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Breeder Production and Management

Breeder Production and ManagementMuhammad Arslancsarslan@yahoo.com

Breeder Chick at HatcherySingle Stage IncubationMale and female lines incubate separatelyBeak TrimmingComb Trimming in malesToe Trimming in malesNumber of males provided by hatchery, Layer Breeder 10-12% , Broiler Breeder 12-15%

Transportation from Hatchery to FarmMostly longer distancesReduce number of chicks per boxInject electrolytesPicking material in chick boxesProper stackingProper ventilation

Receiving and UnloadingUnload the chicks in minimum possible timeDont stack chick boxes upon one anotherCarefully expose the chicks to brooding area by causing minimum injuriesExpose the chicks to fresh water firstly

Brooding and Rearing

When chicks are hatched, the systems are not activated are,-Immune System-Digestive system-Thermoregulatory systemMales are provided with2-5 F More Temperature20-25 chicks/ m2 for first 14 days (0.43-0.53 ft2/chick)Ad lib feed for first 3 weeks Debeaking at age of 7-10 days of male and femaleMortality should not be more than 1% during first week

Rearing MethodsGrowing males separate from females for the first 4 to 6 weeksFirst 10 weeksThe complete rearing periodRearing housesAll-litter floorCombination of slat (plastic, wood or wire) and litter floorAll slat

Physical EnvironmentTemperature20-24 C

RH 60-70 %

Light 16-17 hours (8 or 11 hours during Growing)

General Management PracticesSpace RequirementsDebeaking, Dubbing, Toe ClippingWater managementLitter ManagementVaccination and MedicationNest ManagementEgg StorageRecord Keeping

Space RequirementsLayer BreederBroiler Breeder (ft2)Floor spaceRearing1-1.251.5-2Pre-Laing1.52-2.5Production1.753Water space0.75-1 1-1.25 inchesFeeding space 2.5-35-6 inchesNipple Drinker1 nipple/ 8-10 birds

Beak trimmingHatchery7-10 daysBefore 18 weeksVit. K 1.5-2 g/kg feed750-800 chicks/hourCannibalismFeed wastage750 C or 1500 F

Sexing Errors, Toe Clipping and Comb DubbingConditionMale Line ChicksFemale Line ChicksComb trimmedKeepSexing ErrorToes TrimmedKeepSexing ErrorCombs UntrimmedSexing ErrorKeepToes UntrimmedSexing ErrorKeep

LightingFollow the standards of company24 hours for first 3 days and decreased up to 8 hours at day 21 from 3rd week to pre-lay period , 8 hours light provided with low intensity16 hours light during production

Max. alteration in sexual maturityFeed3 weeksLight3 weeksFeed + Light4 weeks

Nutrition and FeedingFeed costs 60-70% of total costFeed should be balanced w.r.t. to all nutrientsDeficiency of any nutrient can lead to severe loss i.e. Riboflavin, Folic acidControlled feeding in broiler breeder

Feed DistributionTimeDurationFeeder HeightFeeding SpaceCare during Feeding

Feed RestrictionTypesQualitative Feed RestrictionQuantitative Feed RestrictionMethodsDaily FeedingSkip a DayFive day feeding two day skipSix days feeding and one day skip

Reasons for Feed RestrictionControl body weightReduce feed costMore productionDelay sexual maturity

Feed AllocationBroiler Breeder-Female170 g/bird/day-Male120-130 g/bird/day

Layer Breeder110 g/bird/day

Nutritional RequirementsRation specifications depends uponSpecies Bird TypeProduction stageEnvironmentRearing System SexBody weight

Broiler BreederProduction cycle 24-64 weeks24 weeks of age5% production29 weeks of agepeak (85%)-183 Total Eggs-175 Hatching Eggs-150 chicks -85 % standard hatchabilityPakistan-164 (Max. Recorded 173 by Olympia)-140 chicksFeed Consumption 55 Kg/bird

Body Weight ControlAd libitum feed for 1st 3 weeksThen Restricted feeing is adoptedWeighing and grading from 3rd week of ageWeighing of 2-3% or mostly 60-100 birds from flock

