BUDDHISM FOUNDER, CASTE PROBLEM, GEOGRAPHIC DISPERSMENT, SACRED SCRIPTURES, VOCABULARY, BUDDHIST SCHOOLS, BASIC TEACHINGS, SYMBOLS, AND DEITIES.

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Slide 1 Slide 2 BUDDHISM FOUNDER, CASTE PROBLEM, GEOGRAPHIC DISPERSMENT, SACRED SCRIPTURES, VOCABULARY, BUDDHIST SCHOOLS, BASIC TEACHINGS, SYMBOLS, AND DEITIES Slide 3 FOUNDER Siddhartha Gautama, known as the Buddha, was born in the sixth century BC in what is now modern Nepal. His father, Suddhodana, was the ruler of the Sakya people and Siddhartha grew up living the extravagant life of a young prince. Siddhartha Gautama, known as the Buddha, was born in the sixth century BC in what is now modern Nepal. His father, Suddhodana, was the ruler of the Sakya people and Siddhartha grew up living the extravagant life of a young prince. According to custom, he married at the young age of sixteen to a girl named Yasodhara. His father had ordered that he live a life of total seclusion, but one day Siddhartha ventured out into the world and was confronted with the reality of the inevitable suffering of life. According to custom, he married at the young age of sixteen to a girl named Yasodhara. His father had ordered that he live a life of total seclusion, but one day Siddhartha ventured out into the world and was confronted with the reality of the inevitable suffering of life. The next day, at the age of twenty-nine, he left his kingdom and newborn son to lead an ascetic life and determine a way to relieve universal suffering. The next day, at the age of twenty-nine, he left his kingdom and newborn son to lead an ascetic life and determine a way to relieve universal suffering. Slide 4 FOUNDER The birthplace of the Gautama Buddha, Lumbini, is the Mecca of every Buddhist, being one of the four holy places of Buddhism: the sites of his birth, enlightenment, first discourse, and death. The birthplace of the Gautama Buddha, Lumbini, is the Mecca of every Buddhist, being one of the four holy places of Buddhism: the sites of his birth, enlightenment, first discourse, and death. Slide 5 FOUNDER For six years, Siddhartha submitted himself to rigorous ascetic practices, studying and following different methods of meditation with various religious teachers. But he was never fully satisfied. For six years, Siddhartha submitted himself to rigorous ascetic practices, studying and following different methods of meditation with various religious teachers. But he was never fully satisfied. One day, however, he was offered a bowl of rice from a young girl and he accepted it. In that moment, he realized that physical austerities were not the means to achieve liberation. One day, however, he was offered a bowl of rice from a young girl and he accepted it. In that moment, he realized that physical austerities were not the means to achieve liberation. From then on, he encouraged people to follow a path of balance rather than extremism. He called this The Middle Way. From then on, he encouraged people to follow a path of balance rather than extremism. He called this The Middle Way. Slide 6 FOUNDER That night Siddhartha sat under the Bodhi tree, and meditated until dawn. That night Siddhartha sat under the Bodhi tree, and meditated until dawn. He purified his mind of all defilements and attained enlightenment at the age of thirty- five, thus earning the title Buddha, or "Enlightened One". He purified his mind of all defilements and attained enlightenment at the age of thirty- five, thus earning the title Buddha, or "Enlightened One". For the remainder of his eighty years, the Buddha preached the Dharma in an effort to help other sentient beings reach enlightenment. For the remainder of his eighty years, the Buddha preached the Dharma in an effort to help other sentient beings reach enlightenment. Slide 7 FOUNDER One happy morning, while he was deeply absorbed in meditation, unaided and unguided by any supernatural power and solely relying on his efforts and wisdom, he eradicated all defilements, purified himself, and, realizing things as they truly are, attained Enlightenment (Buddhahood) at the age of 35. One happy morning, while he was deeply absorbed in meditation, unaided and unguided by any supernatural power and solely relying on his efforts and wisdom, he eradicated all defilements, purified himself, and, realizing things as they truly are, attained Enlightenment (Buddhahood) at the age of 35. He was not born a Buddha (An Awakened or Enlightened One), but he became a Buddha by his own striving. He was not born a Buddha (An Awakened or Enlightened One), but he became a Buddha by his own striving. As the perfect embodiment of all the virtues he preached, endowed with deep wisdom commensurate with his boundless compassion. As the perfect embodiment of all the virtues he preached, endowed with deep wisdom commensurate with his boundless compassion. He devoted the remainder of his precious life to serve humanity both by example and precept, dominated by no personal motive whatever. He devoted the remainder of his precious life to serve humanity both by example and precept, dominated by no personal motive whatever. Slide 8 FOUNDER The Buddha was a human being. As a man he was born, as a man he lived, and as a man his life came to an end. Though a human being, he became an extraordinary man (acchariya manussa), but he never arrogated to himself divinity. The Buddha was a human being. As a man he was born, as a man he lived, and as a man his life came to an end. Though a human being, he became an extraordinary man (acchariya manussa), but he never arrogated to himself divinity. The Buddha is neither an incarnation of the Hindu God Vishnu, as is believed by some, nor is he a savior who freely saves others by his personal salvation. The Buddha exhorts his disciples to depend on