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Buddhism, Buddha, Religion, philosophy, Story of Buddha, Religion, faith, culture, Mahayana, Theravada, Vajrayana, Dalai Lama, Mindfulness, Meditation,

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  • 1. Buddhism Module 4

2. 1.Compared to Hinduism and the appeal to gods, goddesses, and/or God for help in this life, what did Buddha say people need to do? 2. By emphasizing the individuals responsibility for their own enlightenment, which caste of Hindus were most threatened by Buddha and why were they threatened? 3.According to Buddhism what is called a soul is actually something else--a combination of five mental or physical aggregates: the physical body, feelings, understanding, will, and consciousness. Buddha thought that since all of these qualities are constantly changing, its obvious they arent permanent. How is this concept of Buddhas anatman (no atman) different from Hinduisms concept of Atman? 4.What are some of the basic differences betweenTheravada and Mahayana Buddhism using these categories: Theravada Mahayana Conservatism (closest to the doctrines of the original Buddha) Who Buddha was Monks vs. lay people How a person reaches the goals of religion 3 3. Brahmins and the caste system Brahman-Atman Maya RajaYoga 4 4. Born the son of a prince, 563 BCE, in then-Hindu Nepal. Siddhartha (wish-fulfiller) Gautama was his given name.What was his caste? 5. Birth scene of Buddha. As you watch, think about whether his birth story follows stage one of the monomyth! Little Buddha - Birth of Buddha http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NdF46kQupKQ 6 Little Buddha 6. The Life of Buddha An old man A sick man A corpse A Sannyasin The Four Passing Sights: 7. Siddhartha, at 29, renounced wealth and position, left his wife & baby, shaved his head & put on a coarse robe. 8 Renunciation. 8. The Life of Buddha The Great Going Forth: Siddhartha leaves the palace. He begins extreme ascetic practices, but shifts to the middle way. What is the significance of the middle way? 9. 10 Life of Buddha He is tempted by the demon Mara. He awakens and becomes a Buddha. He founds an order of monks and nuns. Film Clip: The story Of India Part 2, 8 minutes in (LanXang) 10. 11 1. To live is to experience dukkha. Dukkha means a wheel whose axle is off-center. Life is askew. The Four Noble Truths 11. 12 The Four Noble Truths 2.Dukkha comes from desire, tanha: the craving for private fulfillment, even at the expense of others. Tanha can also mean the craving for things to be different from what they are. 12. 13 3. Craving which leads to suffering can be stopped 4. Release from suffering, nirvana, is possible and may be attained by following the Noble Eightfold Path. The Four Noble Truths 13. The Noble Eightfold Path 1.Right understanding 2. Right intention 3. Right speech 4. Right action 5. Right work 6. Right effort 7. Right mindfulness 8. Right contemplation -Understanding the 4 NobleTruths -Truly wanting enlightenment. -Cultivate truth and charity in speaking, eliminate gossip, chatter,etc. -Do not kill, steal, lie, be unchaste, drink or take drugs: do not hurt others. -Work at jobs that promote life. -Steady, forward progress on the path. -All we are is the result of what we have thought. Awareness of actions thoughts, words. -Meditation leading to samadhi (inner peace) and nirvana. Handout 1 14. 15 Enlightenment What is enlightenment? 1. Detachment from sense objects and calming the passions; 2. Non-reasoning and "simple" concentration 3. Dispassionate mindfulness and consciousness, and 4. Pure awareness and peace without pain, elation, or depression in the here and now. 15. TheThree Jewels: the Buddha, the Dharma, the Sangha. An anti-authority religion; Buddha wanted to break the priests monopoly: Do not accept what you hear by report. Be lamps unto yourselves. A religion devoid of ritual: Buddha said Brahmanic rituals were just superstition, irrelevant to the tough job of ego-reduction. Non-theistic: The point of life is to work hard to stop suffering, not to speculate about God. 16. Anti-tradition: Do not go by what is handed downWhen you know, These teachings are good or not good, only then accept or reject them. Intense self-effort: There is a path to the end of suffering.Tread it! Rejected the supernatural: By this you shall know a man is not my disciple- that he tries to work a miracle. 17 17. Buddhism as a Reaction to Hinduism: Hinduism Caste-bound (Which caste on top?) Authoritative? Ritualistic? Theistic (which kind?) Traditional? Self effort? Supernatural? Buddhism 18. Buddhism takes a realistic, rational view of existence. It underscores he impermanence of all things: change. Anatman: No permanent identity: No permanent soul or self. Samsara: Life as never fully satisfying because even pleasure is fleeting. Nirvana: enlightenment, freedom from the ego in this life and rebirth are possible through effort. 