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DESCRIPTIONBio-based chemicals are derived from renewable feedstock, i.e. all biomass derived from plants, animals or microorganisms (including biological waste from households, agricultural residues, and waste from animals and food/feed production), which can be used in part or as a whole as raw materials for industrial production and energy generation. in this slides I try to speech about biobased chemicals and its products,methods and other opportunities...
- 1.Biobased ChemicalsPresented by S.Rasoulinejad Msc, Microbial Biotechnology Winter 2013-2014
2. introduction Bio-based chemicals are derived from renewable feedstock, i.e. all biomassderived from plants, animals or microorganisms (including biological waste from households, agricultural residues, and waste from animals and food/feed production), which can be used in part or as a whole as raw materials for industrial production and energy generation.is important to differentiate between 1st and 2nd generation technology for the production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals. First generations Second generations 3. Analysis of markets for bio-based productsThere is a wide range of bio-based products which could eventually acquire a substantial market acceptance:Fibre based materials (i.e. for construction sector or car industry);Bio-plastics and other bio-polymers;Surfactants;Bio-solvents;Bio-lubricants;Ethanol and other chemicals and chemical building blocks;Pharmaceutical products incl. vaccines;Enzymes;Cosmetics. 4. bio-solvents, produced from vegetable oils and from starch progressively replace petrochemical solvents. Solvents mainly part of paintings, inks, varnishes, adhesives etc. Majority of solvents currently petrochemical solvents. Biopolymers, such as polysaccharides (carbohydrates starch from maize, wheat, and potatoes). Polylactic Acid (PLA), a plastic material derived by fermentation (producing lactic acid) from starches or glucose. Used for food packaging, bags, hygiene products, packaging for biological waste, plant pots, etc. Also composite materials with new qualities; textiles, etc. 5. Surfactants lower surface tension of liquids and are used in soaps, detergents, pharmaceuticals, food additives, etc. and for the production of emulsions and foams. They are produced largely from oils. Next generation "biosurfactants" can beproduced from algae or bacteria. Biodegradable lubricants made from vegetable oils (and their chemical derivatives) that are non toxic for soil or water. Used as hydraulic oils in areas where high risk of pollution. 6. The chemicals of interest are the ones that could potentially serve as building blocks, platforms, for other chemicals and polymers. Glycerol, a by-product of biodiesel production, was used as raw material for the production of propionic acid, 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3HPA) and 3hydroxypropionic acid (3HP), while methacrylic acid (MA) was produced from 2-methyl-1,3-propanediol, a by-product of butanediol production.Lactobacillus reuteri was employed as a whole cell biocatalyst for the conversion of glycerol to 3HPA and 3HP in aqueous solution. 7. Potato juice, a by-product of potato starch processing, was shown to be a promising, inexpensive nitrogen/vitamin source for the growth of the organism and propionic acidproduction 8. Propionic Acid Production by Microbial Fermentation of Glycerol The main production route of propionic acid is the oxo-synthesis through hydroformylation of ethylene with carbon monoxide yielding the intermediate propionaldehyde, which gives propionic acid on oxidation. It is also obtained as a by-product of the chemical production of acetic acid by liquid phase oxidation of n-butanePresents the current status for propionic acid production from glycerol using propionibacteria in batch/fed-batch operations. 9. oxo-synthesis The process typically entails treatment of an alkene with high pressures (between 10 to 100 atmospheres) of carbon monoxide and hydrogen at temperatures between 40 and 200 C. Transition metal catalysts are required) 10. microorganisms can produce propionic acid-Veillonella (parvula and alcalescens) -Clostridium propionicum, -Selenomonas (ruminantium and sputigena) -Megashaera -Fusobacterium necrophorumAmong them, propionibacteria have been mostly used as hosts for propionic acid productionFig. 3.1 Probionibacteria SEM of P. acidipropionici DSM 4900 grown on glycerolbased medium. 11. Fig. 3.2 Propionic acid fermentation pathway The metabolic pathway for propionic acid production from different carbon sources, showing the Wood-Werkman cycle, different intermediates and the metabolic end products.  Methylmalonyl-CoA transcarboxylase (pyruvate carboxytransphosphorylase)  Malate dehydrogenase  Fumarase  Succinate dehydrogenase Propionyl-CoA:Succinate CoA transferase  Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (isomerase)  Methylmalonyl-CoA racemase  Propionaldehyde dehydrogense (Predicted)  Alcohol dehydrogenase (Predicted) 12. Bio-plastics Existing and emerging bio-based bulk plastics are starch plastics, cellulosic polymers, polylactid acid (PLA), polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT) from bio-based 1,3-propanediol (PDO), bio-based polyamides (nylon), polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), bio-based polyethylene (PE),polyvinyl chloride (PVC) from bio-based PE, other bio-based thermoplastics (polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), polyphenylene sulphide (PBS), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene-co-isosorbide terephthalate polymer (PEIT), further polyesters based on PDO),polyurethane (PUR) from bio-based polyols and bio-based thermosets. 