themselves for their deliverance, for both purity and defilement depend on oneself. The Buddha is neither an incarnation of the Hindu God Vishnu, as is believed by some, nor is he a savior who freely saves others by his personal salvation. The Buddha exhorts his disciples to depend on themselves for their deliverance, for both purity and defilement depend on oneself. Slide 9 FOUNDER Furthermore, the Buddha does not claim the monopoly of Buddhahood which, as a matter of fact, is not the prerogative of any specially graced person. He reached the highest possible state of perfection any person could aspire to, and without the close-fist of a teacher he revealed the only straight path that leads thereto. Furthermore, the Buddha does not claim the monopoly of Buddhahood which, as a matter of fact, is not the prerogative of any specially graced person. He reached the highest possible state of perfection any person could aspire to, and without the close-fist of a teacher he revealed the only straight path that leads thereto. According to the Teaching of the Buddha anybody may aspire to that supreme state of perfection if he makes the necessary exertion. The Buddha does not condemn men by calling them wretched sinners, but, on the contrary, he gladdens them by saying that they are pure in heart at conception. According to the Teaching of the Buddha anybody may aspire to that supreme state of perfection if he makes the necessary exertion. The Buddha does not condemn men by calling them wretched sinners, but, on the contrary, he gladdens them by saying that they are pure in heart at conception. Slide 10 FOUNDER One who aspires to become a Buddha is called a Bodhisatta, which, literally, means a wisdom-being. One who aspires to become a Buddha is called a Bodhisatta, which, literally, means a wisdom-being. According to Buddhism, this Bodhisatta ideal is the most beautiful and the most refined course of life that has ever been presented to this ego-centric world, for what is nobler than a life of service and purity? According to Buddhism, this Bodhisatta ideal is the most beautiful and the most refined course of life that has ever been presented to this ego-centric world, for what is nobler than a life of service and purity? Slide 11 CASTE PROBLEM Caste, which was a matter of vital importance to the brahmins of India, was one of utter indifference to the Buddha, who strongly condemned the debasing caste system. Caste, which was a matter of vital importance to the brahmins of India, was one of utter indifference to the Buddha, who strongly condemned the debasing caste system. In his Order of Monks all castes unite as do the rivers in the sea. They lose their former names, castes, and clans, and become known as members of one community, the Sangha. In his Order of Monks all castes unite as do the rivers in the sea. They lose their former names, castes, and clans, and become known as members of one community, the Sangha. The Buddha freely admitted into the Order people from all castes and classes when he knew that they were fit to live the holy life, and some of them later distinguished themselves in the Order. The Buddha freely admitted into the Order people from all castes and classes when he knew that they were fit to live the holy life, and some of them later distinguished themselves in the Order. The Buddha was the only contemporary teacher who endeavored to blend in mutual tolerance and concord those who hitherto had been rent asunder by differences of caste and class. The Buddha was the only contemporary teacher who endeavored to blend in mutual tolerance and concord those who hitherto had been rent asunder by differences of caste and class. Slide 12 GEOGRAPHIC DISPERSMENT MAP AND STATISTICS Slide 13 COMPARATIVE MAP Slide 14 STATISTICS Slide 15 STATISTICS Slide 16 SACRED SCRIPTURES THE PALI CANON Slide 17 PALI CANON The Tripitaka [Sanskrit] [Pali: Tipitaka] is the Canon of the Buddhists, both Theravada and Mahayana. The Tripitaka [Sanskrit] [Pali: Tipitaka] is the Canon of the Buddhists, both Theravada and Mahayana. Thus it is possible to speak of several Canons such as the Sthaviravada, Sarvastivada and Mahayana as well as in term of languages like Pali, Chinese and Tibetan. Thus it is possible to speak of several Canons such as the Sthaviravada, Sarvastivada and Mahayana as well as in term of languages like Pali, Chinese and Tibetan. The word is used basically to refer to the literature, the authorship of which is directly or indirectly ascribed to the Buddha himself. The word is used basically to refer to the literature, the authorship of which is directly or indirectly ascribed to the Buddha himself. Slide 18 PALI CANON The Pali Canon is the only set of scriptures preserved in the language of its composition. It is called the Tipitaka or "Three Baskets" because it includes the Vinaya Pitaka or "Basket of Discipline," the Sutta Pitaka or "Basket of Discourses," and the Abhidhamma Pitaka or "Basket of Higher Teachings". The Pali Canon is the only set of scriptures preserved in the language of its composition. It is called the Tipitaka or "Three Baskets" because it includes the Vinaya Pitaka or "Basket of Discipline," the Sutta Pitaka or "Basket of Discourses," and the Abhidhamma Pitaka or "Basket of Higher Teachings". Slide 19 Slide 20 VINAYA PITAKA The Vinaya Pitaka which is regarded as the sheet anchor to the oldest historic celibate order the Sangha mainly deals with rules and regulations which the Buddha promulgated, as occasion arose, for the future discipline of the Order of monks (Bhikkhus) and nuns (Bhikkunis) The Vinaya Pitaka which is regarded as the sheet anchor to the oldest historic celibate order the Sangha mainly deals with rules and regulations which the Buddha promulgated, as occasion arose, for the future discipline of the Order of monks (Bhikkhus) and nuns (Bhikkunis) The Vinaya Pitaka consists of the five following books: The Vinaya Pitaka consists of the five following books: (Vibhanga): 1.Parajika Pali Major Offenses 2.Pacittiya Pali Minor Offenses (Khandaka): 3.Mahavagga Pali Greater Section 4.Cullavagga Pali Shorter Section 5.Parivara Pali Epitome of the Vinaya Slide 21 SUTTA PITAKA The Sutta Pitaka consists chiefly of discourses, delivered by the Buddha himself on various occasions. The Sutta Pitaka consists chiefly of discourses, delivered by the Buddha himself on various occasions. This Pitaka is divided into five Nikayas or collections: This Pitaka is divided into five Nikayas or collections: 1.Digha Nikaya (Collection of Long Discourses). 