology held that the Aryan race was superior to other races, and they promoted Germanic racial supremacy and a strong, centrally governed state. Nazism has been outlawed in modern Germany (including all types of its propaganda), yet remnants and revivalists, known as "Neo-Nazis", continue to operate in Germany and abroad. No public participation in politics, low to heavy government involvement in the economy. *Strength: Decisions get made. *Weakness: Allows for systematic persecution of unpopular groups; economically not as efficient; concentrates power in too few hands. Racism was a key component of Hitlers nationalist ideology. (social Darwinism to legitimize the supremacy of the white skinned people on the basis of biological superiority. 8. Feminism Feminism is theory that men and women should be equal politically, economically and socially. This is the core of all feminism theories. Sometimes this definition is also referred to as "core feminism" or "core feminist theory." Notice that this theory does not subscribe to differences between men and women or similarities between men and women, nor does it refer to excluding men or only furthering women's causes. Most other branches of feminism do.

Why you believe in feminism and what your ideas are to make feminism a reality is what causes arguments within the feminism movement. You may find that you believe in the theory of feminism, but do not see yourself fitting into the branches of feminism below, that is common. You can believe that women and men should be politically, economically and socially equal for your own reasons and hold your own ideas pertaining how you can make that happen. If that is the case, then generally you can consider yourself a feminist. Feminist One who believes in the theory of feminism that is mentioned above. Amazon Feminism Amazon feminism is dedicated to the image of the female hero in Greek mythology, as it is expressed in art and literature, in the physiques and feats of female athletes, and in sexual values and practices. Amazon feminism focuses on physical equality and is opposed to gender role stereotypes and discrimination against women based on assumptions that women are supposed to be, look, or behave as if they are passive, weak and physically helpless. Amazon feminism rejects the idea that certain characteristics or interests are inherently masculine (or feminine), and upholds and explores a vision of heroic womanhood. An Amazon feminist, for example, would argue that some people are not cut out physically to be a fire fighter, serve in combat, or work in construction. Whereas some people are physically capable of doing such jobs. No mention of gender is made, as the jobs should be open to all people regardless of gender. Those men and women who are physically capable and want to, should pursue such jobs. Amazon feminists tend to view that all women are as physically capable as all men. Cultural Feminism The theory that there are fundamental personality differences between men and women, and that women's differences are special and should be celebrated. This theory of feminism supports the notion that there are biological differences between men and women. For example, "women are kinder and more gentle then men," leading to the mentality that if women ruled the world there would be no wars. Cultural feminism is the theory that wants to overcome sexism by celebrating women's special qualities, women's ways, and women's experiences, often believing that the "woman's way" is the better way. Ecofeminism Ecofeminism is a theory that rests on the basic principal that patriarchial philosophies are harmful to women, children, and other living things. Parallels are drawn between society's treatment of the environment, animals, or resources and its treatment of women. In resisting patriarchial culture, eco-feminists believe they are also resisting

plundering and destroying of the Earth. They feel that the patriarchial philosophy emphasizes the need to dominate and control unruly females and the unruly wilderness. Ecofeminism states that the patriarchial society is relatively new, something developed over the last 5,000 years or so and that the matriarchial society was the first society. In the matriarchial society, women were the center of society and people worshipped Goddesses. This is known as the Feminist Eden.

Feminazi This term was made popular by the radio/tv host Rush Limbaugh. A feminazi is defined by anti-feminists as a feminist who is trying to produce as many abortions as possible. Hence the term "nazi." Limbuah sees feminists as trying to rid the world of a particular group of people (fetuses). Individualist, or Libertarian Feminism Individualist feminism is based upon individualism or libertarian (minimum government or anarchocapitalist) philosophies. The primary focus is individual autonomy, rights, liberty, independence and diversity. Individualist Feminism tends to widely encompass men and focuses on barriers that men and women face due to their gender. Material Feminism A movement in the late 19th century to liberate women by improving their material condition. This movement revolved around taking the "burden" off women in regards to housework, cooking, and other traditional female domestic jobs. The Grand Domestic Revolution by Charlotte Perkins Gilman is a reference. Moderate Feminism This branch of feminism tends to be populated mostly by younger women or women who have not directly experienced discrimination. They tend to question the need for further effort, and think that feminism is no longer viable. They often view feminism as embarrassing (it's thought that this is the group most likely to espouse feminist ideas and thoughts while denying being "feminist"). N.O.W. Feminism (also referred to as Gender Feminism) My own term for the type of feminism the National Organization for Women represents. This theory is based on the notion that in order for men and women to be equal (as the core of 'feminism' states), women must be granted some special privileges, and men should not be an issue in feminism. This could be exemplified by N.O.W. publicly supporting women who wish to enter traditional all-male scools. While N.O.W. will take strong and loud stands to

support that, they are silent regarding men being able to enter traditional all-female schools. Another example could be how N.O.W. is quick to support women as public icons who are victims of sexual harassment, yet offer no public support for men as pulbic icons who are victims of sexual harassment. In both instances, N.O.W. feminism encompases only women and fights to offer special privilages to women with the intent of making women equal to men.

