bio control of cockroach
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Types of cockroach
BIOCONTROL OF COCKROACHARUNKUMAR AKKANNAPALB51251
IntroductionCockroachesareinsectsof the orderBlattodea,Currently, there are 4,600 species described and over 460 genera worldwide.Four species are important.The earliest cockroach-like fossils ("blattopterans" or "roachids") are from theCarboniferousperiod 320 million years ago, as are fossil roachoid nymphs.Cockroaches are generalized insects, with few special adaptations, and may be among the mostprimitivelivingneopteraninsects.
classificationKingdomAnimaliaPhylumArthropodaSub phylumHexapodaClassInsectaSubclassPterygotaInfra classNeopteraSuperorderDictyopteraOrderBlattodeaFamiliesBlaberidae,BlattellidaeBlattidae,CryptocercidaePolyphagidaeNocticolidaeTryonicidaeLamproblattidae
Types of cockroachesAmerican cockroach Periplanata americana Linnaeus.German cockroach Blatella germanica LinnaeusBrown banded cockroach Supella longipalpa LinnaeusOriental cockroach Blatella orientalis Linnaeus
American cockroach Periplanata americanaThe American cockroach is the largest of the house-infesting cockroaches. Despite its name, the American cockroach is not native to North America, but was probably introduced via ships from Africa in the 1600s.
believed to be of North African origin, Oriental roaches are sometimes called "waterbugs" because they come out of drains, and "black beetle cockroaches" because of their smooth, dark bodies. They are known for their strong, unpleasant, "roachy" odor
Oriental cockroach Blata orientalis5
Supella longipalpa (BROWN banded cockroach)two lighter bands they have across their dark brownish bodies. Male brown-banded roaches have full wings that reach beyond the tip of their pointed abdomens, but females have underdeveloped wings that prohibit them from flying. the brown-banded cockroach can live for about 206 days.
German cockroach Blattella germanicaThe German cockroach is the most common species of the cockroach. German cockroaches can breed at a rate of up to six generations per year. The German cockroach can fit through an opening as small as 3/8 inch in width.
Cockroaches rank among the most important pests in city and town environments (Ebeling 1975)Cockroaches are known to contaminate food, leave unpleasant odors in residences and are thought to transmit disease (e.g., hepatitis).Allergic reactions can occur to cockroaches, probably from contact with cockroach body secretions or feces (Ebeling 1975).Cockroaches may damage stored and household goods and could act as disease vectors, besides being unappealing to humans.7
History of biocontrolLeBeck (1985) reviewed natural control of cockroaches, pointing out that Hymenoptera which were associated with cockroaches as either parasitoids or predators are found in the families Ampulicidae, Evaniidae and the chalcidoid families Encyrtidae, Eulophidae, Eupelmidae and Pteromalidae (Roth & Willis 1960).Most species are parasitoids of cockroach oothecae, while members of the Ampulicidae are predators of cockroach nymphs.8
Cockroach Natural EnemiesConsidered by FamilyAmpulicidae:Ampulicids are all predators of cockroaches (Krombein 1979).Piek et al. (1984) determined thatAmpulexcompressaFab. stings its prey twice.The first sting in the thorax area causes a short,a reversible paralysis, while the second sting near the subesophageal ganglion results in submissive, lethargic behavior.
All evaniids are solitary parasitoids of cockroach oothecae.attachment of the abdomen near the top of the propodeum and the long anal lobe at the base of the hind wing.Evania appendigaster(L.) is usually found wherever species ofPeriplanetaandBlattaare found.the total developmental time forE.appendigasteris 50-60 daysAnother evaniid,Prosevaniapunctata(Brulle)Evaniidae.
Eupelmidae.-Roth & Willis (1960) identified different eupelmid species as parasitoids of cockroach oothecae.AnastatusblattidifuraxGirault,(aus)Eupelmusatriflagellum(aus)Anastatusumaesp. nov.(ind)
a eupelmid reared from the oothecae ofNeostylopygarhombifoliain India by Narasimham & Sankaran (1979), reported parasitization rates of 27-84% from 164 oothecae.when offered a choice betweenN.rhombifoliaandPeriplanetasp.,A.umaealways chose the former.N.rhombifoliawhich is a domestic pest in India, especially in thatched huts.There the roach deposits oothecae only on the inner side of palm leaves which form the roof.12
EncyrtidaeThe biology of only one encyrtid oothecal parasitoid of cockroaches,Comperiamerceti(Compere) has been studied (Roth & Willis 1960, LeBeck 1985).all studies indicate thatC.mercetiis host specific for the oothecae ofSupellalongipalpa(LeBeck 1985).