2.Majjhima Nikaya (Collection of Middle-Length Discourses). 3.Samyutta Nikaya (Collection of Kindred Sayings). 4.Anguttara Nikaya (Collection of Discourses arranged in accordance with numbers). 5.Khuddaka Nikaya (Smaller Collection). Slide 22 SUTA PITAKA The fifth is subdivided into fifteen books: The fifth is subdivided into fifteen books: 1.Khuddaka Patha (Shorter texts) 2.Dhammapada (Way of Truth) 3.Udana (Paeans of Joy) 4.Iti Vuttaka ("Thus said" Discourses) 5.Sutta Nipata (Collected Discourses) 6.Vimana Vatthu (Stories of Celestial Mansions) 7.Peta Vatthu (Stories of Petas ) 8.Theragatha (Psalms of the Brethren) 9.Therigatha (Psalms of the Sisters) 10.Jataka (Birth Stories) 11.Niddesa (Expositions) 12.Patisambhida Magga (Analytical Knowledge) 13.Apadana (Lives of Arahats) 14.Buddhavamsa (The History of the Buddha) 15.Cariya Pitaka (Modes of Conduct) Slide 23 ABHIDHAMMA PITAKA The Abhidhamma Pitaka is the most important and the most interesting of the three, containing as it does the profound philosophy of the Buddha's Teaching in contrast to the illuminating and simpler discourses in the Sutta Pitaka. The Abhidhamma Pitaka is the most important and the most interesting of the three, containing as it does the profound philosophy of the Buddha's Teaching in contrast to the illuminating and simpler discourses in the Sutta Pitaka. In the Sutta Pitaka is found the conventional teaching (vohara desana) while in the Abhidhamma Pitaka is found the ultimate teaching (paramattha-desana). In the Sutta Pitaka is found the conventional teaching (vohara desana) while in the Abhidhamma Pitaka is found the ultimate teaching (paramattha-desana). Slide 24 ABHIDHAMMA PITAKA To the wise, Abhidhamma is an indispensable guide; to the spiritually evolved, an intellectual treat; and to research scholars, food for thought. Consciousness is defined. To the wise, Abhidhamma is an indispensable guide; to the spiritually evolved, an intellectual treat; and to research scholars, food for thought. Consciousness is defined. Thoughts are analyzed and classified chiefly from an ethical standpoint. Thoughts are analyzed and classified chiefly from an ethical standpoint. Mental states are enumerated. Mental states are enumerated. The composition of each type of consciousness is set forth in detail. The composition of each type of consciousness is set forth in detail. How thoughts arise, is minutely described. How thoughts arise, is minutely described. Slide 25 ABHIDHAMMA PITAKA The Abhidhamma investigates mind and matter, the two composite factors of the so- called being, to help the understanding of things as they truly are, and a philosophy has been developed on those lines. The Abhidhamma investigates mind and matter, the two composite factors of the so- called being, to help the understanding of things as they truly are, and a philosophy has been developed on those lines. Based on that philosophy, an ethical system has been evolved, to realize the ultimate goal, Nibbana. Based on that philosophy, an ethical system has been evolved, to realize the ultimate goal, Nibbana. Slide 26 ABHIDHAMMA PITAKA The Abhidhamma Pitaka consists of seven books: The Abhidhamma Pitaka consists of seven books: 1.Dhammasangani (Classification of Dhammas) 2.Vibhanga (The book of Divisions) 3.Katha-Vatthu (Points of Controversy) 4.Puggala-Paatti (Descriptions of Individuals) 5.Dhatu-Katha (Discussion with reference to elements) 6.Yamaka (The Book of Pairs) 7.Patthana (The Book of Relations) Slide 27 VOCABULARY Slide 28 Buddha Enlightened, or Awakened one Dharma The orthodox belief of Buddhism that must be known for enlightenment. Ascetic The practice of rigorous self-discipline for religious purposes. Bodhi Tree Siddhartha Gautama meditated 7 days under this tree, achieving enlightenment and becoming the Buddha. Nirvana Ultimate state of freedom from the cycle of birth and rebirth, achieving selflessness through the understanding that all reality is one. Samsara The cycle of birth and rebirth based upon ones karma; reincarnation, or the transmigration of the soul. Sangha The original monastic community founded by the Buddha. It is the modern term for a Buddhist monastery. Karma The cosmic principle of cause and effect; rewarding goodness and punishing evil through transmigration into better or lesser situations of rebirth. Mendicant Holy man who travels and teaching while relying on the generosity of others for food, clothing, and shelter. Bodhisattva An enlightened human being in the Mahayanist sect who spreads insights to help others and refuses to enter Nirvana until everyone has done so. Slide 29 Lama Tibetan for High Priest Dhammapada Summary account of Buddhas teachings on meditation and moral issues in the Theravadic scriptures. Tantric Sect of Buddhism that focuses on yoga and ritual chants to discipline the mind and body to go beyond desires and to achieve enlightenment. Mantra In Sanskrit, the sacred utterance, which is a sound or group of sounds used to focus the mind in meditation on the inner realities. Zen From the Sanskrit word Dhyana, meaning