cadmium (jeremy willett)

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  • 1. Cadmium By: Jeremy Willett

2. History Its name is derived from the Latin cadmia and the Greek kadmeia First discovered by Friedrich Strohmeyer, a German chemist, in 1817. While studying calamine(ZnCO3), it was noticed that when heated some samples glowed yellow while others did not. After later examination, he concluded that the calamine that changed color contained a new element, Cadmium 3. Properties Atomic Number: 48 Atomic Weight: 112.411 Melting Point: 594.22 K (321.07C or 609.93F) Boiling Point: 1040 K (767C or 1413F) Density: 8.69 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal PeriodNumber:5 GroupNumber:12 4. Major Isotopes Nine major radioactive isotopes of cadmium exist, of which only three cadmium-109, cadmium-113, and cadmium-113m have half- lives long enough to warrant potential concern. The half-lives of the other six are less than 45 days. There are 5 stable isotopes Cadmium 108 Cadmium 110 Cadmium 111 Cadmium 112 Cadmium 114 5. Uses Most in the U.S. used in nickel- cadmium batteries Also used as an anticorrosive coating for steel and cast iron, and used as component of certain specialty alloys. Used in semiconductors (such as cadmium selenide and telluride), in dyes and pigments, as a stabilizer in plastics such as polyvinyl chloride, and as a neutron absorber in nuclear reactor control rods and shields. 6. Concerns Cadmium has negative effects on human health In the human body, cadmium accumulates mainly in the kidneys. At high levels, it can reach a critical threshold and can lead to serious kidney failure. Cadmium is generally taken into the body through smoking as well as trace amount sin food and water which has came from the soil. Cadmium intake by the general population has decreased in the past 60 years. 7. Availability Cadmium is found in rare ores such as sphalerite and greenockite, and it is formed as a byproduct during production of zinc, copper, and lead. The United States is among the top ten producers, refining over 1,000 metric tons of cadmium a year. 8. Miscellaneous Isolating cadmium consists of the following series of reactions. ZnO + C Zn + CO ZnO + CO Zn + CO2 CO2 + C 2CO Cadmium is an extremely toxic metal, which is why it has its negative effects on the human body. 9. Sources http://periodictable.com/Samples/048.12/index.s12.html http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele048.html http://www.ead.anl.gov/pub/doc/cadmium.pdf http://www.webelements.com/cadmium/history.html http://www.cadmium.org/ http://www.tech-faq.com/nickel-cadmium-battery.html http://www.chemicalelements.com/elements/cd.html http://library.thinkquest.org/08aug/01930/commonmetals/Cadmiu m.html http://chemistry.about.com/od/famouschemists/p/friedrichstrome yerbio.htm http://www.mineralatlas.com/australian_minerals/tasmania5.htm

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