Building Resilience to Natural Disasters: Lessons from Indonesia

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May 16 in Parallel Session 3E "Earthquakes, Hurricanes, Floods & More: Dealing with Natural Disasters". Presented by Anita Kendrick, World Bank

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  • 1. Building Resilience to Natural Disasters: Lessons from Indonesias Experience in Post- Disaster Recovery Anita Kendrick Governance and Environment Consultant World Bank, Indonesia IFPRI 2020 Conference May 15-17, Addis Ababa Ethiopia

2. Indian Ocean Tsunami: December 26, 2004 A 9.1 magnitude earthquake triggered the deadliest tsunami in history Aceh most severely affected : 220,000 people dead or missing 635,000 displaced 4,000 villages affected (directly or indirectly) Livelihoods in fishing, agriculture, small businesses destroyed Local governments and communities decimated Complex Post conflict context Damage estimated at US$6.2 billion 3. Indonesia is one of the most disaster- prone countries in the world 4. For almost all of Indonesia, exposure to disaster risk is high Probability/Risk: varies significantly Climate change: increases risks Exposure: high Preparedness: reduces vulnerability, reduces losses 5. A Global Response to the Tsunami Unprecedented global response involving many actors: Local communities first responders National government, military, civil society & private sector International community: Foreign governments and militaries, UN Agencies, humanitarian organizations, private sector and individuals (900+ organizations) Pledges of over $6.7 billion 6. Need for Coordination Key role of Indonesian Government: Coordination of the response Created Aceh Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Agency (the BRR) Requested support for donor coordination creation of the Multi Donor Fund for Aceh and Nias pooled $650 million from 15 donors Government led partnership (government, donors, UN, World Bank) Model was replicated for Java earthquake in 2006 (JRF) 7. Acehs Recovery: Innovation and Learning No one was prepared to deal with this scale of disaster All kind of organizations involved---not just the usual humanitarian actors Resources and scale allowed space for innovationAceh became a learning laboratory for disaster response and recovery Build Back Betterallowed room to think beyond immediate needs, including more focus on disaster preparedness 8. Key Lesson: Adopt a Phased Approach 1st phase for speed: most urgent recovery needs Housing, logistics and transport links, debris cleanup 2nd phase for quality: more complex needs Major infrastructure, environment, capacity building 3rd phase for sustainability: Transition to long term Economic development and improve livelihoods, disaster risk reduction, exit strategies Cant achieve everything at once---but many disaster recovery situations dont have resources for phase 3 Meet evolving needs based on balancing speed, quality and sustainability: 9. Key lessons learned: Speed vs. Quality 10. Key lessons learned: Capacity Building Capacity Building Activities require a longer time horizon relative to other Recovery/Reconstruction Activitiesneed to factor in to project design 11. The most important lesson learned from MDF-JRF: Communities can take the lead in their own recovery 12. . Community-based housing programs in Aceh and Java: delivered housing cheaper and higher quality (community members do the work themselves and the quality control) adopted by the GoI as its reconstruction approach high rates of beneficiary satisfaction and ownership very good targeting of beneficiaries 13. Community-based planning and infrastructure reconstruction: such as access roads and bridges, markets, water supply, schools, drainage, retaining walls, evacuation routes 14. Community-based Disaster Risk Reduction --DRR can be built into the housing program from the start--- people will adopt and use these techniques in their own building ---Communities can map risks and prepare for future disasters 15. Indonesia emerged from the Tsunami better prepared to manage disasters National Disaster Management Agency and strategy Provincial & local Disaster Mgt Agencies Tested models for disaster recovery in place Skilled people with experience in disaster management Communities more prepared to mitigate the impacts and cope with results of disasters 16. Dont Just Rebuild Build Back Better (GoIs motto) AND Build Resilience: aim to strengthen the national and local Governments and communities capacities to prepare for and respond to future emergencies

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