Biodiversity and socio-economic impacts of trade-oriented agro-commodity production systems
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DESCRIPTIONwww.aidenvironment.org. Biodiversity and socio-economic impacts of trade-oriented agro-commodity production systems. UNEP 28 November 2007 Jan Joost Kessler AIDEnvironment email@example.com. Objectives of the study. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Biodiversity and socio-economic impacts of trade-oriented agro-commodity production systemsUNEP 28 November 2007Jan Joost Kessler AIDEnvironmentkessler@aidenvironment.orgwww.aidenvironment.orgObjectives of the studyTo assess the biodiversity and socio-economic impacts of the Dutch / EU trade and consumption of certain agro-commoditiesTo develop a suitable methodology to do soFocus at agro-commodities for which NL is important consumer and the most important producer countries:soy (in Argentina and Brazil)palm oil (in Indonesia and Malaysia)beef (in Argentina and Brazil) coffee (in Honduras and Vietnam) Assessment of biodiversity impactsSelection of administrative units in countries where production is concentratedInsight in production systemsData on land-use dynamics / expansion for agro-commodities in recent 5-8 years (= study period) Calculation of 5 indicators based on concept of Natural Capital Index Natural Capital Index = quantity x qualityThe decline of NCI as land-use intensifiesLiterature review Tropical & temperate regions Plants, insects, birds, other vertebratesBiodiversity ( NCI)Reference data on NCI decline for land-useBiodiversity indicators used in studyExample of results for soy in BrazilBiodiversity loss from soy in Brazil and Argentina before 1995 (yellow) and between 1995-2004 (red)Some conclusionsB0: Expansion of selected commodities in selected production areas during study period was 28 m ha, and about 67 m ha in the countries. B1: Soy showed the highest growth factors (80-90%). Low growth factors occur in established region. Growth factors are highest in frontier regions.B2: In expansion and frontier areas NCI is often higher than the national average. B3: NCI loss by commodity is generally not high (1-5%), because areas are large. B4: The contribution from commodity production during the study period to overall biodiversity loss by land-use may be more than 10%. B5: reflects the ecological impacts in terms of area with 100% NCI loss, which may be quite high. Corrected for multiplier effects. Total biodiversity loss caused by the commodities in selected areas in the study period corresponds to 154,000 km (= four times the Netherlands). Multiplier effects are macro-level changes due to the agro-commodity, e.g. displacement of people or expansion as a result of food competition.Assessment of socio-economic impactsAssessment of socio-economic impactsMain conclusionsConsiderable loss of NCI by agro-commodities, mainly in expansion and frontier areas, can be roughly quantified by using NCI and reference dataLoss of NCI by production and trade of agro-commodities is not, or not sufficiently compensated by improvement of socio-economic well-being, especially in frontier areasThe methodology allows one to assess these changes at sub-national level, especially for selected areas where statistics are available assessments at national level would not be useful Major risks now with expansion of biofuels (e.g. palmoil)Doubts about theory of export-oriented growth?Thank you
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