british colonial america
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DESCRIPTIONBritish Colonial America. Vocabulary Part I Charter colony Proprietary colony Royal colony mercantilism salutary neglect Navigation Act 1660 Triangle Trade smuggling. (See textbook : glossary and pages 104-108). Part II Northwest Territory (Ohio Valley) Ben Franklin - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
British Colonial America
VocabularyPart ICharter colonyProprietary colonyRoyal colonymercantilismsalutary neglectNavigation Act 1660Triangle Tradesmuggling
Part IINorthwest Territory (Ohio Valley)Ben FranklinAlbany Plan of UnionmilitiaGeorge WashingtonFort NecessityFrench and Indian WarSeven Years War (105)(See textbook: glossary and pages 104-108)
The Thirteen ColoniesNew England Colonies MassachusettsNew HampshireConnecticutRhode IslandMiddle ColoniesNew YorkNew JerseyPennsylvaniaDelawareSouthernMarylandVirginiaNorth CarolinaSouth CarolinaGeorgia
Each was established in different years: Virginia: 1607 Massachusetts 1620 New Hampshire 1623 Maryland 1632 Connecticut 1635 Rhode Island 1636 North Carolina 1663 South Carolina 1663 separated in 1712 New York 1664 New Jersey 1664 Pennsylvania 1681 Delaware 1704 Georgia 1732Each was settled for different reasons.The 13 Colonies were Independent of one another.
4 New England ColoniesMassachusetts Connecticut New Hampshire Rhode Island All trade, subsistence farm, and fish All settled for religious freedom BUT MA, NH, and CT want religious freedom for Puritans only Rhode Island had religious freedom for ALL CT and RI ruled themselves and were called Charter Colonies MA and NH had their Charter governments taken over by the king so became Royal Colonies MA had first public school system in the world
New York: only middle colony to have large plantations (along the Hudson River) and a large slave population (10%); very loyal to the king; royal government New Jersey: Quaker refuge; royal government Delaware: big tobacco growers; royal government Pennsylvania: Quaker colony; only colony to remain a Proprietary colony (owned by a friend of the king and run by people of colony)4 Middle Colonies Pennsylvania New York New Jersey Delaware Alldiversified-farmed-traded-tolerant of Protestant religions
5 Southern Colonies Virginia North Carolina South Carolina Georgia Maryland All have Plantation economies grow cash crops; all slave dependentVA, MD, NC, SC grow cash crops: tobacco and grainNC, SC, GA grow cash crops: rice and indigo and grain All are Royal Colonies by 1700; governors appointed by king; Maryland reverted to proprietary in 1715 VA had 1st elected government called the House of Burgesses; largest & first colony MD: settled by Catholics to escape persecutionGA:last colony; a debtors colony; last of 13 colonies to legalize slavery SC had more slaves (60%) than white people (40%)
The Colonies are there for the benefit of the Mother Country, Great Britain. They owe Britain loyalty, respect, and all the goods they can transport back to Great Britain.
Relationship with Great Britain Mercantilism: Great Britain orders its colonies to import all their raw materials to England only! All lumber, all iron ore, all copper must go to England so it can turn the raw materials into products and sell them back to the colonies. This makes Great Britain wealthy and the colonies dependent on Great Britain for all manufactured goods!
The New England colonies arent happy about this order!!!!
Great BritainThirteen British Colonies in AmericaColonies iColonizing CountryMercantilism: Trade only with Britain to make Britain rich! YEAH RIGHT!
Summary: British Mercantilism & EmpireEconomic world view: there exists a finite amount of wealth Thus what one nation gained, another nation inevitably lost.Importance of Colonies Colonies supply the mother country with raw materials to be consumed at home or abroadProvide a market for the mother countrys manufactured goods.Navigational Acts: 1651-1673: Aimed at centering American trade around EnglandOnly English or colonial ships could trade in their coloniesCertain American products could ONLY be sold in England or other English colonies such as wool, sugar, tobacco, indigo, dyes, etcAll foreign goods destined for sale in colonies first had to pass through England & pay import duties
The Navigation Act of 1660England wrote laws to regulate trade in its colonies: no goods shall be imported or exported out of any landsof his Majesty in any ship except belonging to the people of England, under the penalty of the loss of all the goods after April 1661, no sugars, tobacco, cotton-wool, indigoes, ginger, woodsgrown, produced, or manufactured on any English plantations in America shall be transported to any landother than other EnglishIn other words, all colonial raw materials and homemade goods must be sent on English ships to England and no other country. All trade goes through England!
