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  • manganese2004 48.

    Referencesthatincludeasectionmark()arefoundintheInternetReferencesCitedsection.

    ManganeseByLisaa.Corathers

    Domestic survey data and tables were prepared by Oana Petrican, statistical assistant, and the world production tables were prepared by Glenn J. Wallace, international data coordinator.

    manganeseisessentialtoironandsteelproductionbyvirtueofitssulfur-fixing,deoxidizing,andalloyingproperties.steelmaking,includingitsironmakingcomponent,accountedformostofthedomesticmanganesedemand,currentlyintherangeof85%to90%ofthetotalconsumption.amongavarietyofotheruses,manganeseisakeycomponentofcertainwidelyusedaluminumalloys,andisusedinoxideformindrycellbatteries.

    In2004,U.s.manganeseapparentconsumptionwasanestimated.03millionmetrictons(mt),a60%increasefrom643,000metrictons(t)in2003(table).Increasesinferromanganese,silicomanganese,andmanganesemetalimportsaccountedformostofthegrowthinapparentconsumption.

    manganeseimportsincreasedby49%onacontentbasiscomparedwiththoseof2003.manganeseexportswerequadruplethoseof2003onacontentbasis,basedonthetypicalmanganesecontentsofthematerialsnotedintable5.

    In2004,thepriceoforerosefromthatof2003,asdidtheaveragepricesofmanganeseferroalloys.Thepriceofmetallurgical-gradeoreincreasedbyabout6%internationally.Pricesforhigh-andmedium-carbonferromanganeseandsilicomanganesewereatanalltimehigh.

    In2004,salesofmanganesematerialsfromthegovernmentsnationalDefensestockpile(nDs)reducedthegovernmentsinventoryofmanganesebyabout22%(contentbasis),leavinganinventoryofaboutthree-fourthstheannualdomesticconsumption.Thelargerdisposals(reportedsales)wereofchemical-andmetallurgical-gradeores.

    Worldproductionofmanganeseorein2004roseby9%onagross-weightbasisandby7%onacontained-weightbasiscomparedwiththatin2003(table7).Chinawastheleadingproduceronagross-weightbasis;southafricawastheleadingproduceronacontained-weightbasis.Combinedworldproductionofferromanganeseandsilicomanganeseroseby8%onagross-weightbasiscomparedwiththatin2003(table8).Chinawastheleadingproducerofboththesemanganeseferroalloys.

    Legislation and Government Programs

    Air Quality, Emission Limits.TheU.s.environmentalProtectionagency(ePa)issuedfinalnationalemissionstandardsforhazardousairpollutants(HaPs)forseveralindustrialsourcesduringtheyear,includingindustrial,commercial,andinstitutionalboilersandprocessheaters(boilers);ironandsteelfoundries;andlimemanufacturingplants,includingthosecaptiveplantsatironandsteelmills.OneofthemetallicHaPsateachofthesesourcesismanganese.TheePausedparticulatematter(Pm)asasurrogatelimitforthemetalHaPs,orinsomecasestotalmetalHaPasan

    alternatetothePmlimits.emissionlimitsvarieddependingontheemissionsourcesattheplantsandwhetherthesourceswereexistingornew(U.s.environmentalProtectionagency,2004b,p.55223-55224;2004c,p.2907-2908;2004d,p.397-398).

    Air Quality, Public Health Study.TheagencyforToxicsubstancesandDiseaseRegistry(aTsDR)oftheU.s.DepartmentofHealthandHumanservicesannouncedanindeterminatepublichealthhazardforairemissionsfromtheformerUnionCarbideCorporationfacilitycomplexnearmarietta,OH.ThecomplexiscurrentlyoccupiedbyChevron-PhillipsChemicalCompany,erametmarietta,Inc.,evereadyBatteryCompany,Inc.,andsolvayadvancedPolymers,LLC.TheaTsDRrecommendedthatadditionalairsamplingbeconductedforatleastyearasindicatedbyairemissionsmodelingtobetterdeterminewhetherairemissionsfromthecomplexcouldadverselyimpactthehealthofmariettaresidents(agencyforToxicsubstancesandDiseaseRegistry,2004a,b).