The egg parasitoid,Comperiamerceti(Compere) has potential for use in biological control.This parasitoid seems to have a significant impact on brown banded cockroach when densities of oothecae are high (Coler et al. 1984).Comperiamercetihas been used for brownbanded cockroach control with great success (Slater 1980).14
The first mass culture and experimental release ofC.mercetiagainst brownbanded cockroaches was attempted by Slater et al. (1980) on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley. During Jan 1978-Dec 1979, over 20,000 parasitoids were released in offices, classrooms, animal rearing rooms and laboratories.Results showed thatC.mercetisuccessfully became established.It was suggested that periodic augmentation of the parasitoid might increase parasitization rates which only reached 19% in one location.Similar natural parasitization rates (19.5%) for C.mercetiwere reported by Narasimham & Sankaran 1979) in India.15
Eulophidae.Two genera such as1Tetrastichus hagenowii 2Syntomosphyrumblattae, contain several gregarious parasitoids of cockroach oothecae.Tetrastichus hagenowii(Ratzeburg), has the broadest host range, including the most cosmopolitan cockroach pests (LeBeck 1985).Tetrastichushagenowii has a broad host range, but it laboratory tests showed that prefers to the oothecae ofPeriplanetaspp., especiallyP.americana(Narasimham 1984).Host searching ofT.hagenowiiwas studied by Narasimham (1984), showing that parasitoids first seek the proper habitat.16
They are attracted to relatively dry environments, became inactive at 19C and avoided high temperatures (>34C).Visual stimuli did not appear to function in host location, and following trials that included oothecal extracts, Narasimham (1984) concluded that the female was not attracted to the host by chemical stimuli either.There were random movements of the female observed until she was within 2-3 mm of an ootheca.Oothecae up to 30 days old were acceptable for oviposition, but those close to hatching were rejected (Roth & Willis 1954b).
Entomopathogenic fungiMetarhizium anisopliae(metschnikoff) Beauveria bassiana(Balsamo) Vuillemin
Green muscardine,metarhiziumWhite muscardine.18
Effect of Metarhizium anisopliae(metschnikoff) on German cockroach.Virulence of Metarhizium anisopliae(Metschnikoff) against the German Cockroach, Blatella germanica(L.), was determined using four concentrations ranging from 4.2x106to 4.2x109spores per millilitre. The LD50 value was 1.4x107 spores per millilitre (56,000 spores per cockroach) and LT50 values were 14.8 days and 5.3 days for4.2x108and 4.2x109 spores per millilitre, respectively. Potential of this strain to be horizontally transmitted and to rapidly spread the infection in the insect population.E. Moraga,et al(2004)19
The mean number of oothecae laid by female was progressively and significantly reduced by fungal treatment from second oviposition period onwards. Oothecal hatch of fungally challenged females was reduced by 4649%, oothecal viability by 4885%, and nymphal production by 2235%. E. -Moraga,et al(2004)20
PATHOGENICITY OF Metarhizium anisopliae AND Beauveriabassiana TO THE AMERICAN COCKROACH (DICTYOPTERA: BLATTIDAE) The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana Vuillemin 1912 and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin 1976 were tested against Periplaneta americana cockroach under laboratory conditions (1.1 x 106 conidia/cockroach, 24 2C and 50 The isolates tested against nymphs and adults of P. americana showed low pathogenic potential and significant mortality differences 10% RH). Adults exhibited less mortality than nymphs, which showed behavioral changes once they received a conidial suspension.21
A second experiment evaluated if different mortality could exist in adult cockroach under controlled conditions (85 10 % RH, 27C). Cockroach adults were susceptible to infection by M. anisopliae and B. bassiana; under high relative humidity conditions these fungi caused more mortality (47%), compared with laboratory conditions). G. HERNANDEZ-RAMIREZ,et al(2008)22