cadmium in drinking water 2019-05-08آ  cadmium in drinking water. 2.0 executive summary . cadmium...

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  • Cadmium in Drinking Water

    Guideline Technical Document for Public Consultation

    Consultation period ends May 21, 2019

  • ii

    Cadmium in Drinking Water Document for Public Consultation

    Table of Contents

    Purpose of consultation ................................................................................................................... 1

    Part I. Overview and Application ................................................................................................... 2

    1.0 Proposed guideline .............................................................................................................. 2

    2.0 Executive summary ............................................................................................................. 2 2.1 Health effects .......................................................................................................... 2 2.2 Exposure ................................................................................................................. 2 2.3 Analysis and treatment ............................................................................................ 3 2.4 International considerarions .................................................................................... 3

    3.0 Application of the guideline................................................................................................ 3 3.1 Monitoring .............................................................................................................. 4

    Part II. Science and Technical Considerations ............................................................................... 5

    4.0 Identity, use and sources in the environment ...................................................................... 5 4.1 Environmental fate .................................................................................................. 5

    5.0 Exposure ............................................................................................................................. 6 5.1 Water ....................................................................................................................... 6 5.2 Food ........................................................................................................................ 7 5.3 Air ........................................................................................................................... 7 5.4 Consumer products ................................................................................................. 7 5.5 Soil .......................................................................................................................... 8 5.6 Biomonitoring ......................................................................................................... 8

    5.6.1 Biomarkers of exposure ............................................................................. 8 5.6.2 Biomonitoring data ..................................................................................... 8

    5.7 Multi-route exposure through drinking water ......................................................... 9

    6.0 Analytical methods ............................................................................................................. 9 6.1 Sample preservation and preparation .................................................................... 10

    7.0 Treatment technology and distribution system considerations ......................................... 10 7.1 Municipal scale ..................................................................................................... 11

    7.1.1 Conventional coagulation ......................................................................... 11 7.1.2 Precipitation ............................................................................................. 12 7.1.3 Ion exchange ............................................................................................ 12 7.1.4 Membrane filtration.................................................................................. 13 7.1.5 Other technologies.................................................................................... 13

    7.1.5.1 Adsorption.................................................................................. 13

  • Cadmium For public consultation

    iii

    7.1.6 Distribution system considerations .......................................................... 14 7.1.6.1 Premise plumbing consideration ................................................ 15 7.1.6.2 Brass ........................................................................................... 17

    7.1.7 Mitigation strategy for distribution and plumbing systems ..................... 18 7.2 Residential scale.................................................................................................... 18

    8.0 Kinetics and metabolism ................................................................................................... 19 8.1 Absorption............................................................................................................. 19 8.2 Distribution ........................................................................................................... 19 8.3 Metabolism ........................................................................................................... 20 8.4 Excretion ............................................................................................................... 20 8.5 Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models ................................................... 20

    9.0 Health effects .................................................................................................................... 20 9.1 Effects in humans .................................................................................................. 21

    9.1.1 Acute toxicity ........................................................................................... 21 9.1.2 Sub-chronic and chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity ............................. 21

    9.1.2.1 Renal effects............................................................................... 21 9.1.2.2 Bone effects ............................................................................... 23 9.1.2.3 Carcinogenicity .......................................................................... 23 9.1.2.4 Other effects ............................................................................... 24

    9.1.3 Developmental and reproductive toxicity ................................................ 25 9.2 Effects on experimental animals ........................................................................... 25

    9.2.1 Acute toxicity ........................................................................................... 25 9.2.2 Short-term exposure ................................................................................. 25 9.2.3 Long-term exposure and carcinogenicity ................................................. 25

    9.2.3.1 Kidney effects ............................................................................ 25 9.2.3.2 Bone effects ............................................................................... 26 9.2.3.3 Carcinogenicity .......................................................................... 27 9.2.3.4 Other effects ............................................................................... 27

    9.2.4 Genotoxicity ............................................................................................. 27 9.2.4.1 In vitro findings.......................................................................... 27 9.2.4.2 In vivo findings .......................................................................... 27

    9.2.5 Reproductive and developmental toxicity ................................................ 27 9.3 Mode of action ...................................................................................................... 28

    9.3.1 Kidney effects .......................................................................................... 28 9.3.2 Bone effects .............................................................................................. 28

    10.0 Classification and assessment ........................................................................................... 28 10.1 International considerations .................................................................................. 29

    11.0 Rationale for guideline ...................................................................................................... 30

    12.0 References ......................................................................................................................... 30

    Appendix A: List of acronyms ...................................................................................................... 42

  • 1

    March 2019

    Cadmium in Drinking Water

    Purpose of consultation The available information on cadmium has been assessed with the intent of updating the

    current drinking water guideline and guideline technical document. The existing guideline on cadmium, last updated in 1986, based its maximum acceptable concentration (MAC) of 0.005 mg/L (5 µg/L) on kidney effects in humans. This new document takes into consideration newer scientific studies and assessments, and finds that the weight of evidence continues to identify kidney toxicity in humans as the key end-point for cadmium. It provides updated data and information related to exposure to cad

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