    Drinking Water.InJanuary,theePapublishedadrinkingwaterhealthadvisoryformanganese,whichrecommendedthereductionofmanganeseconcentrationstoorbelowePassecondarymaximumcontaminantlevel(smCL)of0.050milligramperliter(U.s.environmentalProtectionagency,2004a,p.2).ThemanganesesmCLisaguidelinebasedonaestheticqualities,suchasstainingandtaste,andisnotfederallyenforceable.

    Stockpile.TherevisedannualmaterialsPlan(amP)forfiscalyear2004thattheDefensenationalstockpileCenter(DnsC)oftheDefenseLogisticsagencyissuedonmay4coveredtheperiodfromOctober,2003,throughseptember30,2004.UnderthisamP,themaximumdisposalauthorityformanganesematerialswas226,796tformetallurgical-gradeore;45,359tforthemanganeseferrogroup;36,287tforchemical-gradeore;27,26tfornaturalbattery-gradeore;2,732tforsyntheticmanganesedioxide;and,84tforelectrolyticmanganesemetal(DefensenationalstockpileCenter,2004).ThemaximumdisposalauthorityunderanamPisthemaximumquantityofmaterialthatmaybedisposedinagivenfiscalyearasauthorizedbyCongress;thesemaydifferfromthedisposalauthorityquantitieslistedintable2.

    For2004,disposals(reportedsales)ofmanganesematerialsannouncedbytheDnsCtotaled280,40tforstockpile-grademetallurgical-gradeore;37,37tforchemical-gradeore;25,466tforhigh-carbonferromanganese;24,604tfornaturalbattery-gradeore;and43tforsyntheticmanganesedioxide.

    ThenDsphysicalinventoryofmanganesematerials,ingrossweight,indicatedthatallinventoriesdecreasedexcept

  • 48.2 U.s.geOLOgICaLsURveymIneRaLsyeaRBOOk2004

    forsyntheticmanganesedioxide(unchanged).Thedecreasesconsistedof209,402tforstockpile-grademetallurgicalore;77,487tfornonstockpile-grademetallurgicalore;73,485tforchemical-gradeore;48,384tforhigh-carbonferromanganese;3,42tfornaturalbattery-gradeore;and454tforelectrolyticmanganesemetal(DefensenationalstockpileCenter,unpub.data,December2004).In2004,theestimatedmanganesecontentofmanganeseinventoriesbeingheldbythegovernmentatyearendwasloweredbyabout22%to80,000t.Onthebasisofmanganesecontent,thetotalremaininginventorywasaboutthree-fourthsofthecurrentnationalapparentconsumption.

    Production

    Ore and Concentrate.TheonlymineproductionofmanganeseintheUnitedstatesconsistedofsmallamountsofmanganiferousmaterialhavinganaturalmanganesecontentoflessthan5%.ThistypeofmaterialwasproducedinsouthCarolinaforuseincoloringbrick.

    Ferroalloys, Metal, and Synthetic Dioxide.Productionstatisticsforthesematerialswereconcealedtoavoiddisclosingcompanyproprietarydata.Domesticproducersofmanganesematerialsarelistedintable3.Inmarch,kerr-mcgeeChemicalLLCrestarteditselectrolyticmanganesedioxide(emD)plantthathadbeenshutdownsinceseptember2003.InOctober,HighlandersalloyLLCresumedproductionofitssilicomanganeseplantthathadbeenshutdownsinceJanuary2003.

    Consumption, Uses, and Stocks

    Datarelatingtomanganeseenduseandcertainotherinformationhaveindicatedthatmetallurgicalapplicationsaccountformostdomesticmanganeseconsumption,85%to90%ofwhichhasbeenforsteelmaking.ReportedU.s.oreconsumptionin2004indicatedthatunitconsumptionofmanganeseinironmaking,whichcouldnotbepublishedtoavoiddisclosingcompanyproprietarydata,increasedbylessthan0%fromthatof2003toremainarelativelyminorcomponentofoverallmanganeseuseinsteelmaking.Reportedconsumption(grossweight)offerromanganese,silicomanganese,andmanganesemetalincreasedfromthatin2003,by27%,20%,and%,respectively(table4).BecauseoftheincompletenessofreportingtotheU.s.geologicalsurvey(Usgs)voluntaryconsumptionsurvey,thefiguresinthistablearemorerepresentativeofrelativeratherthanabsolutequantities.

