Buddhism lecture

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Buddhism, Buddha, Religion, philosophy, Story of Buddha, Religion, faith, culture, Mahayana, Theravada, Vajrayana, Dalai Lama, Mindfulness, Meditation,

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<ul><li> 1. Buddhism Module 4 </li></ul><p> 2. 1.Compared to Hinduism and the appeal to gods, goddesses, and/or God for help in this life, what did Buddha say people need to do? 2. By emphasizing the individuals responsibility for their own enlightenment, which caste of Hindus were most threatened by Buddha and why were they threatened? 3.According to Buddhism what is called a soul is actually something else--a combination of five mental or physical aggregates: the physical body, feelings, understanding, will, and consciousness. Buddha thought that since all of these qualities are constantly changing, its obvious they arent permanent. How is this concept of Buddhas anatman (no atman) different from Hinduisms concept of Atman? 4.What are some of the basic differences betweenTheravada and Mahayana Buddhism using these categories: Theravada Mahayana Conservatism (closest to the doctrines of the original Buddha) Who Buddha was Monks vs. lay people How a person reaches the goals of religion 3 3. Brahmins and the caste system Brahman-Atman Maya RajaYoga 4 4. Born the son of a prince, 563 BCE, in then-Hindu Nepal. Siddhartha (wish-fulfiller) Gautama was his given name.What was his caste? 5. Birth scene of Buddha. As you watch, think about whether his birth story follows stage one of the monomyth! Little Buddha - Birth of Buddha http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NdF46kQupKQ 6 Little Buddha 6. The Life of Buddha An old man A sick man A corpse A Sannyasin The Four Passing Sights: 7. Siddhartha, at 29, renounced wealth and position, left his wife &amp; baby, shaved his head &amp; put on a coarse robe. 8 Renunciation. 8. The Life of Buddha The Great Going Forth: Siddhartha leaves the palace. He begins extreme ascetic practices, but shifts to the middle way. What is the significance of the middle way? 9. 10 Life of Buddha He is tempted by the demon Mara. He awakens and becomes a Buddha. He founds an order of monks and nuns. Film Clip: The story Of India Part 2, 8 minutes in (LanXang) 10. 11 1. To live is to experience dukkha. Dukkha means a wheel whose axle is off-center. Life is askew. The Four Noble Truths 11. 12 The Four Noble Truths 2.Dukkha comes from desire, tanha: the craving for private fulfillment, even at the expense of others. Tanha can also mean the craving for things to be different from what they are. 12. 13 3. Craving which leads to suffering can be stopped 4. Release from suffering, nirvana, is possible and may be attained by following the Noble Eightfold Path. The Four Noble Truths 13. The Noble Eightfold Path 1.Right understanding 2. Right intention 3. Right speech 4. Right action 5. Right work 6. Right effort 7. Right mindfulness 8. Right contemplation -Understanding the 4 NobleTruths -Truly wanting enlightenment. -Cultivate truth and charity in speaking, eliminate gossip, chatter,etc. -Do not kill, steal, lie, be unchaste, drink or take drugs: do not hurt others. -Work at jobs that promote life. -Steady, forward progress on the path. -All we are is the result of what we have thought. Awareness of actions thoughts, words. -Meditation leading to samadhi (inner peace) and nirvana. Handout 1 14. 15 Enlightenment What is enlightenment? 1. Detachment from sense objects and calming the passions; 2. Non-reasoning and "simple" concentration 3. Dispassionate mindfulness and consciousness, and 4. Pure awareness and peace without pain, elation, or depression in the here and now. 15. TheThree Jewels: the Buddha, the Dharma, the Sangha. An anti-authority religion; Buddha wanted to break the priests monopoly: Do not accept what you hear by report. Be lamps unto yourselves. A religion devoid of ritual: Buddha said Brahmanic rituals were just superstition, irrelevant to the tough job of ego-reduction. Non-theistic: The point of life is to work hard to stop suffering, not to speculate about God. 16. Anti-tradition: Do not go by what is handed downWhen you know, These teachings are good or not good, only then accept or reject them. Intense self-effort: There is a path to the end of suffering.Tread it! Rejected the supernatural: By this you shall know a man is not my disciple- that he tries to work a miracle. 17 17. Buddhism as a Reaction to Hinduism: Hinduism Caste-bound (Which caste on top?) Authoritative? Ritualistic? Theistic (which kind?) Traditional? Self effort? Supernatural? Buddhism 18. Buddhism takes a realistic, rational view of existence. It underscores he impermanence of all things: change. Anatman: No permanent identity: No permanent soul or self. Samsara: Life as never fully satisfying because even pleasure is fleeting. Nirvana: enlightenment, freedom from the ego in this life and rebirth are possible through effort. 