Biogeochemistry of inland waters
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DESCRIPTIONA detailed account of natural chemical interactions in the environment.
<ul><li> BIOGEOCHEMISTRY OF INLAND WATERS A DERIVATIVE OF ENCYCLOPEDIA OF INLAND WATERS </li> <li> This page intentionally left blank </li> <li> BIOGEOCHEMISTRY OF INLAND WATERS A DERIVATIVE OF ENCYCLOPEDIA OF INLAND WATERS EDITOR PROFESSOR GENE E. LIKENS Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies Millbrook, NY, USA Amsterdam Boston Heidelberg London New York Oxford Paris San Diego San Francisco Singapore Sydney Tokyo Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier </li> <li> Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, CA 92101-4495, USA 30Corporate Drive, Suite 400, Burlington, MA01803, USA 32 Jamestown Road, London, NW1 7BY, UK Radarweg 29, PO Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, The Netherlands Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved Material in this work originally appeared in Encyclopedia of Inland Waters by Gene E. Likens (Elsevier Inc. 2009) The following articles are US Government works in the public domain and are not subject to copyright: VADOSE WATER GROUND WATER GROUNDWATER CHEMISTRY DISSOLVED HUMIC SUBSTANCES: INTERACTIONS WITH ORGANISMS POLLUTION OF AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS II: HYDROCARBONS, SYNTHETIC ORGANICS, RADIONUCLIDES, HEAVY METALS, ACIDS, AND THERMAL POLLUTION No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher Permissions may be sought directly from Elseviers Science & Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone (+44) (0) 1865 843830; fax (+44) (0) 1865 853333; email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Alternatively you can submit your request online by visiting the Elsevier web site at http://elsevier.com/locate/permissions, and selecting Obtaining permission to use Elsevier material Notice No responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the material herein, Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, in particular, independent verification of diagnoses and drug dosages should be made British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Biogeochemistry of inland waters : a derivative of Encyclopedia of Inland Waters / editor, Gene E. Likens. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-12-381996-3 (alk. paper) 1. Fresh water. 2. Biogeochemistry. I. Likens, Gene E., 1935- QH541.5.F7.B556 2010 577.614dc22 2010010993 ISBN: 9780123819963 For information on all Academic Press publications visit our website at Elsevierdirect.com Printed and bound in China 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 </li> <li> EDITOR Professor Gene E. Likens is an ecologist best known for his discovery, with colleagues, of acid rain in North America, for co-founding the internationally renowned Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study, and for founding the Institute of Ecosystem Studies, a leading international ecological research and education center. Professor Likens is an educator and advisor at state, national, and international levels. He has been an advisor to two governors in New York State and one in New Hampshire, as well as one U.S. President. He holds faculty positions at Yale, Cornell, Rutgers Universities, State University of New York at Albany, and the University of Connecticut, and has been awarded nine Honorary doctoral Degrees. In addition to being elected a member of the prestigious National Academy of Sciences and the American Philosophical Society, Dr. Likens has been elected to membership in the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, Austrian Academy of Sciences, and an Honorary Member of the British Ecological Society. In June 2002, Professor Likens was awarded the 2001 National Medal of Science, presented at The White House by President G. W. Bush; and in 2003 he was awarded the Blue Planet Prize (with F. H. Bormann) from the Asahi Glass Foundation. Among other awards, in 1993 Professor Likens, with F. H. Bormann, was awarded the Tyler Prize, The World Prize for Environmental Achievement, and in 1994, he was the sole recipient of the Australia Prize for Science and Technology. In 2004, Professor Likens was honored to be in Melbourne, Australia with a Miegunyah Fellowship. He was awarded the first G.E. Hutchinson Medal for excellence in research from The American Society of Limnology and Oceanography in 1982, and the Naumann-Thienemann Medal from the Societas Internationalis Limnologiae, and the Ecological Society of Americas Eminent Ecologist Award in 1995. Professor Likens recently stepped down as President of the International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology, and is also a past president of the American Institute of Biological Sciences, the Ecological Society of America, and the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography. He is the author, co-author or editor of 20 books and more than 500 scientific papers. Professor Likens is currently in Australia on a Commonwealth Environment Research