Buddhist Meditation for Transf

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<ul><li><p>8/6/2019 Buddhist Meditation for Transf</p><p> 1/8</p><p>BUDDHIST MEDITATION FOR TRANSFORMATI0N OFCONSCIOUNESS</p><p>Dr.Bhikkhu Bodhipala,</p><p>Department of Religion, Pali and Buddhist Studies, Tamilnadu Thelogical Seminary, Madurai-625 016</p><p>Whether so-called well evolved mankind is a refined one or not? The answer should be if we are not hypocrites as far as psychological point of view NO.</p><p>We are the human race ignorant in many aspects both in science and technology as well as inspiritual standard and every one is engulfed with the three basic impurities of greed, delusion andhatred. As long as when the mankind suffers from all sorts of negative impacts due to these basic</p><p>defilements that precisely means man still grows and evolves despite there is a vast advancementin the field of science and technology. When science technology grows man lives in the peripheral level addicted to sensual enjoyments ultimately grow more self-centered, greedy, andeventually manifests as war and world war.</p><p>Buddhism is nothing but science of mind. Still the attainment of Nibbana, the enlightenmentevery one is a sort of insane person. Now-a-days like a food, meditation is a must for well beingof mankind to make a peaceful society thus making a warless world. Modern life style should notto be a grudge between fellow being, natural things, environment, neighboring nation, as well asneighbor planet.</p><p>So the Buddha somewhat two thousand six hundred years back preached his philosophy in a nut-</p><p>shell as follows,</p><p>Refrain from all evil doings,</p><p>Promote all the wholesome actions,</p><p>Purify the defiled mind .These are the teachings of all the Buddhas</p><p>Purification of the mind would be fulfilled only by practicing meditation. Unfortunately in thesedays all kinds of meditative practices treated just as an alternative system of medicine thanspiritual pursuit. So, according to modern interpretations any system of meditation is clinicalobject rather than a spiritual quest. But the Buddha never considered his system of meditation as</p><p>mere a kind of antidote for physical ailment. If a system of spiritual exercise practiced just a pathological remedy it is just misleading and giving a wrong interpretation of spiritual system.The history Buddhism proves on any occasion The Buddha never taught the populace a systemof meditation just to cure a disease. In his Satipatthana discourse he is very clear.</p><p>The Buddha thus opens his mouth There is unique path for the purification of beings; for thecessation of pain; the attainment of knowledge and for the realization of Nibbanic peace. Theseare called the Foundation on Mindfulness. So the Buddha is very clear that he guaranteeing only</p></li><li><p>8/6/2019 Buddhist Meditation for Transf</p><p> 2/8</p><p> Nibbana not a physical cure. So the Buddha is very clear in his approach that the purpose of meditation is only for the enlightenment. Even some Gurus of modern days guarantee theinnocent people for earning money through practicing meditation. This is utterly unethical and asin. Such gurus exploit the public ho already in crave of money by assuring such false hood. Somediation should be motivated for supra mundane purpose not for a mundane purpose. On the</p><p>other hand meditation is practiced for get rid of certain mental defects as follows,i) For removing tension, depressionii) For mental peaceiii) For calming the mindiv) For improving memory power and concentration in studiesv) For improving managerial skills etc.,</p><p>If the human mind is free from basic defilements, the mind is set right. The Buddha says if themind is set right, everything is set right.</p><p>So, the purpose of practicing meditation should be for purifying the mind in order basic</p><p>impurities. When the mind is purified, it is set right; this is the final goal Nibbana. The term Nibbana is a combination of two Pali words, Nir + vana , nir means no, or not or ceased to exist,vana means craving or greed or desire. So the term Nibbana means cessation of greed or cravingor desire. If a mind is freed from desire, delusion and greed it achieves Enlightenment witheringall the impurities of mind.</p><p>BASIC DEFILEMENTS : Buddhism classified the mental impurities into fourteen types.Otherwise there are fourteen unwholesome factors which influences a person to or to commit anunwholesome deed.</p><p>i) Moha ------ Delusionii) Ahirika ------ Shamelessness to do an immoral deediii) Anottappa--- Utter recklessness, not having a normal dread i.e no fear </p><p>to commit a wrong deediv) Uddhacca---- Distraction of the mind, restlessness and absent mindedv) Lobha--------- Greed, craving, desirevi) Miccha Ditthi--- Wrong viewvii) Mana------------ Conceit, excessive pride in oneself viii) Dosa ----------- hatred, anger,ix) Issa --------------- Envy, discontent due to others possessionsx) Maccharia------- Jealousy, selfishnessxi) Kukkucca--------- worrying about discontentment, not to be satisfied</p><p>withxii) Thina ------------- Sloth, laziness, not to be activexiii) Middha ---------- Torpor, slow in all actionsxiv) Vicikiccha ------- Sceptical doubt about good action, about charity and</p><p>about karmic effects</p><p>The above said fourteen factors are shortly called mind defilements. As long as if one is engulfedwith even a single factor of these defilements he is not a freed man. An action either it is amental action or a verbal or a physical deed which is done on the influence of any one of these</p></li><li><p>8/6/2019 Buddhist Meditation for Transf</p><p> 3/8</p><p>factors; it will be obviously an unwholesome act which would cause to make a negative karmiceffect. Further more such deeds would inevitably injure others or the doer himself and eventuallymaking disharmony among the fellow beings.