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A PRACTICAL SUMMER TRAINING REPORT ON

BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED (B.H.E.L.), BIKANER (15th May- 20th June)Submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of Bachelor of Technology Degree in Department of Electrical Engineering Of RTU, KOTA

2012-2013 Submitted To:Mr. S.P. SRIVASTAVA

Submitted By:DEVENDRA KUMAR SINGHAL

(Seminar coordinator)

VII Semester, (EE/09/38)

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING POORNIMA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING ISI-6, RIICO INSTITUTIONAL AREA, SITAPURA JAIPUR-302 022 (Rajasthan) July 2012

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INDEX1. ABOUT THE COMPANY 2. ABOUT THE PROJECT 3. INTORDUCTION 3.1 DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM 3.2 DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM AS IMPLEMENTED IN THE PLANT 3.3 OBJECTIVES OF DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM 3.4 BENEFITS OF DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM 4. FUNCTIONAL GROUP UNIT 5. INPUT OUTPUT MODULES 6. DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING UNITS 7. IMPORTANT ASPECTS RELATED TO DISTRIBUED PROCESSING UNITS 7.1 POWER SUPPLY 7.2 IRIG-B INTERFACE 8. MaxNET 9. APPLICATION SOFTWARE 9.1 SEQUENCE CONTROL 9.2 DRIVE CONTROL 9.3 PID CONTROL 9.4 ALARMS 10. DIAGRAM FOR DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM AT BHEL 11.maxDNA 12.maxSTATION 13. POINT BATABASES 14. maxDPU CONFIGURATION TOOLS 14.1 maxTOOLS 14.2 maxVUE 15. REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTIt is a matter of great pleasure for me to express my profound feelings of reference to my worthy advisor Mr Veerendra Kumar Gupta [Senior Engineer, BHEL, Bikaner]. As his inspiring guidance and everlasting enthusiasm have been valuable assets during the tenure of my training. The beatitude, bliss, and euphoria that accompany the successful completion of any task would not be complete without the expression of appreciation of simple virtues to the people who made it possible. So, with reverence, veneration honour I acknowledge all those guidance and encouragement has made successful in winding up this. It gives me immense pleasure in acknowledge the help I have received while making this report on BHEL, Bikaner. I owe my profound gratitude by DR. R.P RAJORIA (DIRECTOR, P.C.E), DR. OM PRAKASH SHARMA (PRINCIPAL, P.C.E), Ms. MEENU SAXENA(T.P.O, P.C.E) & Mr. SHIVRAJ SHARMA(H.O.D., EE) for his kind patronage and generosity. A great deal of thanks to Mr. S.P SRIVASTAV (Seminar Coordinator) entire faculty member for imparting knowledge success of the project. A seminar of this type naturally gained number ideas of the field of Electrical Engineering. We would also like to express our heart felt appreciation to all other people who help us.

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PREFACEAs a part of curriculum prescribed by the Rajasthan Technical University for the degree of B. Tech of engineering a total of 30 days practical training is required by the student of engineering, 3O days taken by me at:

BHEL, BikanerFrom: 15 May 2012 to 20 June 2012 The training report infects a summery of what I saw and learnt about distributed control system during my training period. This report is a brief broad spectrum of a plant divided into various sections including manufacturing process and the control of the machines present in certain parts of the area. In sequential order to emphasis about controlling machines, I have tried to write each & every aspect of all the section best from my side. So I hope that this training report can be providing enough view of BHEL,Bikaner.

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ABOUT THE COMPANY

BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED is a Navratna Public Sector Unitand is the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise in India in the energyrelated/infrastructure sector, today. BHEL caters to core sectors of the Indian Economy viz., Power Generation & Transmission, Industry, Transportation, Telecommunication, Renewable Energy, etc. BHEL was established more than 40 years ago, ushering in the indigenous Heavy Electrical Equipment industry in India. BHEL has 14 manufacturing divisions and has over 100 project sites. BHEL has deployed power plants overseas in other countries of the world also. BHEL manufactures over 180 products under 30 major product groups.

SALIENT FEATURES: Largest enterprise in the energy related sector today in INDIA. 14 Manufacturing divisions. Over 100 project sites, 8 service centers and 18 regional offices. ISO 9001 certified for QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS. ISO 14001 certified for ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS. Installed equipment for over 90,000 MW of power generation. Supplied over2,25,000 MVA transformer capacity and other equipment operating in Transmission & Distribution network up to 400 kV (AC & DC). BHEL has setup its references in over 60 countries in the world.