meditation. The sect of Buddhism mainly found in Japan where meditation is used to achieve enlightenment. Slide 30 BUDDHIST SCHOOLS MAHAYANA, THERAVADA, TIBETAN AND ZEN Slide 31 BranchPercentage Number of Adherents Mahayana56%185,000,000 Theravada38%124,000,000 Vajrayana (Tibetan)6%20,000,000 Slide 32 MAHAYANA SCHOOL (200 BCE) The Mahayana is more of an umbrella body for a great variety of schools, from the Tantra school (the secret teaching of Yoga) well represented in Tibet and Nepal to the Pure Land sect, whose essential teaching is that salvation can be attained only through absolute trust in the saving power of Amitabha, longing to be reborn in his paradise through his grace, which are found in China, Korea and Japan. The Mahayana is more of an umbrella body for a great variety of schools, from the Tantra school (the secret teaching of Yoga) well represented in Tibet and Nepal to the Pure Land sect, whose essential teaching is that salvation can be attained only through absolute trust in the saving power of Amitabha, longing to be reborn in his paradise through his grace, which are found in China, Korea and Japan. Ch'an and Zen Buddhism, of China and Japan, are meditation schools. Ch'an and Zen Buddhism, of China and Japan, are meditation schools. Slide 33 MAHAYANA SCHOOL It is generally accepted, that what we know today as the Mahayana arose from the Mahasanghikas who took up the cause of their new sect with zeal and enthusiasm and soon grew in power and popularity. It is generally accepted, that what we know today as the Mahayana arose from the Mahasanghikas who took up the cause of their new sect with zeal and enthusiasm and soon grew in power and popularity. They adapted the existing monastic rules and thus revolutionized the Buddhist Order of Monks and made alterations in the arrangements and interpretation of the Sutra (Discourses) and the Vinaya (Rules) texts. They adapted the existing monastic rules and thus revolutionized the Buddhist Order of Monks and made alterations in the arrangements and interpretation of the Sutra (Discourses) and the Vinaya (Rules) texts. And they rejected certain portions of the canon, which had been accepted in the First Council. And they rejected certain portions of the canon, which had been accepted in the First Council. Slide 34 MAHAYANA SCHOOL According to it, the Buddhas are lokottara (supramundane) and are connected only externally with the worldly life. According to it, the Buddhas are lokottara (supramundane) and are connected only externally with the worldly life. This conception of the Buddha contributed much to the growth of the Mahayana philosophy. This conception of the Buddha contributed much to the growth of the Mahayana philosophy. The ideal of the Mahayana school is that of the Bodhisattva, a person who delays his or her own enlightenment in order to compassionately assist all other beings and ultimately attains to the highest Bodhi. The ideal of the Mahayana school is that of the Bodhisattva, a person who delays his or her own enlightenment in order to compassionately assist all other beings and ultimately attains to the highest Bodhi. Slide 35 THERAVADA SCHOOL (100 BCE) The earliest available teachings of the Buddha are to be found in Pali literature and belongs to the school of the Theravadins, who may be called the most orthodox school of Buddhism. The earliest available teachings of the Buddha are to be found in Pali literature and belongs to the school of the Theravadins, who may be called the most orthodox school of Buddhism. This school admits the human characteristics of the Buddha, and is characterized by a psychological understanding of human nature and emphasizes a meditative approach to the transformation of consciousness. This school admits the human characteristics of the Buddha, and is characterized by a psychological understanding of human nature and emphasizes a meditative approach to the transformation of consciousness. The teaching of the Buddha according to this school is very plain. He asks us to 'abstain from all kinds of evil, to accumulate all that is good and to purify our mind'. The teaching of the Buddha according to this school is very plain. He asks us to 'abstain from all kinds of evil, to accumulate all that is good and to purify our mind'. These can be accomplished by The Three Trainings: the development of ethical conduct, meditation and insight- wisdom. These can be accomplished by The Three Trainings: the development of ethical conduct, meditation and insight- wisdom. Slide 36 THERAVADA SCHOOL The philosophy of this school is that all worldly phenomena are subject to three characteristics - they are impermanent and transient; unsatisfactory and that there is nothing in them which can be called one's own, nothing substantial, nothing permanent. The philosophy of this school is that all worldly phenomena are subject to three characteristics - they are impermanent and transient; unsatisfactory and that there is nothing in them which can be called one's own, nothing substantial, nothing permanent. All compounded things are made up of two elements - the non-material part and the material part. All compounded things are made up of two elements - the non-material part and the material part. Slide 37 THERAVADA SCHOOL They are further described as consisting of nothing but five constituent groups, namely the material quality, and the four non-material qualities - sensations, perception, mental formatives and consciousness. They are further described as consisting of nothing but five constituent groups, namely the material quality, and the four non-material qualities - sensations, perception, mental formatives and consciousness. When that perfected state of insight is reached, i.e. Nibanna, that person is a 'worthy person' an Arhat. When that perfected