Biomass Ultim

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Utilizarea biomasei


<ul><li><p>Topics: Biomass types, Characterization, Conversion routes, Bio chemical BIOMASS ENERGY*</p></li><li><p>Biomass is biological/organic material derived from living, or recently living organisms.Is a mixture of structural constituents (hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin) and minor amounts of extractives, stored in form of complex organic compounds of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen ,Nitrogen etc.It is a source of 5F: food, fodder, fuel, fiber and fertilizer.Renewable energy source It can be converted into useful forms of energy through different conversion routes.Gets converted into fossil fuels after several million years under certain conditions of pressure, temperature, air BIOMASS*</p></li><li><p>Wood: Trees, bushes, wood residue (Sawdust, bark etc. from forest clearings and mills) Wastes: Municipal Solid Waste (Paper, food and yard wastes, plastics, wood and tires), Livestock Waste, Process Waste, Sewage Crops: Starch crops (Corn, wheat and barley), Sugar crops (Cane and beet), Forage crops (Grasses, alfalfa, and clover), Oilseed crops (soybean, sunflower, safflower )Aquatic Plants: Algae, Water weed, Water hyacinth, Reed and rushes EXAMPLES OF BIOMASS*</p></li><li><p>Living biomass in plants and trees absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through photosynthesis Biomass emits carbon dioxide when it naturally decays and when it is used as an energy source Biomass causes a closed cycle with no net emissions of greenhouse gasesBIOMASS AND CARBON EMMISIONS*</p></li><li><p>Energy obtained from biomass is called biomass energy.Produced by green plants through photosynthesis in presence of sun light </p><p>BIOMASS ENERGY*</p></li><li><p>ORIGIN OF BIOMASS ENERGY*</p></li><li><p>Derived from biological carbon fixation of biomassExamples are BioalcoholsBiodieselGreen dieselBiogasSolid bio-fuels</p><p>BIO-FUEL*</p></li><li><p>Bioalcohols Produced by the action of microorganisms and enzymes through the fermentation of sugars or starches or celluloseBiodiesel Produced from oils or fats using transesterificationGreen dieselProduced from traditional fractional distillation to process the oils of canola, algae, jatropha and salicornia </p><p>BIO-FUEL *</p></li><li><p>BiogasProduced by the process of anaerobic digestion of biodegradable waste materials or energy cropsThe solid byproduct can be used as a biofuel or a fertilizer.Solid biofuelsRaw biomass is burnt directly in a stove or furnace to provide heatLow density biomass (saw dust, rice husk) is densified by palletization/briquetting.</p><p>BIO-FUEL *</p></li><li><p>Biomass Energy Resource are broadly classified into two categories:</p><p>Nurtured/Cultivated: Biomass from cultivated fields, crops, forests.</p><p>Waste Organic Material: Biomass from wasteBIOMASS ENERGY RESOURCE*</p></li><li><p>PRINCIPAL BIOMASS ENERGY RESOURCES AND CONVERSION PROCESS*</p><p>CategoryName of the Biomass SourceConversion ProcessCultivated Energy ResourceTrees, (Wood chips, saw dusts)Burning to produce heat and electricityAquatic crops, algae, green plantsProducing biogas and biochemicalsAgricultural cropsProduction of gas (Wood gasification)Fruit farmsProduction of wood oil and charcoal (Wood to oil process)</p></li><li><p>PRINCIPAL BIOMASS ENERGY RESOURCES AND CONVERSION PROCESS *</p><p>CategoryName of the Biomass SourceConversion ProcessWaste Biomass resources from farms and bio-industryRice and wheat huskProduction of ethyl alcohol by fermentation of molasses, beet root, fruits, potatoes, cerealsBaggase of sugar caneCoconut husk, groundnut shell, straw of rice, wheat etc.Waste of furniture industry, wood industryWaste of poultry industry, fishery industry, food industry, brewery, tannery, butchery etc.Carbohydrates, glucose, fructose etc.