2. ABOUT THE PROJECTThe project undertaken is the study of Distributed Control Systems deployed by BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED, BIKANER and includes the development of a training module on maxDNA systems used for running of the plant. The Project was undertaken as part of the mandatory 3rd year Industrial Training. It was of a duration of 6 weeks.

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3. INTRODUCTIONThe project undertaken is the study of Distributed Control Systems deployed at this power plant and includes the development of a training module on maxDNA systems used for running of the plant.

DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM:A distributed control system (DCS) refers to a control system in which the controller elements are not central in location but are distributed throughout the system with each component sub-system controlled by one or more controllers. The entire system of controllers is connected by networks for communication and monitoring. A DCS uses custom designed processors as controllers. Input & output modules form component parts of the DCS. The processor receives information from input modules and sends information to output modules. The input modules receive information from input instruments in the process (a.k.a. field) and transmit instructions to the output instruments in the field. Computer buses or electrical buses connect the processor and modules through multiplexer or demultiplexers.

DCS AS IMPLEMENTED IN THE PLANT:The DCS is partitioned into Functional Group Units (FGU) which are automation islands responsible for control and monitoring of specified plant area. The FGUs communicate with the maxSTATIONS and among themselves through data highway maxNET. The data highway is formed through intelligent Ethernet switches. The FGUs communicate with the switches at 100 MBPS and the switches communicate among themselves at 100 MBPS. The data highway is redundant with two lines designated as Line A and Line B. All the FGUs, maxSTATIONS connect to the maxNET with redundant connections. A master clock synchronizes all the stations on the maxNET on IRIGB interface.

OBJECTIVES OF DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS: Safe operation of plant Lowest cost of generation Longest equipment life Minimum environmental effect Max efficiency Energy conservation BENEFITS OFDISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS: High reliability Improved response time Improve operator interface to plant.

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4. FUNCTIONAL GROUP UNITFGU performs the functions of data acquisition, protection and interlock, closed loop controls as required by the function group. Each FGU consists of Distributed Processing unit (DPU), Input/ output modules and power supplies. The modules are housed in racks and are connected through back plane bus. The FGU is housed in freestanding panels. The panels also house terminal blocks to accept field connections. The FGU is connected to the Data highway by 100 Mbps Ethernet cable. It connects to both Line-A / Line-B of the Data Highway (maxNET).

5. INPUT AND OUTPUT MODULESThe Input and Output modules connect the process variables and controllable end elements of the plant. The I/O bus is a parallel backplane bus. The I/O modules plug on to the I/O bus on the back plane PCB. The DPUs access the I/Os via the bus. This bus is extended to other racks through inter rack extension cable. Field contacts are interrogated at 24V DC by a separate power supply, which is isolated from the system power supply. I/O modules provide varying levels of signal conditioning, data conversion, and alarming (with validity, limit, and error checking) before passing information onto the high-speed parallel I/O bus for further processing by a DPU. The I/Os are distributed functionally in the FGU. I/O Addressing Up to 255 I/O addresses may be assigned to each DPU. I/O addresses are used to access I/O modules or channels of I/O modules. Each digital I/O module supports 16 bits with one address. Analog input modules generally use two addresses per module.

Depending on the type of signal to be processed the following type of modules are used : a. Digital Input Module for 24 V DC contact interrogation b. Digital Output Module c. Analog Input Module for 4-20 Ma d. Analog Input Module for Voltage e. Analog Input Module for 4-wire RTD f. Analog Input module for T/C g. Analog Output Module for 4-20 mA h. Bus Extension Module (where ever required) IOP 330 IOP 351 IOP 301 IOP 305 IOP 303 IOP 304 IOP 320 IOP 371

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6. DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING UNITSThe Distributed Processing Unit maxDPU4F is a 32 bit multifunction controller and data acquisition processor that executes control algorithms and sequence logic. It also performs data acquisition and sequential events processing time tagged to 1 ms resolution. It runs under the Windows CE.net real-time multitasking operating system, is the hardware processing engine of the maxDNA distributed control system. The DPUs reside directly on the Data highway without the need for servers. The connection is through a 100 Mbps Ethernet.

7. IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF DPUDPU Memory :All information regarding the control requirement is kept in DPU memory, which include tag names, descriptions, tuning constants, alarm limits etc. In addition a