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DESCRIPTIONByzantine Empire. Main Idea. After the fall of the Roman Empire in the West, the Byzantine Empire emerged as the dominant eastern power, with Constantinople as its political, economic, and religious center. The empire lasted over 1,000 years. Background:. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Main IdeaAfter the fall of the Roman Empire in the West, the Byzantine Empire emerged as the dominant eastern power, with Constantinople as its political, economic, and religious center. The empire lasted over 1,000 years.
Background:1. Western half of the Roman Empire fell in 476 A.D. 2. Byzantium had already been rebuilt by Emperor Constantine, who then renamed the city Constantinople.
Geography and Cityscape of Constantinople1. Built on seven hills and divided into 14 districts, like Rome.2. Protected by 13 miles of walls, watchtowers, and gates.3. Easily fortified site surrounded on three sides by water, bordering a natural harbor. Its location combined with its control of the Bosporus Strait made the city a hub for trade and shipping between Europe, Africa, and Asia.
Walls of Constantinople
A satellite view of the area. EuropeAsiaBlack SeaAegean Sea& sea trade routes?Can you see the remarkable location of Constantinople at the center of the X of land
The Black Sea.The Bosphorus Strait.The Sea of Marmara.The DardanellesStrait.Constantinopletoday known as Istanbul.
A great view of the Bosphorus from space. And can you see the narrow bay to the north of Byzantium that is called the Golden Horn?Can you see the point that is Byzantium?
A satellite view of Istanbul today.There used to be a chain stretched across the Golden Horn for protection.
Geography and Cityscape of Constantinople4. Adequate distance from Germanic invasions of the western empire.5. Good location to protect Europes eastern frontier. 6. Seized by Turks in 1453 and renamed Istanbul; today it is a major city in modern Turkey.
Role of Constantinople:
1. True center or seat of Byzantine power until the Ottoman conquest
2. Important in preserving classical Greco-Roman culture
Justinian and Theodora
How Justinian Was DescribedWhile alive Justinian was described as devout, determined, and energetic. Why?After His Death, the historian Procopius referred to Justinian as two-faced and cruel in a Secret History
Achievements of Byzantine Emperor Justinian: 1. Justinian Code (Corpus Juris Civilis) sorted through old Roman laws and established a new code of law for the Byzantine Empire. It lasted for 900 years!- included laws concerning marriage, slavery, property, inheritance, and womens rights- Significance had a significant impact on European legal code
Achievements of Byzantine Emperor Justinian: 2. Re-conquered former Roman territories but not Rome 3. Significantly expanded trade
Achievements of Byzantine Emperor Justinian: 4. Acted as head of church and state (2-seated Chair)5. Placed a heavy emphasis on church building, which displayed his leadership of both the government and the church. - Hagia Sophia Constantinoples masterpiece of architecture and faith
One of Justinians greatest accomplishments - the construction of the beautiful Cathedral of the Holy Wisdom ~ The Hagia Sophia
And more achievements!6. Came to throne at age 45! Considered Byzantium's most ambitious ruler.7. Drove barbarians out of North Africa, Spain, and Italy8. Built bridges, churches, hospitals, libraries, and last but not least parks.
THEODORA!?!?!?Born into lower class, worked as an actress and dancer as a teenager.Loved adventure, new friendships and travelMarried Justinian while in her 20s, sometimes equaled or surpassed husbands wisdom and skills.Convinced her husband to crush Nika rebellionEstablished Social Welfare programs for the poorWorked for the rights of women
HAGIA SOPHIAKey Points in the History of the Hagia SophiaBuilt during Justinians reign. Took 5-6 years to buildKnown as the Church of Holy WisdomWhen Constantinople fell to the Turks, Hagia Sophia became a mosque; now it is a museum
HAGIA SOPHIAImportant concepts found in the Hagia Sophias ArchitecturePlain exterior symbolizes earthly lifeOrnate interior symbolizes spiritual universeCathedrals size, thick pillars, and enclosed space show Roman influence.Intricate and ornate design shows Eastern influences
1. Byzantine architects invented the pendentives which connected the round base of a dome to a square building.
2. The combination of Greco-Roman and Middle Eastern influence are evident in the intricate decoration on this column.
Mosaics with gold-covered stones added more light to the huge interior of Hagia Sofia.
