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- 1. BASIC NUTRITION
- 2. Nutrition: The study of how food nourishes the body.
- 3. Factors That Affect a Persons Longterm Health Genetics Lifestyle Exercise Smoking and other tobacco use Excessive alcohol consumption Choice of diet
- 4. Nutrients Components of food that are indispensable to the functioning of the body. Essential Nutrients: Nutrients that cannot be made by the body so a deficiency in the diet leads to disease.
- 5. There Are 6 Categories Nutrients Water Carbohydrates Lipids (fat) Proteins Vitamins Minerals Macronutrients (> 50 grams/day) Micronutrients (< 1 gram/day)
- 6. Basic Functions of Nutrients 1) Provide building materials for body structures. 2) Provide energy. 3) Regulate body processes.
- 7. Building Materials 1 2 3 Water Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Vitamins Minerals
- 8. Water 60% Lipids 10-20% Proteins 15% Carbohydrates 10-15% Minerals 5%
- 9. Building Materials 1 2 3 Water Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Vitamins Minerals X X X X X
- 10. Supply Energy 1 2 3 Water Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Vitamins Minerals X X X X X X X X
- 11. Energy Units calorie: The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 ml of water 1 degree C (from 15 to 16 degrees). Kilocalorie (Kcal): 1000 calories In nutritional literature Calories (with a capital C) means Kilocalories
- 12. Kilocalories Per Gram Carbohydrates 4 Kcal/gram Proteins 4 Kcal/gram Lipids 9 Kcal/gram Alcohol 7 Kcal/gram
- 13. Calculating the Percent of Kcal from Each Nutrient in Foods Fat 13 grams 13 grams X 9 Kcal/gm = 117 Kcal Carbohydrate 31 grams 31 grams X 4 Kcal/gm = 124 Kcal Protein 5 grams 5 grams X 4 Kcal/gm = 20 Kcal / 261 = 0.448 (44.8%) / 261 = 0.475 (47.5%) / 261 = 0.077 (7.7%) 261 Kcal Total
- 14. Regulation 1 2 3 Water Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Vitamins Minerals X X X X X X X X X X X X
- 15. Elemental Diets Formulas containing precise chemical composition. Applications? For patients who cannot eat Astronauts Weight loss formulas (Slim Fast) Cannot maintain health for a prolonged period of time. Problem? Why not? Food interacts with the GI tract. Food provides physical and emotional benefits. Food provides phytochemicals.
- 16. Types of Scientific Studies Case Study: Observations on a single patient.
- 17. A case study: Does not prove anything, but suggests possible avenues of research.
- 18. Types of Scientific Studies Case Study: Observations on a single patient. Epidemiological Study: Compare separate population groups with respect to nutrient intake and incidence of disease.
- 19. An epidemiological study: Does not prove a cause and effect relationship. Does provide correlations for further study
- 20. Types of Scientific Studies Case Study: Observations on a single patient. Epidemiological Study: Compare separate population groups with respect to nutrient intake and incidence of disease. Intervention Study: Give one population group extra nutrient while a control group gets a placebo. Then compare the incidence of disease between the experimental and control groups.
- 21. Intervention Studies: Study group given more X Control group given a placebo Blind Studies Subjects do not know whether they are getting the nutrient or placebo. When repeated and confirmed may strongly suggest a cause and effect relationship
- 22. Types of Scientific Studies Laboratory Study: Induce a deficiency of a nutrient in an experimental group of animals. Then compare the incidence of disease between the experimental group and a control group.
- 23. Read in Chapter 1 Cultural and Social Meanings Attached to Food (pages 11-14) Nutrition Goals for the Nation (pages 14-15) The Challenge of Choosing Foods (pages 15-16)
- 24. Five Characteristics of a Nutritious Diet Variety Balance Adequacy Calorie Control Moderation How well do Americans do?
- 25. Nutrient Density The nutrient content relative to the calories supplied.
- 26. Nutrient Density The nutrient content relative to the calories supplied. What type of foods have the highest nutrient density? Non starchy vegetables Other Good Ones: Low fat dairy products Low fat meats
- 27. Reading Assignment Controversy 1: Who speaks on nutrition? (pages 22-26)
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(Nutrients). Ecosystems need nutrients and energy Nutrients are Organisms transform nutrients Energy flows “Circle of Life” Organisms Environment
NUTRIENTS. OBJECTIVES 1. Define nutrients 2. Classify nutrients 3. Comprehend structure and functions of nutrients
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