But Britain neglected the colonies and the laws were not enforced.
Great Britain was too busy at home to bother enforcing Mercantilism.Great Britain decided not to interfere in American affairs until 1760. This was called Salutary Neglect, when Britain lets the colonies do as they please in trade despite its laws.America got used to being ignored!Colonists did as they pleased.The British government rarely enforced the trade rules. So, the colonists loved Britain. Hurray Britain! Go Brits!
BUTat the end of the French and Indian War in 1763, Great Britain began to assert its control over the American colonies, levying taxes and pronouncing new trade regulations to benefit the mother country.
Naturally, colonists strongly objected. BOO-O-OO-OO!
Boston took advantage of Britains salutary neglect & traded freely with other countries.
By 1750 The British colonies traded with Europe and Africa as a result of salutary neglect.____________________________
Triangle Trade: In the beginning, Great Britain traded rum and manufactured goods with Africa for for slaves, gold and spices. British ships then sailed across the Atlantic to the West Indies and Americas to trade slaves for sugar, tobacco, rum, rice & raw materials. The ships returned to Europe to sell these goods. Butunder salutary neglect the triangle changed a bit in direction
The real Triangle trade & the Thirteen Colonies
The green arrow shows what the colonists were supposed to do with their products under mercantilismtrade directly with England.The blue arrow indicates New Englands triangle trade with Africa, a result of salutary neglect on the part of the British.Triangle trade & the Colonies
Boston was the capital of slave trade until the early 1700s when Rhode Island took over and became the slave trade center in the American colonies.Colonial Slave TradeThis map shows the Triangle Trade route of the American ship Sanderson. It carried 8220 gallons of rum from Newport to the Gold Coast of Africa in 1752. From Africa it sailed to Barbados in the West Indies with 56 slaves, gold dust and pepper. From Barbados it carried molasses and sugar for making rum and British pounds (paper money).
Colonial Independence Caused Concern: Triangle Trade was an economic issue . Westward Expansion by British colonists was a political problem. England's American empire needed to expand. The colonies pressed westward to Ohio and Kentucky as colonists sought new agricultural lands and trade opportunities. Settlers crossed landmasses into French and Indian territory, where they were not welcome.
Colonists want to move into the Northwest Territory (Ohio Valley) claimed by the French and Indians. Land claimed by French
The French did not settle the Ohio Valley in the Northwest Territory. They built trading posts & forts, and paid natives for the use of the land. They got along with the natives for these reasons. In addition, French trappers worked with natives. They traded furs, guns, horses, etc. Both profited from this trade relationship and lived in peace.
Washingtons map of the Ohio River 1753-1754 with notes on French intentionsBritish colonists from western PA and VA move west into French & Indian territory in 1750s.1749- British build forts in Ohio Valley on French land.1752- French attack the British forts to drive them out.1754- Colonel George Washington, age 22, led his Virginia militia civilian military force, into western PA in May, captured French scouts, killing French officers. The he built Fort Necessity for his men.1754-The French and Indians retaliate in July, take the fort, kill VA militiamen! Meanwhile in Albany, NY
Colonies try to uniteOn the brink of war, some colonists urged unity.Ben Franklin, went to Albany, NY in June 1754 to meet with delegates from seven northern colonies. They met to discuss ways to strengthen colonial ties with the Iroquois League of 5 Indian nations.They hoped to become allies to protect themselves from the French & hostile Indians in the west.
Franklins Albany Plan of Union
In 1754 Benjamin Franklin proposed the Albany Plan of Union to unite the British North American colonies. He wanted a legislative body with the power to control trade and organize defenses. His plan called for legislators to be under the authority of the king of England.
Union of the colonies is absolutely necessary for their preservation.
Benjamin Franklin,Reason for theAlbany Plan of Union, July, 1754 Franklins political cartoon from his newspaper The Pennsylvania Gazette 9 May 1754