</p><p>Likewise, as described above there are some wholesome factors also which are fourteen innumber as follows, which are responsible for arising of wholesome consciousness.</p><p>i) Saddha ------------------ faith or confidence in a good deed or Dharmaii) Sati ----------------------- Mindfulness or awarenessiii) Hiri ---------------------- Moral shame to commit a sinful activ) Ottappa --------------- Moral fear to commit a sinv) Alobha ----------------- Non-greed, generosityvi) Amoha ----------------- Non-delusion, wisdomvii) Metta ------------------ Loving kindnessviii) Karuna ----------------- Compassionix) Adosa ------------------ Non-hatred , good willx) Mudita ---------------- Appreciative joy in others well beingxi) Upekkha -------------- Equanimityxii) Samma vaca --------- Right speechxiii) Samma kammanta -- Right actionxiv) Samma ajiva --------- Right livelihood</p><p>These fourteen wholesome mental factors protect one from the evils and transforms onesconsciousness and elevate one to higher spiritual level. If a person acts on the influence of thesewholesome mental factors all action shall be wholesome action resulting good karmic effects, notonly helping the doer himself but also the fellow beings eventually making a peaceful societyand warless world.</p><p>It is very important thing to note that these two sets of fourteen factors should not be treated asantidotes for negative factors or matched and unwholesome factors should not be replaced by thewholesome factors but there should be two separate strivings to remove first unwholesomefactors from the mind and simultaneously to cultivate wholesome factors. So according to theBuddha the first set is concerned with to refrain from doing all unwholesome deeds and thesecond one is concerned with to promote all wholesome deeds. Bur for purifying ones mindone has to practice meditation without practicing purification of the mind is impossible.Accordingly meditation practice helps to remove the unwholesome factors complementing thecultivation wholesome deeds.</p><p>BUDDHIST MEDITATION</p><p>The term Meditation has its own meaning, as well as the term Buddhist meditation also has itsown meaning differing from the common usage and from the other system of meditation. After his enlightenment for forty five years of his missionary life had been teaching the ancient</p><p> populace of India dealing with the subjects all walks of human life such as sociology, ethics,morality, politics, analysis of major four elements, five senses, atomism, logic, occult science,metaphysics, philosophy finally mind training, the practice of meditation or mind purification.</p></li><li><p>8/6/2019 Buddhist Meditation for Transf</p><p> 4/8</p><p>As already mentioned that Buddhism is nothing but a science of study of human mind as suchmeditation obviously means mind training purported for Nibbana, the enlightenment. Thissystem of meditation practice can be categorized into two broad divisions according to the natureof practice and its results. The first system or method is called SAMATHA BHAVANA and theother one is called VIPASSANA BHAVANA . Samatha Bhavana means concentration of the</p><p>mind in Buddhism there forty subjects for practicing meditation. In Vipassana system there isonly one method technically called in Pali Satipatthana which means insight meditation.</p><p>The difference between Samatha and Vipassana (Concentration and Insight) is the former one isfocusing the mind on only one meditative objective thus stilling the mind. The result will besuppressing the unwholesome factors of the mind but not be completely eradicated whereasVipassana will remove all the fetters and the practitioner shall be freed from the impuritiesultimately one attains Full-Enlightenment, Nibbana. In concentration method i.e in SamthaBhavana the defilements are ignored instead of removing them as such unwholesome factors aresuppressed when and if concentration practice is stopped the defilements take their own coursewhen time arrives they cause one to fall from righteousness.</p><p>But Vipassana is an insight meditation which helps a practitioner to remove mental impuritiesand fetters. This system of meditation helps the practitioner to identify the faculties of the mindwhether they are wholesome or unwholesome. In Vipassana, the meditation practitioner does not</p><p> perform anything instead he watches, sees, knows, aware of the actualities as they are, if there isa wrong thought he knows it is wrong thought, likewise if there is a good thought he knows thatit is a good thought. In Buddhist point of view Meditation is not a struggle not to beoverwhelmed and to conquer anything in a struggle. There is no performance either by body or </p><p> by mind such as expecting something, making a thrust, not rejecting, not ignoring a thing.