state of insight is reached, i.e. Nibanna, that person is a 'worthy person' an Arhat. The life of the Arhat is the ideal of the followers of this school, a life where all (future) birth is at an end, where the holy life is fully achieved, where all that has to be done has been done, and there is no more returning to the worldly life'. The life of the Arhat is the ideal of the followers of this school, a life where all (future) birth is at an end, where the holy life is fully achieved, where all that has to be done has been done, and there is no more returning to the worldly life'. Slide 38 TIBETAN SCHOOL This is the kind of Buddhism predominant in the Himalayan nations of Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, and also Mongolia. It is known as Vajrayana because of the ritual use of the vajra, a symbol of imperishable diamond, of thunder and lightning. At the center of Tibetan Buddhism is the religious figure called the lama, Tibetan for "guru"," source of another of its names, Lamaism. This is the kind of Buddhism predominant in the Himalayan nations of Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, and also Mongolia. It is known as Vajrayana because of the ritual use of the vajra, a symbol of imperishable diamond, of thunder and lightning. At the center of Tibetan Buddhism is the religious figure called the lama, Tibetan for "guru"," source of another of its names, Lamaism. Slide 39 TIBETAN SCHOOL His Holiness the 14th the Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso, is the head of state and spiritual leader of the Tibetan people. He was born 6 July 1935 in a small village in northeastern Tibet to a peasant family. His Holiness the 14th the Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso, is the head of state and spiritual leader of the Tibetan people. He was born 6 July 1935 in a small village in northeastern Tibet to a peasant family. His Holiness was recognized at the age of two, in accordance with Tibetan tradition, as the reincarnation of his predecessor the 13th Dalai Lama, and thus an incarnation Avalokitesvara, the Buddha of Compassion. His Holiness was recognized at the age of two, in accordance with Tibetan tradition, as the reincarnation of his predecessor the 13th Dalai Lama, and thus an incarnation Avalokitesvara, the Buddha of Compassion. Slide 40 Slide 41 Slide 42 ZEN BUDDHISM Bodhidharma, an Indian monk who settled in China in the 6th century A.D., is the founder of Ch'an (Chinese Zen Buddhism). It is said when he first came to the Shaolin monastery in China, he practiced zazen (sitting meditation) facing a wall for several years. Bodhidharma, an Indian monk who settled in China in the 6th century A.D., is the founder of Ch'an (Chinese Zen Buddhism). It is said when he first came to the Shaolin monastery in China, he practiced zazen (sitting meditation) facing a wall for several years. Zen is a mere word, symbol... an illusion. Zen is a mere word, symbol... an illusion. There is an old story of a man who sought enlightenment and traveled great distances to find a particular Zen master. Upon finding this Zen master, he kindly asked if he would "teach him the path to enlightenment." The Zen master replied "I have nothing to teach." There is an old story of a man who sought enlightenment and traveled great distances to find a particular Zen master. Upon finding this Zen master, he kindly asked if he would "teach him the path to enlightenment." The Zen master replied "I have nothing to teach." Slide 43 ZAZEN Slide 44 ZEN BUDDHISM Zen practice involves letting go of preconceptions, dualistic thinking, religious abstractions and any other false categories of thought. Zen practice involves letting go of preconceptions, dualistic thinking, religious abstractions and any other false categories of thought. It is a way of simply seeing life without abstractions and preconceptions, and thus can enhance and clarify any religious faith. It is a way of simply seeing life without abstractions and preconceptions, and thus can enhance and clarify any religious faith. There is no doctrine, no system of beliefs in Zen. Zen is spontaneity in living. A transformation of our consciousness. To transform the way we experience right now... right here. There is no doctrine, no system of beliefs in Zen. Zen is spontaneity in living. A transformation of our consciousness. To transform the way we experience right now... right here. Zen might be defined as waking up in the present. It's an experience that defies abstractions, an awakening to just this, what is here, now, and seeing it as for the first time in every moment. Zen might be defined as waking up in the present. It's an experience that defies abstractions, an awakening to just this, what is here, now, and seeing it as for the first time in every moment. Slide 45 BASIC TEACHINGS THE DHAMMA, THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS, THE PATH TO NIBANNA (PALI) NIRVANA (SANSKRIT), KAMMA (PALI) KARMA (SANSKRIT) Slide 46 THE DHAMMA The non-aggressive, moral and philosophical system expounded by the Buddha, which demands no blind faith from its adherents, expounds no dogmatic creeds, encourages no superstitious rites and ceremonies, but advocates a golden mean that guides a disciple through pure living and pure thinking to the gain of supreme wisdom and deliverance from all evil, is called the Dhamma and is popularly known as Buddhism. The non-aggressive, moral and philosophical system expounded by the Buddha, which demands no blind faith from its adherents, expounds no dogmatic creeds, encourages no superstitious rites and ceremonies, but advocates a golden mean that guides a disciple through pure living and pure thinking to the gain of supreme wisdom and deliverance from all evil, is called the Dhamma and is popularly known as Buddhism. Slide 