Facilities (CERF) Fellowship at the Australian National University. v </li> <li> This page intentionally left blank </li> <li> CONTRIBUTORS J H Aldstadt III University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, USA W M Alley U.S. Geological Survey, San Diego, CA, USA J L Ammerman SEAL Analytical, Inc., Mequon Technology Center, Mequon, WI, USA J P Antenucci University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA, Australia J F Atkinson University of Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA D L Bade Kent State University, Kent, OH, USA M T Barbour Tetra Tech, Owings Mills, MD, USA D Bastviken Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden L Boegman Queens University, Kingston, ON, Canada B Boehrer UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Magdeburg, Germany H A Bootsma University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, USA P A Bukaveckas Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA N Caraco Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY, USA M J Coates Deakin University, Warrnambool, Vic., Australia J J Cole Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY, USA D J Conley Lund University, Lund, Sweden C S Cronan University of Maine, Orono, ME, USA E A Dreelin Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA K R Echols US Geological Survey, Columbia, MO, USA M C Feller University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada K Fienberg University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA A M Folkard Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK E Foufoula-Georgiou University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA W Geller UFZ Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research, Magdeburg, Germany A E Giblin Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA, USA C Gilmour Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, MD, USA D S Glazier Juniata College, Huntingdon, PA, USA C R Goldman University of California, Davis, CA, USA E M Gross University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany vii </li> <li> G Harris Lancaster University, UK J Hauxwell DNR Science Operations Center, Madison, WI, USA B R Hodges University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA G Hornberger Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA R Howarth Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA J A Hubbart University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA J R Jones University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA N O G Jrgensen University of Copenhagen, Fredericksberg, Denmark P Y Julien Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA G Katul Duke University, Durham, NC, USA S S Kaushal University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Solomons, MD, USA R Kipfer Swiss Federal Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (Eawag), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Ueberlandstr, Duebendorf, Switzerland S Knight University of Wisconsin Trout Lake Station and Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Boulder Junction, WI, USA H-P Kozerski Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin, Germany J W LaBaugh U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA W M Lewis University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA A Lorke University of Koblenz-Landau, Landau/Pfaly, Germany S MacIntyre University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA R W Marino Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA M D Mattson Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, Worcester, MA, USA R M McNinch Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA J C Meadows US Geological Survey, Columbia, MO, USA R Menzel Humboldt Universita t zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany M Meybeck Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France E Michael Perdue Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA S G Monismith Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA T N Narasimhan University of California at Berkeley, CA, USA H M Nepf Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA J R Nimmo U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA, USA R H Norris University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT, Australia K Novick Duke University, Durham, NC, USA Y Olsen Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway C E Orazio US Geological Survey, Columbia, MO, USA F Peeters Universita t Konstanz, Mainaustrasse, Konstanz, Germany Y T Prairie Universite du Que bec a` Montre al, Montre al, QC, Canada E Prepas Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, ON, Canada G Putz Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, ON, Canada V H Resh University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA C S Reynolds Centre of Ecology and Hydrology and Freshwater Biological Association, Cumbria, UK viii Contributors </li> <li> B L Rhoads University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA G Riedel Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, MD, USA