</p><p>According to this system of meditation, there are only two choices what we have to do, if youwant to ignore your mind and focus it on one object it will be Samatha Bhavana on the other </p><p>hand if you want to develop your Insight meditation Vipassana, Vipassana Gnana one has to be aware of all on goings that all happen out of ones body, on the body and within the mind.Shortly, according to Buddhist system of meditation, it is either concentrating the mind or knowing the mind.</p><p>(PRACTICAL SESSIONS ACCORDING TO MAHA SATIPATTHANA SUTTAM)</p><p>Tripitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Digha Nikaya, Dicourse</p><p>Here begins the practical sessions of Buddhist Meditation according to Buddhasdiscourse called Maha Satipatthana Sutta. In his discourse the Buddha begins the</p><p> practice of ANAPANA SATI, Ana means inhaling and Apana means exhaling</p><p>means concentrating the flow of inhaling and exhaling from the name of the onecould understand that this practice is a Samatha method. The Buddha begins withSamatha method first in his discourse.</p><p>PRE REQIISITE : For practicing any kind of meditation we need certainarrangements.</p><p>i) Meditation Cell: Cell means primarily it should be calmand quiet place, it may be confined small room which is</p></li><li><p>8/6/2019 Buddhist Meditation for Transf</p><p> 5/8</p><p>technically called cloister, an open place, a park, foot of a tree, shortly speaking any serene place.</p><p>ii) Posture: The Buddha recommends cross-legged posturecalled lotus posture.</p><p>iii) Any convenient posture a chair, a stool, cushion in</p><p>which the head and spine should be kept in the perpendicular position.iv) The duration of a sitting should be at least 20 minutes, if </p><p>the practitioner wants to observe the improvements andthe maximum can be even 7 hours in a day.</p><p>Anapana sati: According to the words of the Buddha: (1) A disciple (either a monk or house hold man) having retired to the forest or to the foot of a tree or a lonely</p><p> place , sits with legs crossed (lotus posture )the body held erect intent onmindfulness. (2) Consciously he inhales, while inhaling a long breath he knows thatI am inhaling a long inbreathe .Likewise while exhaling a long breath he knowsvery well. (3) If it is short knows very well that either inhale or exhale.(4) The</p><p> practitioner is mindful about his natural flow of inhaling and exhaling as suchwithout making any thrust on natural flow without rupturing it.(5)The practitioner ismindful of his natural flow of inhaling and exhaling as such without making anythrust in it . The practitioner not supposed to do anything on the breath but just towatch it.</p><p>The Buddha further explains that a disciple should watch the whole body of the breath that means he has to be aware of beginning of the breath, processing of the breath and finally the end of the each breath either inhaling or exhaling.</p><p>The Buddhas example: Just as a skilful turner or a turners apprentice (Here theBuddha mentions about the wheel in a pottery which is rotated while making aearthen pot or jar) when the turner makes a long turn he knows that it is a long turnlikewise if it is short he knows very well that it is a short turn. So as to every breathshould be noted. In Buddhist yoga system inhale and exhale are taken as separate</p><p> breathes. Thus the practitioner is aware of the arising and perishing of the each breath.</p><p>The purpose of meditation practice is to attain Enlightenment. ANAPANASATI is a Samatha method i.e concentration. In this practice the basicdefilements and unwholesome factors will not be eradicated but suppressed.As such one has to practice Vipassana Bhavana for purifying the mindwithout stain of impurities, so that one can attain enlightenment. But for the</p><p> beginners Anapana Sati is always recommended as a preliminary trainingwhich would help the practitioner to develop Insight faculty theVIPASSANA GNANA . After mastering over the training of Anapana Satione can practice Vipassana with full comprehension, without deviating fromthe Buddhas instruction.Whether it is a fortunate thing or not in modern times Buddhas Vipassana istaught in different ways and methods claiming that each way is traditional</p></li><li><p>8/6/2019 Buddhist Meditation for Transf</p><p> 6/8</p><p>one and Buddhas. In Myanmar Vipassana is taught according to theunderstanding of Satipatthana by every Guru even prefixing their personalname telling it so and so method of Vipassana. The practitioner shouldunderstand the truth that Vipassana is unique system of meditation taught bythe Buddha somewhat 2600 years ago which is entirely a different system of </p><p>meditation of those days in ancient India. The Buddha being a scientific person starts his training from t...</p></li></ul>

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