19. How is nirvana different from moksha? Moksha is union with Brahman, the Atman becomes one with Brahman, the wheel of life after life (samsara) completely stops Buddhism maintains that if we still have delusion, greed, and aversion, and passions are not extinguished, we generate karma. (We are the 5 aggregates: body, feeling, understanding, will &amp; consciousness). Because we accumulate karma (good and bad), there is a next lifetime in which the karma will take form. Nirvana is the state in in which one has attained disinterested wisdom and compassion, but isnt the goal at the end of lives; it can happen here and now. 20 20. Buddhist, Hindu, or Both? Handout 2: Venn Diagram 21. 22 Theravada Buddhism The Way of the Elders Conservative, philosophical: emphasizes simplicity, meditation, detachment. A monks life offers a path to nirvana. Meditation and Detachment: qualities all Buddhists must cultivate, but Theravada empasizes it. 22. 23 Theravada Buddhism Theravada teachings are called the Pali Canon and Tripitaka, three baskets, because the teachings were divided into three categories: Vinaya: the rules for monastic life Sutras: sayings of the Buddha Abhidharma: systematized the doctrine presented in the sutras. 23. Theravada Buddhism in Thailand 24. The Ten Fetters in Theravada Buddhism 1. Belief in our individuality 2. Doubt about being able to become a Buddha 3. Believing that sacrifice and ritual will save 4. Impure desire 5. Anger 6. Desire for rebirth in a world of form 7. Desire for rebirth in a world without form 8. Arrogance 9. Spiritual pride 10. Ignorance If these are broken, arahatship and Nirvana are attained. Apart from consciousness, no diverse truths exist. Mere sophistry declares this true, and that view false. from the Sutta-Nipata 25. 26 Buddhism II Module 6 26. Homework Questions from the Dhammapada 1.In chapter 3 what does Buddha suggest we do with our minds? What does he compare the mind to, or what is the nature of the mind, according to Buddha? 2. In Chapter 6, Buddha suggests that we surround ourselves with what kind of people? Why? The last line, wise people fashion themselves, means what? How is this idea related to having virtuous people as friends? Do you agree with these thoughts or not? Homework Questions from the Diamond Sutra 1. What is ordinary perception (or the ordinary way of thinking) about ourselves like according to Buddha? What is the higher knowledge that a bodhisattva has like? Discuss, in writing, what a boddhisattva's behavior might be like in some concrete situations like shopping, an emergency, or an argument. Do you think it is possible to be a bodhisattva or do you think there are bodhisattvas on earth now? 27 27. Hinduism speaks with the language of eternality. What does Krishna tell Arjuna about death? What does Lord Yama tell Nachiketas? In the philosophical forms of Hinduism (Jnana and Raja Yoga), humans seek a unified vision of Brahman, God, through meditation and reflection: at base we are all Brahman, all one. Can we ever be separate from Brahman? We might feel that, but it is because we havent worked on our perception. When we become dazzled by the creation and not working on being one with the creator we are trapped in maya. For humans, the senses can be a trap or be used to reach God. The karma we generate in our life sticks to our atman or soul and is reborn along with our new body. We come back again and again until we do the hard work to realize we are at one with Brahman, or in other words become enlightened.. 28 28. In the original, Theravadan, philosophical form Buddha maintains that there is no eternal soul, no God within in us; that it is all a mental construction. Liberation comes from understanding and experiencing that every single thing is impermanent and changing. There is nothing to hold onto, nothing eternal. All we have is this moment. If we want to not suffer we must work on liberating ourselves here and now. Once we truly understand impermanence, we can be detached from the intense ups and downs of life, and stop craving for things to be other than what they are, stop suffering. Some people might call this state radical acceptance. The Buddhist term is nirvanathe sense of a separate self or ego is absolutely gone. Through the laws of karma our intentions, good and bad, are imprinted on our mind, and these mental states persist through rebirths the skandas can be called streams of consciousness. 29 29. Though science now confirms that nuerochemical processes produce subjective experiences, and that people do have brain waves, there is no scientific proof that skandas, leftover energy from the dead persons consciousness, exist. In physics, there is a conservation law of energy which says that in any physical process the total energy before must equal the total energy when the process is concluded the universe keeps a set of books that must balance for every energy interaction. What is void or emptiness or sunyatta? Emptiness is the insight that there is nothing in the universe which exists as an independent entity in its own right, even us. It also refers to a meditative state. Quantum physics says the results of any observation seems to be determined in part by choices made by the observer and are linked to what is observed. All particles show subtle impermanence protons and neutrons in the nucleus are constantly exchanging mesons to hold themselves together, in the outer layers of atoms, electrons are never at a single location 30 30. 