47 THE DHAMMA The Dhamma he taught is not merely to be preserved in books, nor is it a subject to be studied from an historical or literary standpoint. On the contrary it is to be learnt and put into practice in the course of one's daily life, for without practice one cannot appreciate the truth. The Dhamma he taught is not merely to be preserved in books, nor is it a subject to be studied from an historical or literary standpoint. On the contrary it is to be learnt and put into practice in the course of one's daily life, for without practice one cannot appreciate the truth. The Dhamma is to be studied, and more to be practiced, and above all to be realized; immediate realization is its ultimate goal. The Dhamma is to be studied, and more to be practiced, and above all to be realized; immediate realization is its ultimate goal. As such the Dhamma is compared to a raft which is meant for the sole purpose of escaping from the ocean of birth and death (samsara). As such the Dhamma is compared to a raft which is meant for the sole purpose of escaping from the ocean of birth and death (samsara). Slide 48 THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS The foundations of Buddhism are the four Noble Truths namely, Suffering (the raison d'etre of Buddhism), its cause (i.e., Craving), its end (i.e., Nibbana, the Summum Bonum of Buddhism), and the Middle Way. The foundations of Buddhism are the four Noble Truths namely, Suffering (the raison d'etre of Buddhism), its cause (i.e., Craving), its end (i.e., Nibbana, the Summum Bonum of Buddhism), and the Middle Way. The first three truths represent the philosophy of Buddhism; the fourth represents the ethics of Buddhism, based on that philosophy. The first three truths represent the philosophy of Buddhism; the fourth represents the ethics of Buddhism, based on that philosophy. Slide 49 FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS Buddhism rests on the pivot of sorrow. But it does not thereby follow that Buddhism is pessimistic. Buddhism rests on the pivot of sorrow. But it does not thereby follow that Buddhism is pessimistic. It is neither totally pessimistic nor totally optimistic, but, on the contrary, it teaches a truth that lies midway between them. It is neither totally pessimistic nor totally optimistic, but, on the contrary, it teaches a truth that lies midway between them. One would be justified in calling the Buddha a pessimist if he had only enunciated the truth of suffering without suggesting a means to put an end to it. One would be justified in calling the Buddha a pessimist if he had only enunciated the truth of suffering without suggesting a means to put an end to it. The Buddha perceived the universality of sorrow and did prescribe a panacea for this universal sickness of humanity. The Buddha perceived the universality of sorrow and did prescribe a panacea for this universal sickness of humanity. The highest conceivable happiness, according to the Buddha, is Nibbana, which is the total extinction of suffering. The highest conceivable happiness, according to the Buddha, is Nibbana, which is the total extinction of suffering. Slide 50 THE PATH TO NIBANNA It is by following the Noble Eightfold Path which consists of It is by following the Noble Eightfold Path which consists of 1.Right Understanding (samma-ditthi), 2.Right Thoughts (samma-sankappa), 3.Right Speech (samma-vaca), 4.Right Actions (samma-kammanta), 5.Right Livelihood (samma-ajiva), 6.Right Effort (samma-vayama), 7.Right Mindfulness (samma-sati), and 8.Right Concentration (samma-samadhi). Slide 51 KAMMA There is nothing in this world that happens by blind chance or accident. To say that anything happens by chance, is no more true than that this book has come here of itself. Strictly speaking, nothing happens to man that he does not deserve for some reason or another. There is nothing in this world that happens by blind chance or accident. To say that anything happens by chance, is no more true than that this book has come here of itself. Strictly speaking, nothing happens to man that he does not deserve for some reason or another. From a Buddhist standpoint, our present mental, intellectual, moral and temperamental differences are mainly due to our own actions and tendencies, both past the present. From a Buddhist standpoint, our present mental, intellectual, moral and temperamental differences are mainly due to our own actions and tendencies, both past the present. We reap what we have sown. What we sow we reap somewhere or some when. We reap what we have sown. What we sow we reap somewhere or some when. Slide 52 KAMMA Kamma is, therefore, only one of the five orders that prevail in the universe. It is a law in itself, but it does not thereby follow that there should be a law-giver. Kamma is, therefore, only one of the five orders that prevail in the universe. It is a law in itself, but it does not thereby follow that there should be a law-giver. Ordinary laws of nature, like gravitation, need no law-giver. It operates in its own field without the intervention of an external independent ruling agency. Ordinary laws of nature, like gravitation, need no law-giver. It operates in its own field without the intervention of an external independent ruling agency. A Buddhist who is fully convinced of the doctrine of kamma does not pray to another to be saved but confidently relies on himself for his purification because it teaches individual responsibility. A Buddhist who is fully convinced of the doctrine of kamma does not pray to another to be saved but confidently relies on himself for his purification because it teaches individual responsibility. Slide 53 KAMMA It is this doctrine of kamma that gives him consolation, hope, self reliance and moral courage. It is this doctrine of kamma that gives him