Weigh the birds on the same day of weekWeigh on non-feed dayUniformity should be at least 80%Factors affecting uniformity are Baby ChicksFeed restrictionWeighing of feedFeed and water spaceFeed distribution

Importance of Body Weight ControlHigh uniformityDelay in sexual maturitylarger first eggsincreased egg productionincreased number of hatching eggsreduced mortality in the laying housereduced feed costs per hatching eggImprove Fertility and Hatchability

Hubbard Breeder StandardsAge (weeks)Body Weight (g)Feed Consumption (g)FemaleMaleFemaleMale11251332323222527325-2825-30332543228-3030-35442559130-3535-40552570535-4040-458825109145-5350-60

2428503200-33001701306435004500-5000140120-130

Floor Feeding/ Spin FeedingWith the help of spin feeders (Collinson) or ManuallyOnly in broiler breedersOnly during rearing period Hard pellets or crumbs are usedFast feed distribution and minimum stressMore uniform flockGood litter condition

Switch to Pre- LayingFeed amount increasedOnly daily feeding practiced onwardMainly Ca in feed is increased (3-3.5 in Breeder diet)Light duration increased Nest InstalledMales are mixed

LayingGrading on Bases of Chest FleshingFloor Space RequirementsEgg Collection and Nest ManagementDaily Feed Allowance Challenge FeedChallenge Feed WithdrawalDecrease in Feed Allowance

Grading on the Basis of Chest FleshingBreast fleshing should be proper at end of rearing period and during productionNo feed restriction during production

Sex-Separate Feeding

SpikingAt 40-45 weeks of age, 20-25% new males are introducedit helps to improve hatchability about 3%. Spike males must be 25-28 weeks old and should weigh 20-25% more than the average body weight of the hen flock.

Challenge FeedingAt peak, 10 g/week/bird feed is increased-3 g 0 3 0 4 0 0 -2 g daily and remain off for last 2 days-107=1.42 g/day

Feeding after PeakAs peak over challenge feed is withdrawalAfter peak, feed reduced 1-3 g/weekFinally reached 140-150 g/birdIf feed is not reduced, then 2.3 kg feed will be consumed more with additional weight gain of 0.3-0.4 kg. So feed should be reduced steadily.

Layer Breeder-260 Total Eggs-250 Hatching eggs-70-90 female chicksBody weight-female 1600-1800 g-male 2250 gMostly, males are mixed after 2 weeks

Male ManagementBroiler Breeder- 10 % males (11% during peak)Layer Breeder-7-8 % males

Male has 10 time more importance than femaleMate 10-30 times a day0.1-1 ml semen per ejaculationCull malesExercise males (feeder height, grains in litter afternoon)

Egg Collection and Nest ManagementAvoid floor eggs1 nest for 4-5 hens (community nest for 35-40 birds)Suitable nesting material with proper conditionNest may be-Roll-a-way type-Litter typeNest should closed at nightFrequent egg collection and separation of crack eggs (2not more than 2-3%)

Egg StorageEgg takes 6-8 hours to attain room temperatureMarket eggs are soldSanitation and disinfection of egg should be doneStored at 16-180C for 3 days75-80 % RH

Egg Cleaning and DisinfectionEgg can be cleaned with luke-warm water & cloth or with sand paper. Disinfectants are used to clean fertile eggs. Sanitizers can be used for egg cleaning i.e Chlorine, QACWater temperature should be at least 900FEgg should not be soaked in waterWashing water should not contain iron (max. 2ppm), b/c it can facilitate microbial growth on membranesWash water pH should be 10-11. This pH is unfavorable for most bacteria. Salmonella can also be destroyed if pH is high.

Methods to determine fertility in eggs

Breaking of fresh eggsCandling of incubated eggs (7-12 days)Break of unhatched eggs at day of hatch (hatch day breakout method)

Record KeepingLive Body WeightDaily feed intakeEgg productionBird countingMortalityVaccination and medicationWeather conditions

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