</p></li><li><p>The biomass conversion process has several routes depending upon temperature, pressure, micro-organisms, and process conditions. These routes are classified in following three broad categories. Direct combustion (Incineration) Thermo-chemical conversion Biochemical conversionBIOMASS ENERGY CONVERSION PROCESSES*</p></li><li><p>DIRECT COMBUSTIONDirect combustion (rapid oxidation accompanied by heat and light) of biomass is the most straight forward method of energy production. Generally direct combustion is applicable to solid biomass including cultivated biomass and waste biomass.The heat released by direct combustion can be used for several useful purposes such as cooking, industrial heat, steam generation, electricity generation etc. The direct burning of biomass is the cause of a great deal of pollution and has contributed to global warming.</p><p>*</p></li><li><p>An electrostatic precipitator (ESP) controls particulate emissionsA TYPICAL POWER-PLANT*</p></li><li><p>SILAGE PILINGBIO-MASS STORAGE METHODS*</p></li><li><p>EURO BAGGINGBIO-MASS STORAGE METHODS *</p></li><li><p>THERMO-CHEMICAL CONVERSIONThese processes include gasification and pyrolysis and are separated principally by the availability of oxygen and conversion temperature.Gasification is the conversion of a solid biomass into a gaseous fuel at a high temperature with controlled air.Pyrolyisis involves the heating of biomass such as wood or agricultural waste at around 500-900 oC in the absence of oxygen to decompose it into gas, bio-oil and charcoal (carbon). *</p></li><li><p>PYROLYSIS OF URBAN WASTE*</p></li><li><p>The process makes use of the enzymes of bacteria and other micro-organisms to break down biomass to produce liquid and gaseous fuelsIn most cases micro-organisms are used to perform the conversion process: anaerobic digestion, fermentation and composting. Other chemical processes such as converting vegetable or animal oils into biodiesel is transesterification. </p><p>BIO-CHEMICAL CONVERSION*</p></li><li><p>Biological treatment done either in absence of oxygen (anaerobic).The main important fuel obtained is Biogas</p><p>ANAEROBIC DIGESTION</p></li><li><p>TYPICAL BIOGAS COMPOSITIONHeating value = 4500 4700 k cal/m3</p><p>Sl. No.Constituents % (V/V)1CH4602CO2383H2S &lt; 14H2O vapors~ 1</p></li><li><p>SCHEMATIC OF A FIXED DOME TYPE BIOGAS PLANT</p></li><li><p>Position a of dome with less gas in the dome. Position b of dome with more gas in the dome.SCHEMATIC OF A FLOATING DOME TYPE BIOGAS PLANT</p></li><li><p>FERMENTATIONProcess of production of ethyl alcohol from any feedstock containing sugar or starch or also from cellulose materials.Feedstock: Sugar: Sugar beets, sugar cane, sweet sorghum, Fruits etcStarches: Grains like corn, wheat, potatoes etc.Cellulose: Wood, solid waste, agricultural wastes etc. Process of production: Fermentation of fermentable sugar solutionFermentation of sugar solution to Ethyl alcohol Separation of ethanol from other by products. </p></li><li><p>PROCESS OF PRODUCTION OF FUEL ALCOHOL</p></li><li><p>Renewable and inexhaustible (theoretically) source of energyBiomass is very abundant and can be regenerated. It is easy to convert to different bio-fuels. It is cheap in contrast to the other energy sources.Commercial use of biomass may reduce the problem of waste disposal.Nitrogen-rich bio-digested residue from a biogas plant is a good soil conditioner and improves the fertility of soil</p><p>ADVANTAGES OF BIOMASS ENERGY*</p></li><li><p>A dispersed and land-intensive sourceLow energy densityCould contribute a great deal to global warming and particulate pollution if directly burnedStill an expensive source, both in terms of producing the biomass and converting it to alcoholsDISADVANTAGES OF BIOMASS ENERGY*</p></li><li><p>Many thanks for not sleeping!*</p><p>**The FUEL (Silage) is not available throughout the yearStorage of Silage is required such that it is not damaged</p><p>*Sterilization : The act of making an organism barren or infertile Denaturation : A structural change in macromolecules caused by extreme conditions. A process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose their tertiary structure and secondary structure by application of some external stress or compound, such as a strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), or heat. For ex. egg's protein has undergone denaturation and loss of solubility, caused by the high rise of the temperature of the egg during the cooking process*</p></li></ul>