Biomedical Engineering

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Biomedical Engineering. Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering Kate Gleason College of Engineering Rochester Institute of Technology http://www.rit.edu/kgcoe /biomedical. Daniel Phillips, Ph.D., Program Director dbpeee@rit.edu. Outline . What is biomedical engineering? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Engineering Freshmen Class

Biomedical EngineeringDepartment of Chemical and Biomedical EngineeringKate Gleason College of EngineeringRochester Institute of Technologyhttp://www.rit.edu/kgcoe/biomedical

Daniel Phillips, Ph.D., Program Director dbpeee@rit.eduRITBiomedical Engineering1Outline What is biomedical engineering?

Applications and challenges

Employment prospects and data

Questions?

Demonstrations

RITBiomedical Engineering2What is Engineering? Scientists explore to gain understanding - Engineers develop creative solutions to problems based on that understanding.

Engineering focuses on the development of new products and processes to enhance the world around us,

leveraging in creative and innovative ways the vast knowledge base embraced by the physical and life sciences (biology, chemistry, and physics),

enhanced by the quantitative power of mathematics.

RITBiomedical EngineeringWhat is Biomedical Engineering? The branch of engineering that uniquely leverages the vast knowledge base embraced by biology to solve problems focused on healthcare & the human body.

Biomedical Engineersunderstand the inner workings of the human body, including its organs, circulatory system, nerves, muscles, and bones, as well as the unique constraints placed on design. are experts at assessing the human body as a complex, interactive system.provide teams a link between human biology & engineering analysis.work in teams of experts across multiple disciplines

to create medical and health-related productsRITBiomedical EngineeringBiomedical Engineers work in teams to

develop devices that solve medical and health-related problemsArtificial organs and tissuesProsthesesImplants

develop probes and sensing equipment specific to the human physiology

develop procedures to implement devices and new technologies in and on the human body

interpret and run clinical trials on new devices and procedures

What is Biomedical Engineering? RITBiomedical EngineeringCore Competencies:Human anatomy, biology, physiologyStatisticsProblem solving capabilitySystems engineeringAll core sciences, integrated with mathematics and infused with engineering training, are used to address a wide variety of challengesrelated to the healthcare and the human body!

What is Biomedical Engineering? RITBiomedical EngineeringKidneyBlood & WasteBloodWasteExample: The KidneyFunction of kidney is to remove soluble waste from body.Engineers analyze the kidneys functions subject to given inputs,and develop models that can predict outputs.Systems Engineering Approach Engineers develop devices that replicate kidney functions. RITBiomedical Engineering7The kidney does not operate in isolation; it interacts with other systems in the body!Systems Engineering Approach Waste from cellular processesKidneyBlood & WasteBloodWasteHeartBlood & WasteBlood & WasteWaste from cellular processesNeed to analyze kidney and interactions!RITBiomedical Engineering8US Dept of Labor

Bureau of Labor Statistics

Biomedical Engineering

Occupational Employment StatisticsOccupational Employment and Wages, May 2010

http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes172031.htmRITBiomedical Engineering9Biomedical engineers

Employment by:industry, occupation, and percent distribution, (2008 and projected 2018)

* (Employment in thousands)

**Industries with fewer than 50 jobs, confidential data, or poor quality data are not displayed

Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010-11 Editionftp://ftp.bls.gov/pub/special.requests/ep/ind-occ.matrix/occ_pdf/occ_17-2031.pdfRITBiomedical Engineering10Questions?RITBiomedical Engineering11A simple challenge

Measure oxygen actually delivered to tissue

Take tissue sample and measure oxygen content (pretty invasive, messy)

Take blood perfusing tissue and measure oxygen content (somewhat removed, still sort of messy)RITBiomedical EngineeringA simple challenge

Measure oxygen actually delivered to tissueNONINVASIVELY (no bloodshed)

Pulse oximetry provides an indirect method to assess two parameters simultaneously

Percentage of oxygenated hemoglobin

Mechanical pumping action of heartRITBiomedical Engineering

The science:

Oxygen carried mainly via oxygenated hemoglobin

Deoxygenated hemoglobin absorbs light differently than oxygenated hemoglobinRITBiomedical EngineeringEngineering solution amount of oxygen delivered

Measure absorbance at two different wavelengths to determine percentage of oxygenated hemoglobin

If you know amount of hemoglobin per unit volume of blood, you can assess amount of oxygen available to be delivered to tissue (basic goal)

SpO2 percentage saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen

RITBiomedical EngineeringEngineering solution measuring pumping action of heart

Heart pumping produce pulsatile pressure in arterial vasculature

Pressure pulses produces local volume changes

Volume changes change overall absorbance of light

Measuring absorbance changes provides indication of pressure changes which can be traced back to heart pumping

Photo-plethysmography

RITBiomedical EngineeringPulse oximeter a multidisciplinary effort

Biomedical basic design of the instrumentation based on understanding of cardiovascular physiology, cell and molecular biology

Electrical light drive and sensing circuitry

Mechanical finger clip mechanism

Computer signal processing

Chemical Organic Light Emitting Diode display

Optical light source and detectionRITBiomedical EngineeringDemonstration

Finger pulse oximeter

Meaures pulse rate and SpO2

Which would you expect to change more rapidly?Which would you expect to vary the most person to person?

Simple breath hold and release

- What happens to Pulse Rate?

- What happens to SpO2?

RITBiomedical Engineering