    Thecombinationoftheindicatedconsumptionpatternwithestimatesofapparentconsumption,onagross-weightbasis,suggeststhatmanganeseunitconsumptioninsteelmakingin2004wasabout7.9kilogramspermetrictonsorabout2.5timesthatcalculatedonthebasisofreportedconsumption.Thislevelwasthehighestinhistoryasaresultofsignificantincreasesinapparentconsumptionofferromanganese,silicomanganese,andmanganesemetal.Increasesinapparentconsumptionwereattributabletosignificantincreasesinimportsofthesematerialsthatwereeitherputintostocks(importerorconsumers)orconsumed,andnotreportedtotheUsgs.

    Relativelysmallquantitiesofmanganesewereusedforalloyingwithnonferrousmetals,chieflyinthealuminumindustryasmanganese-aluminumbriquettesthattypicallycontainedeither75%or85%manganese.manganeseplaysanimportantalloyingroleinaluminumtoincreasecorrosionresistance.Themostimportantuseofaluminum-manganesealloysisinthemanufactureofsoftdrinkcans.Otherusesincludeautomobiles,cookware,radiators,androofing(Harbenandothers,998,p.69).

    Comparativelysmallamountsofmanganesewereuseddomesticallyinanimalfeed,brickcoloring,drycellbatteries,fertilizers,andmanganesechemicals.Thesewereamongthemanynonmetallurgicalapplicationsofmanganese(Weiss,977,p.22-323;Harbenandothers,998,p.80-05).Thesourceofmanganeseunitsfortheseapplicationswasmainlymanganeseore.

    In2004,domesticconsumptionofmanganeseoreincreasedby%to44,000t,whilecorrespondingyearendstocksincreasedby2%to59,000t(table).Toavoiddisclosingcompanyproprietarydata,thesefiguresexcludetherelativelysmallquantitiesassociatedwithironmakingandcannotbedisaggregatedintoend-usesegments.

    Dataondomesticconsumptionofmanganeseore,exclusiveofthatconsumedwithinthesteelindustry,arecollectedbymeansofthemanganeseOreandProductssurvey.In2004,2firmswerecanvassedthatprocessoreorhadprocessedoreinthepastbysuchmethodsasgrindingandroastingorthatconsumeitinthemanufactureofdrycellbatteriesandmanganeseferroalloys,metal,andchemicals.Ofthose2companies,8consumedmanganeseoreintheirprocesses.ThecollectiveconsumptionofthesefirmsisbelievedtoconstituteallofthemanganeseoreconsumptionintheUnitedstates,exclusiveofthatbythesteelindustry.Full-yearresponsesorabasisuponwhichtoestimatethedatawereobtainedfromallofthesefirmsfor2004.

    Prices

    For2004,ifthepriceindexofmanganeseinmetallurgical-gradeoreissetat.0,thenthecorrespondingpriceindexpermanganeseunitwasapproximately6.9forsilicomanganese,6.7formanganesemetal,6.5formedium-carbonferromanganese,and5.8forhigh-carbonferromanganese.allfactorsincreasedcomparedwiththosein2003.Thefactorsarebasedonyear-averagepricesforferroalloysderivedfrompriceslistedinPlattsmetalsWeekandformetalasgiveninRyansnotes(northamericantransactionprices).Thepriceindicesforhigh-carbonferromanganeseandsilicomanganesewerecalculatedbasedonthetypicalmanganesecontentofbothmaterials78%forstandardhigh-carbonferromanganeseand66%forsilicomanganese.

    Manganese Ore.TheUsgsestimatedtheaveragepriceofmetallurgical-gradeor

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