consolation, hope, self reliance and moral courage. It is this belief in kamma "that validates his effort, kindles his enthusiasm," makes him ever kind, tolerant and considerate. It is this belief in kamma "that validates his effort, kindles his enthusiasm," makes him ever kind, tolerant and considerate. It is also this firm belief in kamma that prompts him to refrain from evil, do good and be good without being frightened of any punishment or tempted by any reward. It is also this firm belief in kamma that prompts him to refrain from evil, do good and be good without being frightened of any punishment or tempted by any reward. Slide 54 SYMBOLS TIBETAN PRAYER WHEEL, STUPA, MALAS (BEADS), DHARMA WHEEL (LAW), TIBETAN WHEEL OF LIFE Slide 55 TIBETAN PRAYER WHEEL This is an exclusively Tibetan Buddhist praying instrument which always bears the mystical word 'OM MANI PADME HUM' [Om the Jewel in the Lotus Hum] numbering six syllables in the mantra of Avalokitesvara. This is an exclusively Tibetan Buddhist praying instrument which always bears the mystical word 'OM MANI PADME HUM' [Om the Jewel in the Lotus Hum] numbering six syllables in the mantra of Avalokitesvara. Slide 56 STUPA Stupas are monuments for peace in the world. Through their perfect form, these structures express the clear nature of the mind - enlightenment. People who venerate them, who participate in their construction, or those who live near them, find them to be a source of peacefulness, happiness, and prosperity. The stupa represents the Mind of the Buddha. Furthermore, it signifies the community of practitioners, the sangha. Slide 57 STUPA "The Stupa is truly the image, or rather the epiphany, of the Buddha, of his Law that rules the universe, and is moreover a psycho-cosmogram. The form, suggested by the apparent aspect of the vault of the sky, implies in its turn the total presence and intangibility of the Buddha, who in this way is seen not as a human teacher but as the essence of the Universe." Slide 58 The Great Stupa at Sanchi, India Slide 59 MALAS (BEADS) Beads are mainly used to count mantras, which can be recited for four different purposes: Beads are mainly used to count mantras, which can be recited for four different purposes: 1.To appease, 2.To increase, 3.To overcome, or 4.Tame by forceful means. Slide 60 DHARMA WHEEL The wheel symbolize the Wheel of Buddhist Law, the endless cycle of birth and rebirth. The wheel symbolize the Wheel of Buddhist Law, the endless cycle of birth and rebirth. Modern versions of Dharma Wheels often have four spokes, symbolizing the Four Jinas or the four 'moments' in the life of the Buddha; or with eight spokes, or octagonal, symbolizing the Noble Eightfold Path. Modern versions of Dharma Wheels often have four spokes, symbolizing the Four Jinas or the four 'moments' in the life of the Buddha; or with eight spokes, or octagonal, symbolizing the Noble Eightfold Path. Slide 61 TIBETAN WHEEL OF LIFE An amazing collection of contrasting imagery, each aspect of this composition is packed with rich symbolism and direct, hard- hitting metaphors. Essentially a construction made up of four concentric circles, it is an attempt to convey spiritual insights behind our 'physical existence' in purely visual terms. Slide 62 TIBETAN WHEEL Each of these animals represents a particular human failing or weakness, which stands as an obstacle to spiritual accomplishment. Slide 63 TIBETAN WHEEL Next to the central circle is a concentric band divided along two halves. One is colored softly and radiantly, while the other is black. The darker portion shows individuals who have chosen the path of darkness and thus descend into gloomy depths. The glowing path, however, is the one taken by those following the righteous way, attaining spiritual ascension. Hence it shows mortals rising towards greater spiritual heights. Slide 64 TIBETAN WHEEL Beyond this band is a wider area divided into six units, each depicting a different level of conditioned existence. These states of existence are termed conditioned because they are brought about as a result of our own actions or karma. Slide 65 TIBETAN WHEEL The first such realm is the world of hell. Flames engulf the entire realm which is unbearably hot, though there are regions of ice also, which yield the painful experience of cold. The depiction of this hell is an objectification of hatred, rather a visual depiction of what may await us if we fill out hearts with hatred instead of compassionate understanding. Slide 66 TIBETAN WHEEL Next to the realm of hell are groups of ungainly creatures huddled together. No matter what they possess, they always feel that there is something missing. Thus this realm is the personification of the mind in which craving predominates. Slide 67 TIBETAN WHEEL In the realm of the animals, life is the life of the body. All endeavor is directed to the satisfaction of physical desires and the business of self- preservation. This depiction is a visual representation of the ignorant refusal to see beyond the needs of the body. Slide 68 TIBETAN WHEEL The titans know only warfare. Not content with what they possess these giants rush upon the gods of the sensuous realm and try to grab from them their happiness and delight. The success of others leaves them with a feeling of inadequacy and belittled. Indeed it is said that man is not content with he does have but discontent with what others have. Slide 69 TIBETAN WHEEL The human realm is the world of everyday experience. Human life, containing both pleasure and pain, makes us aware of both these aspects of life, striking a harmonious balance. Thus since human life gives us such rare opportunities for spiritual realization, Buddhism teaches that it is very precious indeed. Slide 70 TIBETAN WHEEL It is significant to note here that the gods are shown partaking