J B Rose Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA F J Rueda Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain M Schultze UFZ Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research, Magdeburg, Germany N Serediak Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, ON, Canada R W Sheibley Washington Water Science Center, Tacoma, WA, USA D W Smith Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, ON, Canada V H Smith University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA M Sndergaard University of Aarhus, Denmark C E W Steinberg Humboldt Universita t zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany R W Sterner University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA K M Stewart State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA E Struyf Lund University, Lund, Sweden A N Sukhodolov Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin, Germany M A Timofeyev Baikalean Research Centre, Irkutsk, Russia R W Tiner University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA L J Tranvik Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden H M Valett Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA A V Va ha talo University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland J Vidal Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain W F Vincent Laval University, Quebec City, QC, Canada E von Wachenfeldt Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden C J Watras Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WI, USA F M Wilhelm University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, USA T C Winter US Geological Survey, Denver, CO, USA E Wohl Department of Geosciences, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO, USA A Wu est Eawag, Surface Waters Research and Management, Kastanienbaum, Switzerland Contributors ix </li> <li> This page intentionally left blank </li> <li> CONTENTS Editor v Contributors viiix Introduction to the Biogeochemistry of Inland Waters and Factors Affecting Flux and Cycling of Chemicals xvxvi PROPERTIES OF WATER Chemical Properties of Water J H Aldstadt III, H A Bootsma, and J L Ammerman 1 Physical Properties of Water K M Stewart 10 Pressure J F Atkinson 17 Gas Exchange at the AirWater Interface D L Bade 28 Light, Photolytic Reactivity and Chemical Products A V Va ha talo 37 HYDROLOGY Hydrological Cycle and Water Budgets T N Narasimhan 51 Atmospheric Water and Precipitation K Fienberg and E Foufoula-Georgiou 58 Snow and Ice G Hornberger and T C Winter 68 Evapotranspiration G Katul and K Novick 69 Vadose Water J R Nimmo 76 Ground Water W M Alley 88 Ground Water and Surface Water Interaction H M Valett and R W Sheibley 95 Groundwater Chemistry J W LaBaugh 107 Fluvial Export M Meybeck 118 Fluvial Transport of Suspended Solids P Y Julien 131 Streams E Wohl 134 Rivers P A Bukaveckas 143 Springs D S Glazier 155 Wetland Hydrology R W Tiner 177 xi </li> <li> HYDRODYNAMICS AND MIXING IN LAKES, RESERVOIRS, WETLANDS AND RIVERS Biological-Physical Interactions C S Reynolds 189 Density Stratification and Stability B Boehrer and M Schultze 196 The Surface Mixed Layer in Lakes and Reservoirs S G Monismith and S MacIntyre 207 Small-Scale Turbulence and Mixing: Energy Fluxes in Stratified Lakes A Wu est and A Lorke 222 The Benthic Boundary Layer (in Rivers, Lakes, and Reservoirs) A Lorke and S MacIntyre 230 Currents in Rivers A N Sukhodolov, H-P Kozerski, and B L Rhoads 239 Currents in Stratified Water Bodies 1: Density-Driven Flows F Peeters and R Kipfer 247 Currents in Stratified Water Bodies 2: Internal Waves L Boegman 256 Currents in Stratified Water Bodies 3: Effects of Rotation J P Antenucci 277 Currents in the Upper Mixed Layer and in Unstratified Water Bodies F J Rueda and J Vidal 286 Flow in Wetlands and Macrophyte Beds A M Folkard and M J Coates 301 Flow Modification by Submerged Vegetation H M Nepf 313 Hydrodynamical Modeling B R Hodges 320 INORGANIC CHEMICALS: CYCLES AND ECOSYSTEM DYNAMICS Chemical Fluxes and Dynamics in River and Stream Ecosystems W M Lewis 335 Dissolved CO2 J J Cole and Y T Prairie 343 Alkalinity M D Mattson 348 Major Cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Al) C S Cronan 354 Chloride S S Kaushal 361 Iron and Manganese A E Giblin 368 Micronutrient Elements (Co, Mo, Mn, Zn, Cu) C R Goldman 378 Biogeochemistry of Trace Metals and Mettaloids C Gilmour and G Riedel 383 Nitrogen Fixation R W Marino and R Howarth 392 Nitrogen R Howarth 400 Phosphorus N Caraco 408 Silica D J Conley and E Struyf 414 Salinity G Harris 418 ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: CYCLES AND DYNAMICS Allelochemical Reactions E M Gross 425 Carbohydrates N O G Jrgensen 437 Carbon, Unifying Currency Y T Prairie and J J Cole 453 Dissolved Humic Substances: Interactions with Organisms C E W Steinberg, M A Timofeyev, and R Menzel 457 xii Contents </li> <li> Interactions of D...</li></ul>
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Types of Inland Postal Articles 2.1.1. Inland Mail There are 10 classes of articles – Letters – Inland Letter Cards (ILC) – Post Cards – Book Packets