19. How is nirvana different from moksha? Moksha is union with Brahman, the Atman becomes one with Brahman, the wheel of life after life (samsara) completely stops Buddhism maintains that if we still have delusion, greed, and aversion, and passions are not extinguished, we generate karma. (We are the 5 aggregates: body, feeling, understanding, will & consciousness). Because we accumulate karma (good and bad), there is a next lifetime in which the karma will take form. Nirvana is the state in in which one has attained disinterested wisdom and compassion, but isnt the goal at the end of lives; it can happen here and now. 20 20. Buddhist, Hindu, or Both? Handout 2: Venn Diagram 21. 22 Theravada Buddhism The Way of the Elders Conservative, philosophical: emphasizes simplicity, meditation, detachment. A monks life offers a path to nirvana. Meditation and Detachment: qualities all Buddhists must cultivate, but Theravada empasizes it. 22. 23 Theravada Buddhism Theravada teachings are called the Pali Canon and Tripitaka, three baskets, because the teachings were divided into three categories: Vinaya: the rules for monastic life Sutras: sayings of the Buddha Abhidharma: systematized the doctrine presented in the sutras. 23. Theravada Buddhism in Thailand 24. The Ten Fetters in Theravada Buddhism 1. Belief in our individuality 2. Doubt about being able to become a Buddha 3. Believing that sacrifice and ritual will save 4. Impure desire 5. Anger 6. Desire for rebirth in a world of form 7. Desire for rebirth in a world without form 8. Arrogance 9. Spiritual pride 10. Ignorance If these are broken, arahatship and Nirvana are attained. Apart from consciousness, no diverse truths exist. Mere sophistry declares this true, and that view false. from the Sutta-Nipata 25. 26 Buddhism II Module 6 26. Homework Questions from the Dhammapada 1.In chapter 3 what does Buddha suggest we do with our minds? What does he compare the mind to, or what is the nature of the mind, according to Buddha? 2. In Chapter 6, Buddha suggests that we surround ourselves with what kind of people? Why? The last line, wise people fashion themselves, means what? How is this idea related to having virtuous people as friends? Do you agree with these thoughts or not? Homework Questions from the Diamond Sutra 1. What is ordinary perception (or the ordinary way of thinking) about ourselves like according to Buddha? What is the higher knowledge that a bodhisattva has like? Discuss, in writing, what a boddhisattva's behavior might be like in some concrete situations like shopping, an emergency, or an argument. Do you think it is possible to be a bodhisattva or do you think there are bodhisattvas on earth now? 27 27. Hinduism speaks with the language of eternality. What does Krishna tell Arjuna about death? What does Lord Yama tell Nachiketas? In the philosophical forms of Hinduism (Jnana and Raja Yoga), humans seek a unified vision of Brahman, God, through meditation and reflection: at base we are all Brahman, all one. Can we ever be separate from Brahman? We might feel that, but it is because we havent worked on our perception. When we become dazzled by the creation and not working on being one with the creator we are trapped in maya. For humans, the senses can be a trap or be used to reach God. The karma we generate in our life sticks to our atman or soul and is reborn along with our new body. We come back again and again until we do the hard work to realize we are at one with Brahman, or in other words become enlightened.. 28 28. In the original, Theravadan, philosophical form Buddha maintains that there is no eternal soul, no God within in us; that it is all a mental construction. Liberation comes from understanding and experiencing that every single thing is impermanent and changing. There is nothing to hold onto, nothing eternal. All we have is this moment. If we want to not suffer we must work on liberating ourselves here and now. Once we truly understand impermanence, we can be detached from the intense ups and downs of life, and stop craving for things to be other than what they are, stop suffering. Some people might call this state radical acceptance. The Buddhist term is nirvanathe sense of a separate self or ego is absolutely gone. Through the laws of karma our intentions, good and bad, are imprinted on our mind, and these mental states persist through rebirths the skandas can be called streams of consciousness. 29 29. Though science now confirms that nuerochemical processes produce subjective experiences, and that people do have brain waves, there is no scientific proof that skandas, leftover energy from the dead persons consciousness, exist. In physics, there is a conservation law of energy which says that in any physical process the total energy before must equal the total energy when the process is concluded the universe keeps a set of books that must balance for every energy interaction. What is void or emptiness or sunyatta? Emptiness is the insight that there is nothing in the universe which exists as an independent entity in its own right, even us. It also refers to a meditative state. Quantum physics says th