bn nutrients

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  • 1. BASIC NUTRITION
  • 2. Nutrition: The study of how food nourishes the body.
  • 3. Factors That Affect a Persons Longterm Health Genetics Lifestyle Exercise Smoking and other tobacco use Excessive alcohol consumption Choice of diet
  • 4. Nutrients Components of food that are indispensable to the functioning of the body. Essential Nutrients: Nutrients that cannot be made by the body so a deficiency in the diet leads to disease.
  • 5. There Are 6 Categories Nutrients Water Carbohydrates Lipids (fat) Proteins Vitamins Minerals Macronutrients (> 50 grams/day) Micronutrients (< 1 gram/day)
  • 6. Basic Functions of Nutrients 1) Provide building materials for body structures. 2) Provide energy. 3) Regulate body processes.
  • 7. Building Materials 1 2 3 Water Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Vitamins Minerals
  • 8. Water 60% Lipids 10-20% Proteins 15% Carbohydrates 10-15% Minerals 5%
  • 9. Building Materials 1 2 3 Water Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Vitamins Minerals X X X X X
  • 10. Supply Energy 1 2 3 Water Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Vitamins Minerals X X X X X X X X
  • 11. Energy Units calorie: The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 ml of water 1 degree C (from 15 to 16 degrees). Kilocalorie (Kcal): 1000 calories In nutritional literature Calories (with a capital C) means Kilocalories
  • 12. Kilocalories Per Gram Carbohydrates 4 Kcal/gram Proteins 4 Kcal/gram Lipids 9 Kcal/gram Alcohol 7 Kcal/gram
  • 13. Calculating the Percent of Kcal from Each Nutrient in Foods Fat 13 grams 13 grams X 9 Kcal/gm = 117 Kcal Carbohydrate 31 grams 31 grams X 4 Kcal/gm = 124 Kcal Protein 5 grams 5 grams X 4 Kcal/gm = 20 Kcal / 261 = 0.448 (44.8%) / 261 = 0.475 (47.5%) / 261 = 0.077 (7.7%) 261 Kcal Total
  • 14. Regulation 1 2 3 Water Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Vitamins Minerals X X X X X X X X X X X X
  • 15. Elemental Diets Formulas containing precise chemical composition. Applications? For patients who cannot eat Astronauts Weight loss formulas (Slim Fast) Cannot maintain health for a prolonged period of time. Problem? Why not? Food interacts with the GI tract. Food provides physical and emotional benefits. Food provides phytochemicals.
  • 16. Types of Scientific Studies Case Study: Observations on a single patient.
  • 17. A case study: Does not prove anything, but suggests possible avenues of research.
  • 18. Types of Scientific Studies Case Study: Observations on a single patient. Epidemiological Study: Compare separate population groups with respect to nutrient intake and incidence of disease.
  • 19. An epidemiological study: Does not prove a cause and effect relationship. Does provide correlations for further study
  • 20. Types of Scientific Studies Case Study: Observations on a single patient. Epidemiological Study: Compare separate population groups with respect to nutrient intake and incidence of disease. Intervention Study: Give one population group extra nutrient while a control group gets a placebo. Then compare the incidence of disease between the experimental and control groups.
  • 21. Intervention Studies: Study group given more X Control group given a placebo Blind Studies Subjects do not know whether they are getting the nutrient or placebo. When repeated and confirmed may strongly suggest a cause and effect relationship
  • 22. Types of Scientific Studies Laboratory Study: Induce a deficiency of a nutrient in an experimental group of animals. Then compare the incidence of disease between the experimental group and a control group.
  • 23. Read in Chapter 1 Cultural and Social Meanings Attached to Food (pages 11-14) Nutrition Goals for the Nation (pages 14-15) The Challenge of Choosing Foods (pages 15-16)
  • 24. Five Characteristics of a Nutritious Diet Variety Balance Adequacy Calorie Control Moderation How well do Americans do?
  • 25. Nutrient Density The nutrient content relative to the calories supplied.
  • 26. Nutrient Density The nutrient content relative to the calories supplied. What type of foods have the highest nutrient density? Non starchy vegetables Other Good Ones: Low fat dairy products Low fat meats
  • 27. Reading Assignment Controversy 1: Who speaks on nutrition? (pages 22-26)