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  • By: Ramy Essam ramy_essam@hotmail.com

    Ramy Essam-APV June 18, 2014 1

    Under Supervision of:

    Prof. Dr. Mohammed Fawzy Elrefaie

    Prof. Dr. Dirk Dahlhaus

  • 1. Introduction & Objective

    2. Methodology & Procedure

    3. Modeling

    4. Simulation & Results

    5. Conclusion

    6. Future Recommendations

    7. Summary

    8. Questions & Answers

    Ramy Essam-APV June 18, 2014 2

    Outline

  • Source: www.ise.fraunhofer.de

     Definition:

    Agro-photovoltaic (APV) is the concept of combining power generated from PV and to enhance Agriculture productivity simultaneously

     Aim of work:

    The PV integration on farm land concept is used to increase land productivity and economic profitability with minimal negative interactions and positive optimal interactions

     Objective of the study:

    Evaluation of technical and economical feasibility under Egyptian climate conditions

    1. Introduction & Objective

    Ramy Essam-APV June 18, 2014 3

  • Identify the Problem & Search for

    Solutions

    1. Define Technical Model Variables

    2. Classification of Plants

    Run the Simulation

    Interpretation of results & Conclusion

    2. Methodology & Procedure

    Ramy Essam-APV June 18, 2014 4

    • History of APV applications

    • Literature review

    • Lessons learned: Fraunhofer ISE/In-house research

    • Literature experimental shading studies

    • Radiance Software

  • Sources: 1- Fraunhofer ISE; 2- M. Guggenmos; 3- www.revolutionenergymaker.com; 4- University of Montpellier

     Prof. A. Goetzberger (early 80s) published preliminary results of research. Putting it into practice:

     Bavaria (since 2010):

    Manfred Guggenmos: practical experiments for vegetables under PV.

     Northern Italy (2011): three APV-prototypes have been installed, but no scientific support to date.

     South of France (2009): University of Montpellier installed APV testing facility.

    2.1. History of APV

    Ramy Essam-APV June 18, 2014 5

    2. Methodology & Procedure

  • Source: www.ise.fraunhofer.de

     Plant growth conditions are a subject to change with APV implementation

     Evaluation according to ecological indicator values of plants.

     Ecological indicators

     Interpretation against field of reference

    3. Modeling

    Ramy Essam-APV June 18, 2014 6

    3.1. Modeling- Agriculture Aspects

  • Figure (1): Biomass Yield as a Function of Relative Light Availability (PAR)

     Plants react differently on shading

     Response to shading of crops in arid regions

    3. Modeling

    Ramy Essam-APV June 18, 2014 7

    3.1. Modeling- Agriculture Aspects

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    120

    140

    20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110

    B io

    m as

    s yi

    e ld

    [ %

    ]

    Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR) [%]

    PLUS

    ZERO

    MINUS

  • Figure (2): Classification of Egypt’s most relevant economic plants in agriculture

     PLUS category: Shading tolerant, crops are benefited from shade

     ZERO category: No significant effect on yield

     MINUS category: Shading sensitive, crops are badly influenced by shade

    3. Modeling

    Ramy Essam-APV June 18, 2014 8

    3.1. Modeling- Agriculture Aspects

  • Figure (3): APV System Technology

     1 = PV module

     2 = foundation of intermediate supports

     3 = foundation at the edge of the field

     α = surface azimuth angle

     b = module width

     d = row spacing

     d’ = distance between supports

     L= modules length

     h = clear height underneath the panels

    Ramy Essam-APV June 18, 2014 9

    3. Modeling 3.1. Modeling- Technical Aspects

  • Figure (5): Simulation of Irradiance on Ground

     Inclination Angle (15°, 25°)

     Height of Installation (2m, 4m & 6m)

     Orientation Angle (0°, 45°)

     Row Spacing Distance (1.5-6.5m)

    4. Simulation & Results

    Ramy Essam-APV June 18, 2014 10

    Figure (4): Side View of an APV Module System Structure

    4.1. Technical Variables

  • Figure (6): Global Horizontal Irradiation underneath Different Installation Heights.

     Increasing height shows higher uniformity of solar irradiation distribution on ground.

     Installation height of 4 m is to be considered for the upcoming calculations.

    Ramy Essam-APV June 18, 2014 11

    4. Simulation & Results 4.2. Technical Results

    4.2.1. Global Horizontal Irradiation vs Height

  • Figure (7): Global Horizontal Irradiation underneath Different Orientation of Arrays.

     Optimal module orientation towards South results in heterogeneous distribution of radiation on ground level.

     Orientation towards 45° South-west provides homogeneously distributed Irradiation.

