biogas and bio-syngas upgrading - teknologisk and syngas... · biogas and bio-syngas upgrading

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  • 1

    Report

    Biogas and bio-syngas upgrading

    Carried out by:

    Danish Technological Institute

    Laura Bailn Allegue and Jrgen Hinge

    Kongsvang All 29

    DK8000 Aarhus C

    Date: December 2012

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    Content

    1 Summary ...................................................................................................................... 5

    2 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 6

    3 Biogas composition .................................................................................................... 7

    3.1 Biogas quality versus feedstock composition ............................................................. 9

    3.2 Biogas quality versus production process ................................................................. 12

    4 Biogas quality for energy uses ................................................................................ 15

    4.1 Biogas for only heat production .................................................................................. 16

    4.2 Biogas to cogeneration systems (CHP) ...................................................................... 17

    4.2.1 Biogas for internal combustion engines ................................................................................... 17 4.2.2 Biogas for Stirling engines ....................................................................................................... 18 4.2.3 Biogas for gas turbines and micro-turbines ............................................................................. 18 4.2.4 Biogas for fuel cells .................................................................................................................. 20

    4.3 Biogas into the natural gas grid .................................................................................. 22 4.3.1 Biomethane standards ............................................................................................................. 24

    4.4 Biogas as vehicle fuel .................................................................................................. 30

    4.5 Biogas as CNG and LNG .............................................................................................. 30

    5 Biogas upgrading technologies ............................................................................... 31

    5.1 Adsorption .................................................................................................................... 31

    5.2 Water Scrubbing ........................................................................................................... 33

    5.3 Physical Absorption ..................................................................................................... 36

    5.4 Chemical Absorption .................................................................................................... 37

    5.5 Membrane Technology ................................................................................................. 38

    5.6 Cryogen technique ....................................................................................................... 40

    5.7 Biological methane enrichment ................................................................................... 42

    5.8 Ecological lung ............................................................................................................. 43

    5.9 Summary of upgrading technologies specifications ................................................. 44

    6 Biogas cleaning methods ......................................................................................... 49

    6.1 Hydrogen sulfide removal ............................................................................................ 49 6.1.1 In-situ (digester) sulfide abatement by addition of iron salts/oxides to the digester slurry ...... 51 6.1.2 In-situ biological H2S reduction by air/oxygen dosing to digester slurry .................................. 52 6.1.3 Adsorption ................................................................................................................................ 53 6.1.4 Absorption/Scrubbing .............................................................................................................. 57 6.1.5 Membrane separation .............................................................................................................. 59 6.1.6 Biofilters and biotrickling filters ................................................................................................ 59 6.1.7 Bioscrubber .............................................................................................................................. 61

    6.2 Water removal ............................................................................................................... 62

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    6.2.1 Water condensation ................................................................................................................. 62 6.2.2 Water adsorption ..................................................................................................................... 63 6.2.3 Water absorption ..................................................................................................................... 63

    6.3 Siloxanes removal ........................................................................................................ 63

    6.4 Halogenated hydrocarbons removal ........................................................................... 65

    6.5 Oxygen removal ............................................................................................................ 66

    6.6 Nitrogen removal .......................................................................................................... 66

    6.7 Ammonia removal ......................................................................................................... 66

    6.8 Particle removal ............................................................................................................ 66

    7 Overview of system propagation ............................................................................. 67

    8 Converting biogas to non-cryogenic liquid fuels ................................................... 71

    9 Biogas as feedstock .................................................................................................. 71

    10 Gas composition from thermal gasification units ............................................... 72

    10.1 Impact from gasifier type ............................................................................................. 72

    10.2 Impact on product gas from different types of biomass ............................................ 74

    11 Gas quality from thermal gasification plants ...................................................... 75

    12 Cleaning process ................................................................................................... 76

    12.1 Particulate removal ....................................................................................................... 76

    12.2 Tar Conversion ............................................................................................................. 77

    12.2.1 Thermal partial oxidation ......................................................................................................... 77 12.2.2 Catalytic oxidation .................................................................................................................... 77 12.2.3 Scrubbing ................................................................................................................................. 78

    12.3 Hydrochloric acid, ammonia, and sulfur removal....................................................... 78 12.3.1 Adsorption processes .............................................................................................................. 78

    12.3.2 Rectisol and Selexol absorption process ............................................................................. 79 12.3.3 Membrane solutions ................................................................................................................ 79 12.3.4 COS hydrolyses ....................................................................................................................... 79

    12.4 Chloride and alkali removal ......................................................................................... 79

    12.5 Carbon dioxide removal ............................................................................................... 79

    13 Methane production from bio-syngas .................................................................. 81

    14 Liquid fuel production from bio-syngas .............................................................. 81

    14.1 Methanol ........................................................................................................................ 82

    14.2 Fischer-Tropsch process ............................................................................................. 83

    15 Biomass thermal gasification ongoing activities ................................................ 84

    15.1 Rentech ......................................................................................................................... 84

    15.2 The Gssing gasifier .................................................................................................... 85

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    15.3 EON SNG production, Gteborg Energy .................................................................. 8

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