13. Bio-solvents Solvents are liquids that possess the ability to dissolve, dilute or extract other substances without modifying the chemical composition of the extracted substances or of the solvent itself. There are eight main solvent groups: aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum-based solvents, alcohols, ketones, esters, ethers, glycol ethers, halogenated hydrocarbons and so-called special solvents. 14. Base on their properties, solvents are used as degreasing agents (cleaning of metals, textiles), additives and diluting compounds (paints, varnishes, inks, glues, pesticides), stripping agents (paint, varnish, glue removers) and extraction solvents (perfumes, pharmaceuticals). Biosolvents have applications: plant-protection oils and wetting agents and biofluxing agents. The vast majority of bio-based solvents do not emit volatile organic compounds (VOC) which are harmful to human health. 15. Bio-surfactants Surfactants lower the surface tension of liquids, allowing chemicals to mixmore easily. Surfactants are usually organic compounds that are amphiphilic, meaning they contain both hydrophobic groups (their tails) and hydrophilic groups (their heads). Bio-surfactants are surfactants in which at least one of the two groups (hydrophilic or hydrophobic) is obtained from plants: they are therefore not necessarily 100% plant-derived. 16. Application of bio-surfactants Surfactants are used in many industries such as household detergents, personal care, industrial cleaners, food processing, oleofield chemicals, agricultural chemicals, textiles, emulsion polymerization, paints and coatings, lubricant and fuel additives, metal working, miningchemicals, pulp and paper production, leather processing, etc. The largest end use market for surfactants is household cleaning detergents. 17. Raw materials Surfactants are made from oleochemical (bio-based) and/or petrochemical (synthetic) raw materials. Oleochemical surfactants are commonly derived from plant oils such as coconut and palm oils, from plant carbohydrates such as sorbitol, sucrose and glucose or from animal fats such as tallow.In a typical palm plantation, besides the oil and lignocellulosic biomass sources, there is some activity to convert palm oil mill effluent (POME) to high value chemicals and biogas. In the case of corn wet mill and sugar cane plantations, biomass is converted to fuel (mostly bio ethanol) and chemicals such as polyols, acids, and others. 18. Platform chemicals Sugars, Oils and other compounds in biomass can be converted into platform chemicals or building blocks directly or as by-products from fuel production processes analogous to the petrochemical industry today. 19. Biomass feed stockIntermediat e platformBuilding blocksSecondry chemicalsstarchBiobased Syn gasH2 Methan Higher alcohol Mixed alcohols Oxo syntheseis products .......Ammonia synthesis, hydrogenation products Methyl esters,Formaldehyde, Acetic acid, Dimethylether, Dimethylcarbonate, Methyl amines, MTBE, olefins, Gasoline Olefinhydroformylationproducts: aldehydes, alcohols, acids....Reagents-building unit Fuel oxygenates Solvents Amines Phenol-formaldehyde resins Plasticizers Polyvinyl acetate Polyvinyl alcoholIndustrial transportationGlycerol Lactic Propionic acid ......Fermentation products, Propylene glycol, malonic, 1,3PDO, diacids, propylalcohol, dialdehyde, epoxides Reagent, propionol, acrylate....Antifreeze and deicers EmulsifierstextilesFumaric acid Aceton Malic acid ......THF, 1,4-Butanediol -butyrolactone, pyrrolidones, esters, diamines,4,4-Bionelle, Hydroxybutyricacid Butanediols, butenols.....Green solvents Polypyrrolidones Phthalate polyestersSafe food supplyFurfural Xylitol/arabitolitaconic acid Itaconic acid ....Methyl succinatederivatives (see above), unsaturated esters many furan derivatives EG, PG, glycerol, lactate, hydroxyfurans, sugar acids.....Resins, crosslinkers Polyethers Polyhydroxypolyesters Specialty chemical intermediateCommunication environmentCitric/aconitic acid Lysine Sorbitol .....1,5-pentanediol, itaconicderivatives, pyrrolidones, esters, Numerous furan derivatives, succinate, esters, levulinicacid Glycols (EG, PG), glycerol, lactate, isosorbide Caprolactam, diaminoalcohols, 1,5-diaminopentanehemicellul ose celluloseLigninoilproteinSugers: Glucose Fructose Xylose Lactose Sucrose starchGallic acid Ferulic acid Direct polymers & gumintermediatesPolyurethanes Nylons (polyamides) PEIT polymerProducts/usesRecreation housingHealth and hygiencePhenolics, food additivesPoyaminoacids Polysaccharides polyhydroxyalkonoates 20. Which Way to Go? Various building block molecules such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), derived from cellulosic biomass, Startup companies such as Segetis: are developing novel chemicals based on levulinic acid for use as replacement solvents and plasticizers.Roquette :ha