31 The Great Raft : nirvana is obtainable and possible for everyone. Compassion. Enlightenment is a call to compassion: A person must save himself by saving others. Emotion and the senses seen as helpful for finding nirvana in this life. Reality as impermanent is still considered a basic teaching by some Mahayana Buddhists. Meditation, the cultivation of the mind, is still important because enlightened minds manifest enlightened behavior. Mind and Reality in Buddhism http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F_ylwNB6R2c Rick Hanson - How To Change Your Brain http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tAv_CWz969g 31. 32 32. 34 Mahayana Buddhism Karuna: compassion, empathy, kindness. May all creatures be well and happy.' The bodhisattva: embodies compassion. A bodhisattva will refuse to fully enter nirvana in order to be reborn on earth to help others. Thich Nhat Hanh on Compassionate Listening http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lyUxYflkhzo Thich Nhat Hanh s Four Mantras http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UEUxFNkISnU 33. 35 34. 36 Mahayana Buddhism 36 Triyaka: The three-body doctrine of Buddha-nature: 1. Cosmic Buddha-nature permeates all things 2. It is our true nature that we need to recognize, and 3. All nature is a manifestation of Dharmakaya, or the sacred Buddha-nature. 35. Metta Meditation Sit comfortably, placing your awareness around your heart. Breathe deeply 4 or 5 times and think of how it feels to experience unconditional love. Say to yourself: May I be happy May I be well May I be at peace Think of someone you love. Someone very close to you. Then say ... May he/she be happy May he/she be well May he/she be at peace Next picture someone you feel neutral about, and say May he/she be happy May he/she be well May he she be at peace Now picture someone you dislike and say, May he/she be happy May he/she be well May he/she be at peace Then allow this feeling to radiate out further to anyone in the room with you.... May they be happy May they be well May they be at peace To everyone in your building, city, county or state... May they be happy May they be well May they be at peace ... and finally to everyone and everything in the world May they be happy May they be well May they be at peace Now just sit and be still for a few minutes. Rest in any feelings of loving-kindness that you feel. 36. Handout 1: Essay Assignment You have two possible essay assignment questions. Find 2 other students who chose the same question. In groups of three discuss and take notes about your ideas. For example, if you chose #1, tell your group the specific world event you chose, how you see tanha as having caused this problem, and which steps you will use from the eightfold Path to reduce this tanha. Ask your group if they have any other ideas you could use. 1. Buddha taught that suffering exists because of tanha, the kind of selfishness that puts 'me' first, at the expense of others, if necessary. How does tanha apply to contemporary life or world events? Choose one specific world event, ex: The Invasion of Iraq or one contemporary, very focused problem, ex: Homelessness in SF. Show how tanha has caused these problems. Then discuss how one or two of the steps of the eightfold path would be especially useful to reduce the tanha you discuss in your essay. If you chose #2, discuss the philosophical meanings of Atman &amp; Anatman from the 2 religions viewpoints and their respective motivational perspectives in terms of enlightenment. Ask your group if they have any other ideas you could use 2. Discuss (compare and contrast) the concepts of Atman (from Hinduism) and Anatman (from Buddhism) using philosophical and sociological perspectives, i.e. how did the concepts develop philosophically, how does the concept of Anatman attempt to motivate people to find their own liberation now, while (some say) the concept of Atman allows people to be lazy about seeking enlightenment because it posits that Atman-Brahman are eternal? Comment on the two concepts from your own philosophical and sociological points of view. (The personal section should be 2 paragraphs or less!) Using your notes from the discussion, add details to your paper! 38 37. 39 Mahayana Buddhism Major schools: Shingon Tendai Jodo Shin Shu, or True Pure Land Nichiren Zen 38. Shingon &amp; Tendai Buddhism Shingon True word-uses sacred chants, called mantras. The Chinese thought magical effects came from Buddhist ritual, like security for rulers, children, &amp; good weather for crops. Tendai or Pure land Devotional, could be done by monks or lay people. Complete devotion to Buddha, results in the believers rebirth in Amitabhas Pure Land, the Western Paradise. 39. From Ind...</p>