Byzantine Achievements in Art and Architecture: 3. art and architecture inspired by two things: Christian religion and imperial power4. Icons definition religious images 5. Elaborate mosaics in public and religious structures
Icon/Mosaic in Hagia Sophia
Byzantine Achievements in Art and Architecture: 4. Hagia Sophia most beautiful architectural achievement 5. Hippodrome entertainment venue for chariot races and circuses
Engineering and Empire Video
1. Greek and Roman knowledge preserved in Byzantine libraries2. Greek primary language (as opposed to Latin in the West)3. Church Greek Orthodox Christianity
The Division of the Christian Church:Background: Distance and lack of contact slowly caused the doctrines and rituals of Western and Eastern Christianity to split in the 11th Century.
The Great Schism
Icons Pictures of important Christians or sacred events. Can be mosaics, murals, wooden panels.Those who did not believe in them were called Iconoclasts (Eastern Christians)This was one of the breaking points for the split.
East vs. West : A Religious DisputePatriarch- head bishop of the east (Constantinople) Conflict about power of Pope (in west) and Emperor (in east)Regional differences made more conflicts arise
The Western Church- Roman Catholic1. Centered in Rome2. Far from the seat of government power once the capital moved to Constantinople3. Services conducted in Latin
The Western Church- Roman Catholic4. The pope had authority over all other bishops5. The pope had authority over all kings and emperors6. Priests cannot marry and must remain celibate7. Divorce is not permitted
The Eastern Church Greek/Eastern Orthodox 1. Centered in Constantinople2. Close to seat of government power once capital moved to Constantinople3. Services conducted in Greek or local languages
The Eastern Church Eastern Orthodox 4. The patriarch and other bishops head the church as a group5. The emperor claimed authority over the patriarch and other bishops of the Byzantine Empire6. Priests may be married7. Divorce is allowed under certain conditions
The Great Schism
In 1054, the split between the Eastern and Western Churches was made permanent when the Pope (in the West) and the Patriarch (in the East) excommunicated each other. Excommunication definition: cast out from the church This permanent split was called the schism
Roman CatholicEastern Orthodox They base their faith on the gospel of Jesus and the Bible
They use sacraments such as baptism
Their religious leaders are priests and bishops
They seek to convert peopleService are conducted in LatinThe pope has authority over all other bishopsThe pope claims authority over all kings and emperorsPriests may not marryDivorce is not permittedService are conducted in Greek or local languagesThe patriarch and other bishops head the Church as a groupThe emperor claims authority over the patriarch and other bishops of the empirePriests may be marriedDivorce is permitted under certain conditions
Constantinople: The Hub of Byzantine TradeRussia:Fur, Honey, TimberFrance:WineEnglandTinSpain:CorkAfrica:Ivory, goldChina:SilkIndia:Spices
Decline of Empire Plague of Justinian that crippled EmpireIn 542, 10,000 people were dying every day!Attacks from East, West, and NorthSlavs, Persians, Turks, and Russian invasionsAttempt to maintain powerThrough political marriages, bribes and diplomacyWalls kept the peninsula strong until 1453 when it fell to the Ottoman TurksSplit of the Church
What goes up Must come down
BYZANTINE EMPIRE 550 AD
BYZANTINE EMPIRE 1050 AD
BYZANTINE EMPIRE 1350 AD
Ottoman Empire 1606 A.D.
Influence of Byzantine Culture on Eastern Europe and Russia:1. Trade routes between the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea led to exchange of ideas and culture
2. Eastern Orthodox missionaries spread their faith to the Slavic people of Russia and Eastern Europe
Influence of Byzantine Culture on Eastern Europe and Russia:3. Cyril invented an alphabet for the Slavic languages so that the Slavs could read the Bible in their own tongue. This was called the Cyrillic alphabet4. Church architecture and religious art
A Russian Orthodox Church in the Ukraine ~ very similar to the Hagia Sophia.
*******************************Mosaic inside Hagia Sophia. Justinian on the left presenting Hagia Sophia to the Virgin Mary, and Constantine on the right presenting the city Constantinople to her. *****Starting boxes. One door for each horse*Center of race tracks, decorated with statutes*Referee's Box*********************