of similar sensuous experiences as the humans, albeit at a more rarified level. The import being that the gods are not so far removed from the human dimension and mortal humans too can attain godhood following the path of virtuous karma. Slide 71 TIBETAN WHEEL These six realms constitute all possible states of existence in the universe and all beings cycle between these states, dependent on their karma, none of these states being permanent or everlasting. Thus, virtuous persons are said to be born in heaven; virtuous beings dominated by negative emotions of jealousy are born in the realm of the titans; persons dominated by attachment are born in the ghostly realms; those afflicted with hatred and anger are born in hell; and those dominated by dullness are born in the world of animals. Slide 72 TIBETAN WHEEL The outermost concentric ring of the Wheel of Life is divided into twelve units, each depicting a phase of the peculiar cycle of cause and effect which keeps one trapped in the six realms of cyclic existence mentioned above. Slide 73 TIBETAN WHEEL The complete Wheel of Life is gripped tightly in the talons of the Lord of Death, whose horrific face, projecting fangs and the forehead wreathed in the macabre five-skull crown is visible above the diagram. We are all clutched in the fear of death. But death is not the end. According to Buddhist thought death is the beginning of a new existence. The process of death is evidenced everywhere in the natural rhythms of the earth, sea, and sky. A death occurs each night as the sun sets, each month as the moon wanes, each year as the earth shuts down for the winter, and each time the ocean waters recede with the tide. Thus the concept of death in nature is a promise of hope. With each death there is a resurrection. Nature has the capacity for renewal. The new, renewed state is of course dependent upon our previous karma. Slide 74 DEITIES MAITREYA, BODHISATTVAS OF COMPASSION, THE CHINESE PANTHEON, LOHANS Slide 75 MAITREYA: THE FUTURE BUDDHA According to some Buddhist traditions, the period of the Buddhist Law is divided into three stages: a first period of 500 years, of the turning the Wheel of the Law; a second period of 1,000 years, of the deterioration of the Law, and a third period of 3,000 years (called Mappo in Japan) during which no one practises the Law. According to some Buddhist traditions, the period of the Buddhist Law is divided into three stages: a first period of 500 years, of the turning the Wheel of the Law; a second period of 1,000 years, of the deterioration of the Law, and a third period of 3,000 years (called Mappo in Japan) during which no one practises the Law. After this, Buddhism having disappeared, a new Buddha will appear who will again turn the Wheel of the Law. After this, Buddhism having disappeared, a new Buddha will appear who will again turn the Wheel of the Law. This future Buddha is still in the Tusita heaven, in the state of a Bodhisattva. This future Buddha is still in the Tusita heaven, in the state of a Bodhisattva. Gautama Buddha himself will enthrone him as his successor. Gautama Buddha himself will enthrone him as his successor. The name means 'benevolence' or 'friendship'. He is now living his last existence as a Bodhisattva. The name means 'benevolence' or 'friendship'. He is now living his last existence as a Bodhisattva. Slide 76 BODHISATTVAS OF COMPASSION The term Bodhisattva refers to someone on the path to Awakening. The term Bodhisattva refers to someone on the path to Awakening. The Mahayana has conceived them as having renounced the ultimate state out of pure compassion towards all beings, and can therefore refer to anyone en route. The Mahayana has conceived them as having renounced the ultimate state out of pure compassion towards all beings, and can therefore refer to anyone en route. In non-Mahayana Buddhism, it usually refers either to Maitreya, the Buddha of the Future, or to the historical Buddha Gautama prior to his enlightenment either during the life in which he became enlightened or in one of the innumerable lives before that in which he was developing the requisite virtues for enlightenment, such as generosity. In non-Mahayana Buddhism, it usually refers either to Maitreya, the Buddha of the Future, or to the historical Buddha Gautama prior to his enlightenment either during the life in which he became enlightened or in one of the innumerable lives before that in which he was developing the requisite virtues for enlightenment, such as generosity. The stories of these lives are called the Jatakas, or 'birth stories', and they are a very frequent subject of Buddhist art. The stories of these lives are called the Jatakas, or 'birth stories', and they are a very frequent subject of Buddhist art. Slide 77 CHINESE PANTHEON Amitabha: the Buddha of Boundless Light. Amitabha: the Buddha of Boundless Light. Yao Shih Fwo, Bhaisajyaguru: the Medicine Buddha. Yao Shih Fwo, Bhaisajyaguru: the Medicine Buddha. Kuan Ti - Protector of the Buddhist religion Kuan Ti - Protector of the Buddhist religion Slide 78 THE LOHANS PLACE IN BUDDHISM Lohans are well-known for their great wisdom, courage and supernatural power. Lohans are well-known for their great wisdom, courage and supernatural power. Due to their abilities to ward off the evil, Lohans have became guardian angels of the Buddhist temple and there in the main hall standing guard are the ever-present, indomitable-looking 18 Lohan figures, sometimes accompanied by 500 or more lesser Lohans. Due to their abilities to ward off the evil, Lohans have became guardian angels of the Buddhist temple and there in the main hall standing guard are the ever-present, indomitable-looking 18 Lohan figures, sometimes accompanied by 500 or more lesser Lohans.

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