biogeochemistry of inland waters

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A detailed account of natural chemical interactions in the environment.


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  • BIOGEOCHEMISTRY OF INLAND WATERS A DERIVATIVE OF ENCYCLOPEDIA OF INLAND WATERS EDITOR PROFESSOR GENE E. LIKENS Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies Millbrook, NY, USA Amsterdam Boston Heidelberg London New York Oxford Paris San Diego San Francisco Singapore Sydney Tokyo Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier
  • Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, CA 92101-4495, USA 30Corporate Drive, Suite 400, Burlington, MA01803, USA 32 Jamestown Road, London, NW1 7BY, UK Radarweg 29, PO Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, The Netherlands Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved Material in this work originally appeared in Encyclopedia of Inland Waters by Gene E. Likens (Elsevier Inc. 2009) The following articles are US Government works in the public domain and are not subject to copyright: VADOSE WATER GROUND WATER GROUNDWATER CHEMISTRY DISSOLVED HUMIC SUBSTANCES: INTERACTIONS WITH ORGANISMS POLLUTION OF AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS II: HYDROCARBONS, SYNTHETIC ORGANICS, RADIONUCLIDES, HEAVY METALS, ACIDS, AND THERMAL POLLUTION No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher Permissions may be sought directly from Elseviers Science & Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone (+44) (0) 1865 843830; fax (+44) (0) 1865 853333; email: [email protected] Alternatively you can submit your request online by visiting the Elsevier web site at, and selecting Obtaining permission to use Elsevier material Notice No responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the material herein, Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, in particular, independent verification of diagnoses and drug dosages should be made British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Biogeochemistry of inland waters : a derivative of Encyclopedia of Inland Waters / editor, Gene E. Likens. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-12-381996-3 (alk. paper) 1. Fresh water. 2. Biogeochemistry. I. Likens, Gene E., 1935- QH541.5.F7.B556 2010 577.614dc22 2010010993 ISBN: 9780123819963 For information on all Academic Press publications visit our website at Printed and bound in China 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
  • EDITOR Professor Gene E. Likens is an ecologist best known for his discovery, with colleagues, of acid rain in North America, for co-founding the internationally renowned Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study, and for founding the Institute of Ecosystem Studies, a leading international ecological research and education center. Professor Likens is an educator and advisor at state, national, and international levels. He has been an advisor to two governors in New York State and one in New Hampshire, as well as one U.S. President. He holds faculty positions at Yale, Cornell, Rutgers Universities, State University of New York at Albany, and the University of Connecticut, and has been awarded nine Honorary doctoral Degrees. In addition to being elected a member of the prestigious National Academy of Sciences and the American Philosophical Society, Dr. Likens has been elected to membership in the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, Austrian Academy of Sciences, and an Honorary Member of the British Ecological Society. In June 2002, Professor Likens was awarded the 2001 National Medal of Science, presented at The White House by President G. W. Bush; and in 2003 he was awarded the Blue Planet Prize (with F. H. Bormann) from the Asahi Glass Foundation. Among other awards, in 1993 Professor Likens, with F. H. Bormann, was awarded the Tyler Prize, The World Prize for Environmental Achievement, and in 1994, he was the sole recipient of the Australia Prize for Science and Technology. In 2004, Professor Likens was honored to be in Melbourne, Australia with a Miegunyah Fellowship. He was awarded the first G.E. Hutchinson Medal for excellence in research from The American Society of Limnology and Oceanography in 1982, and the Naumann-Thienemann Medal from the Societas Internationalis Limnologiae, and the Ecological Society of Americas Eminent Ecologist Award in 1995. Professor Likens recently stepped down as President of the International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology, and is also a past president of the American Institute of Biological Sciences, the Ecological Society of America, and the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography. He is the author, co-author or editor of 20 books and more than 500 scientific papers. Professor Likens is currently in Australia on a Commonwealth Environment Research Facilities (CERF) Fellowship at the Australian National University. v
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  • CONTRIBUTORS J H Aldstadt III University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, USA W M Alley U.S. Geological Survey, San Diego, CA, USA J L Ammerman SEAL Analytical, Inc., Mequon Technology Center, Mequon, WI, USA J P Antenucci University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA, Australia J F Atkinson University of Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA D L Bade Kent State University, Kent, OH, USA M T Barbour Tetra Tech, Owings Mills, MD, USA D Bastviken Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden L Boegman Queens University, Kingston, ON, Canada B Boehrer UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Magdeburg, Germany H A Bootsma University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, USA P A Bukaveckas Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA N Caraco Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY, USA M J Coates Deakin University, Warrnambool, Vic., Australia J J Cole Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY, USA D J Conley Lund University, Lund, Sweden C S Cronan University of Maine, Orono, ME, USA E A Dreelin Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA K R Echols US Geological Survey, Columbia, MO, USA M C Feller University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada K Fienberg University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA A M Folkard Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK E Foufoula-Georgiou University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA W Geller UFZ Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research, Magdeburg, Germany A E Giblin Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA, USA C Gilmour Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, MD, USA D S Glazier Juniata College, Huntingdon, PA, USA C R Goldman University of California, Davis, CA, USA E M Gross University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany vii
  • G Harris Lancaster University, UK J Hauxwell DNR Science Operations Center, Madison, WI, USA B R Hodges University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA G Hornberger Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA R Howarth Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA J A Hubbart University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA J R Jones University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA N O G Jrgensen University of Copenhagen, Fredericksberg, Denmark P Y Julien Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA G Katul Duke University, Durham, NC, USA S S Kaushal University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Solomons, MD, USA R Kipfer Swiss Federal Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (Eawag), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Ueberlandstr, Duebendorf, Switzerland S Knight University of Wisconsin Trout Lake Station and Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Boulder Junction, WI, USA H-P Kozerski Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin, Germany J W LaBaugh U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA W M Lewis University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA A Lorke University of Koblenz-Landau, Landau/Pfaly, Germany S MacIntyre University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA R W Marino Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA M D Mattson Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, Worcester, MA, USA R M McNinch Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA J C Meadows US Geological Survey, Columbia, MO, USA R Menzel Humboldt Universita t zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany M Meybeck Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France E Michael Perdue Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA S G Monismith Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA T N Narasimhan University of California at Berkeley, CA, USA H M Nepf Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA J R Nimmo U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA, USA R H Norris University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT, Australia K Novick Duke University, Durham, NC, USA Y Olsen Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway C E Orazio US Geological Survey, Columbia, MO, USA F Peeters Universita t Konstanz, Mainaustrasse, Konstanz, Germany Y T Prairie Universite du Que bec a` Montre al, Montre al, QC, Canada E Prepas Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, ON, Canada G Putz Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, ON, Canada V H Resh University of C