Pop-Feminism Pop-feminism is often mistaken by people to be feminism in general... the negative stereotypical man hating ideology. There is no proof that such feminists exist, I have yet to meet a feminist who hates men and indeed, many men are feminists. But, if such a category of feminists exist, they should be referred to as 'pop-feminists.' This would be the type of feminism that degrades men in all manners and glorifies women. Radical Feminism Radical feminism is the breeding ground for many of the ideas arising from feminism. Radical feminism was the cutting edge of feminist theory from approximately 1967-1975. It is no longer as universally accepted as it was then, and no longer serves to solely define the term, "feminism." This group views the oppression of women as the most fundamental form of opression, one that cuts across boundaries of race, culture, and economic class. This is a movement intent on social change, change of rather revolutionary proportions. Radical feminism questions why women must adopt certain roles based on their biology, just as it questions why men adopt certain other roles based on theirs. Radical feminism attempts to draw lines between biologically-determined behavior and culturallydetermined behavior in order to free both men and women as much as possible from their previous narrow gender roles. Separatists Separatists are often wrongly depicted as lesbians. These are the feminists who advocate separation from men; sometimes total, sometimes partial. Women who organize women-only events are often dubbed separatist. The core idea is that "separating" (by various means) from men enables women to see themselves in a different context. Many feminists, whether or not separatist, think this is a necessary "first step," for personal growth. However, they do not necessarily endorse permanent separation.

It is inaccurate to consider all lesbians as separatist. While it is true that they do not interact with men for sexual fulfillment, it is not true that they automatically shun all interaction with men.

Political culture Refers to what people believe and feel about government, and how they think people should act towards it. To understand the relationship of a government to its people, and how those people are going to act toward that government and others, it is necessary to study what those people believe about themselves and government. Attitudes, values, beliefs, and orientations that individuals in a society hold regarding their political system. Refers to peoples attitudes and values of the members of society influence social and political decision-making. It can constrain or encourage certain behaviors and relations. It is useful in understanding different domestic institutions in a comparative perspective.

History: It was first coined in the United States in the 1950s and has since been defined in various ways. Sidney Verba, a leading scholar on the subject, defined political culture as the system of empirical beliefs, expressive symbols, and values which defines the situation in which political action takes place.

COMPONENTS OF POLITICAL CULTURE:

1.

2. 3. 4. 5.

ATTITUDES psychological orientations toward political objects, frequently involving normative conceptions of how things ought to be. BELIEFS conception on how things are, which may or may not be accurate. FEELINGS emotional attachments and reactions. COGNITION - knowledge and information. VALUES priorities and goals.

Political socialization where political culture and public opinion started. Political Efficacy the extent to which individual citizens feel that they can affect political decisions. Civil Society refers to the social and economic arrangements that counterbalance the powers of the State by providing an alternative source of power and prestige to that offered by the State itself. Political Culture vs. Ideology Political Culture is broader; it refers to a vaguer, more implicit orientation, which may include more than one ideology. Ideology refers to an explicit doctrinal structure, providing a particular diagnosis of ills of society, plus an accompanying action program for implementing the prescribed solutions. Political Culture vs. Public Opinion Public Opinion focuses about specific leaders, policies and issues.

Political Culture refers to underlying feelings towards politics and government. CLASSIFICATIONS OF POLITICAL CULTURE ACCORDING TO GABRIEL ALMOND AND SIDNEY VERBA: 1. PAROCHIAL POLITICAL CULTURES are dominated be people who are concerned almost entirely with local political issues. They have limited knowledge of the national issues. - People are distanced from their national government to such an extent that they feel it has nothing to do with them. 2. SUBJECT POLITICAL CULTURES are found in the slums of major cities, most noticeably in Latin America. People are aware of the political situation; however, the level of involvement is low as they feel relatively powerless to influence the government policies. - People view themselves simply as subjects whose lives are directed by apolitical process above them. 3. PARTICIPANT POLITICAL CULTURES are those of the major Western democracies. People feel free to participate, believing that their participation affects decision-making. - Are highly efficacious they believe that political decisions affect their lives and that they can contribute to their political system. Sources of Political Culture

Historical roots Legal-sociological factorssChurches

are political sFamily unit

The Culture War Foundation of Political Culture: Religion is one of the most important. It has played an important role in the evolution of civilizations and the founding of many states.5 David Wurfel described the Philippines as having a parochial and subject political cultures. Onofre D. Corpuz described Filipinos as one that has a superstructure of attitudes and values of Western origin. In a survey by SWS entitled: Whom do Filipino Trust?. - Filipinos tended to trust The Supreme Court than the Congress. Political culture exercised by the Filipinos: 1. Pakikisama 2. Utang na loob 3. Compadrazo 4. Delicadeza 5. Palabra de honor