     Conclusion: Homogeneity of radiation is very important for crop cultivation ( simultaneous ripening, etc.) therefore, modules should have to be installed:

     High

     Not towards South

    Ramy Essam-APV June 18, 2014 12

    4. Simulation & Results 4.2. Technical Results

    4.2.2. Global Horizontal Irradiation vs Orientation angle

  • Figure (8): Photovoltaic Electric Yield

     𝑷𝑽𝑬𝒓𝒆𝒍 𝐝; 𝜶 = 𝐆𝐭

    𝐝;𝜶 ∗𝐃 (𝐝𝐞𝐠𝐫𝐞𝐞 𝐨𝐟 𝐬𝐮𝐫𝐟𝐚𝐜𝐞 𝐜𝐨𝐯𝐞𝐫𝐚𝐠𝐞)

    𝐆𝐭 𝟏.𝟓;𝟎 ∗𝐃 (𝐎𝐏𝐓𝐈𝐌𝐀𝐋 𝐝𝐞𝐠𝐫𝐞𝐞 𝐨𝐟 𝐬𝐮𝐫𝐟𝐚𝐜𝐞 𝐜𝐨𝐯𝐞𝐫𝐚𝐠𝐞)

    ∗ 𝟏𝟎𝟎

     Orientation of array in an APV system towards 45° south-west. Electricity yield decreases by less than 5 % due to this suboptimal orientation.

    Ramy Essam-APV June 18, 2014 13

    4. Simulation & Results 4.2. Technical Results

    0

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    40

    60

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    100

    120

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7

    P V

    E [

    % ]

    Row Spacing Distance [m]

    Summer-South Winter-South

    Summer-Southwest Winter-Southwest

    4.2.3. Photovoltaic Electric Yield

  • Figure (9): Photosynthetically Active Radiation on Ground between modules

     𝑷𝑨𝑹𝒓𝒆𝒍 𝒅 = 𝐆𝐡𝐨𝐫

    𝐝;𝛂;𝐮𝐧𝐝𝐞𝐫 𝒎𝒐𝒅𝒖𝒍𝒆

    𝐆𝐡𝐨𝐫 𝐮𝐧𝐬𝐡𝐚𝐝𝐞𝐝 𝒂𝒓𝒆𝒂

    ∗ 𝟏𝟎𝟎

     Photosynthetic active radiation in winter South-west oriented is higher than in South oriented.

    Ramy Essam-APV June 18, 2014 14

    4. Simulation & Results 4.2. Technical Results

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    100

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7

    P A

    R [

    % ]

    Row Spacing Distance [m]

    Summer-South Winter-South

    Summer-Southwest Winter-Southwest

    4.2.4. Photosynthetic Active Radiation

  • Figure (10): Biomass Yield of APV south and 45°-Southwest oriented modules

     45° South-west facing system and 25° inclination angle is a good regime to measure the effect of changing row spacing distance on the three categorized crops.

     Slight differences, but only for winter crops.

    Ramy Essam-APV June 18, 2014 15

    4. Simulation & Results 4.2. Technical Results

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    120

    140

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7

    B M

    E [

    % ]

    Row Spacing Distance [m]

    PLUS-Summer

    PLUS-Winter

    ZERO-Summer

    ZERO-Winter

    MINUS-Summer

    MINUS-Winter 0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    120

    140

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 B

    M E

    [ %

    ]

    Row Spacing Distance [m]

    PLUS-Summer

    PLUS-Winter

    ZERO-Summer

    ZERO-Winter

    MINUS-Summer

    MINUS-Winter

    Standard Orientation: South Standard Orientation: 45° South-west

    4.2.5. Biomass Yield

  • Figure (11): Land Equivalent Ratio

     𝐋𝐄𝐑 = 𝑩𝑴𝑬𝐀𝐏𝐕

    𝑩𝑴𝑬𝒎𝒐𝒏𝒐 +

    𝑷𝑽𝑬𝐀𝐏𝐕

    𝑷𝑽𝑬𝒎𝒐𝒏𝒐

     It is a quantitative approach for determining productivity of APV, it measures the total output per unit area.

     LER for summer crops of PLUS category increased by 80 % productivity at optimum row spacing of 2.9 m.

     LER for the other two categories are in the range of 30 to 60 % higher in productivity compared to mono- cultivation.

    Ramy Essam-APV June 18, 2014 16

    4. Simulation & Results 4.2. Technical Results

    0,8

    1

    1,2

    1,4

    1,6

    1,8

    2

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7

    L E

    R

    Row Spacing Distance [m]

    PLUS-Summer PLUS-Winter

    ZERO-Summer Z