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Institute of Textile Engineering & Clothing Technology (ITECT)Orchid Plaza-2, 5th floor 109 Green Road, Farmgate, Dhaka-1215
STUDY REPORT ON BENARASI SAREE AT MIRPUR BENARASI PALLI
Supervised ByMr. Md. Jaidul HaquePrincipal, ITECT.
This report has been prepared with the help of many people to whom we must express our heartfelt regard. We show our gratitude to Mr. Mohammad Hanif, Proprietor, Hanif Silk Industries for his patronization and cordiality for the study. We would like to thanky Mr. Md Jaidul Haque, Principal, ITECT. y Mr. M. A. Sayeem, Advisor, ITECT. y Mr. Sekander Ali Khandaker, Professor, ITECT. for their support and inspiration about the study. We are equally thankful to all other people (who were experienced with so many interviews as interviewee) who have been consulted for their valuable opinion.
Letter of Transmittal
Mr. Md. Jaidul Haque Principal Institute of Textile Engineering & Clothing Technology Subject: Submission of report on Benarasi Saree at Mirpur Benarasi Palli. Dear Sir, Here is the report on the Benarasi Saree That we are asked to submit under your supervision. The report is prepared on the primary and secondary data collected different sources of Mirpur Benarasi Palli. We sincerely hope that the report and the recommendations would help you making effective decisions. We truly appreciate this assignment and enjoyed it very much. We will be highly obliged if further assistance in interpreting my analysis.
Sincerely yours 1. Md. Nazmul Hasan Shifat, ID: 101779 Institute Of Textile Engineering & Clothing Technology (ITECT)
Table of ContentChapter 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Introduction Types of Benarasi Saree Rationale of the Study Raw Materials Production Process of Benarasi Saree Definitions of Concepts of Terms Sale of Saree Present State of Benarasi Industry Problems of Benarasi Industry Problems of Benarasi Production Conclusion Content Page 5 6 9 9 10 15 16 16 19 20 21
1. Introduction1.1 BackgroundBenarasi saree whose history dates back to the Mughal rule in the 16th century, has its origin in Benaras, a northern city of India. In Bangladesh the migrated Muslim from Benaras, started making Benarasi saree at Mohammadpur and Mirpur in Dhaka since 1950 (according to the source of Bangladesh Handloom board). The tradition is still going on from generation to generation. This art revived soon after partition of India and Pakistan in 1947 when few non-Bengali people of Benaras, presently Benarasi, a well-known city of India, came to Mirpur area of Dhaka and began again to make Benarasi sarees. Later more people became involved with this handloom industry and it spread, and the whole area came to be known as Mirpur Benarasi Palli, located at the north-western edge of the capital. BENARASI SAREE In the world of fashion Benarasi Saree remains the RISEN SUN and has been a subject of great inspiration and appreciation for world-wide costume connoisseurs. These proposed episodes would try to fathom its historical continuance, record its traditions which goes from generation to generation and unveil the intricacies which goes towards making this Benarasi Saree an art and aesthetics. In short it would enter the subject from the raw materials and show the process to the final product and packaging. It was in the Mughal era Baranasi saree came into popularity and got fashion currency. This art of making Banarasi saree is surviving since olden days. It was during the mughal times when all arts are it persian, rajasthan or other indian school got amalgamated to create a fusion of aesthetics. Same goes for costume as well. The persian motifs and Indian designs on silk texture studded with gold and silver remained the cue of Mughal patronage. Elaborate pure gold and silver designs are today rare still the zari has rightfully taken its position as an apt replacement.
1.2. HistorySeveral first-millennium Buddhist texts mention Benaras fabrics, giving the indication that Benaras has been the center of fine textile weaving for at least two millennia. During the past few centuries, the weavers of Benaras have been overwhelmingly Muslims belonging to the Julaha community. Some of the weavers have been able to trace their lineage back to 990 AD. The Benarasi silk sarees reached the climax of their fame during the Mughal era in the 1600s. During that time the traditional motifs of the saree underwent a change and combined Indian and Persian patterns.
2. Types of Benarasi Saree* * * * * * * BROCADE:y BROCADE BENARASI SILK JAMDANI JANGLA SAREE JAMAWAR TANCHOI SAREE TISSU SAREE CUTWORK SAREE BUTIDAR SAREE
Brocade refer to those textiles where in patterns are created in weaving by transfixing or thrusting the pattern-thread between the warp. In regular weaving the weft thread passes over and under the warp thread regularly. But when brocade designs in gold, silver silk or cotton threads are to be woven, special threads are transfixed in between by skipping the passage of the regular weft over a certain number of warp threads (depending upon the pattern) and by regularizing the skipping by means of pre-arranged healds for each type of patterning. There may be several sets of heddles so arranged that on different occasions, they raise and depress irregular number of threads in turn, as required by the exigencies of the pattern. Zari-brocades-When gold and silver threads are use along with or without silkthreads, thrust either as special weft or warp to create glittering raised ornamentation. We have the Zari brocade kind of fabrics. When we talk of gold or silver threads. It is to be under stood that the gold,threads are actually only silver threads with gold polish and that these threads are obtained by closely winding extremely fine gold or silver wire around a silk thread. According to Sir George Watt, when the gold and silver threads were used so densely that the ground was hardly visible, the material was kinkhab proper and was too heavy for clothing, it was therefore used for trappings, hangings and furnishing. Only that material in which the Zari patterns were scattered was true brocade. This was used for clothing. BENARASI SILK JAMDANI:-
The silk Jamdani, a technical variety of brocade or the 'figured moslin', traditionally woven in Banaras may be considered to be one of the finest products to come out of the Benarasi loom. Here silk fabric is brocaded with cotton and rarely with zari threads. Jamdani is woven by transfixing the pattern thread between a varying numbers of warp threads in proportion to the size of the designed then throwing the shuttle to pass the regular weft. By repeating this
process, where in the size and placing of the cut-thread is in accordance with the character of the pattern, the Jamdani weaver produces arrange of intricate designs.y
Some of the traditional motifs of Jamdani included Chameli (Jas mine), panna hazar (Thousand emeralds) genda buti (marigold flower) pan buti (leaf form) tircha (diagonally striped) etc. The most attractive design feature of the Jamdani saree was konia or a corner-motif having a floral mango buta. It has own special character of (URTU) Binding in the figured disignes on ground fabrics using extra weft designs thread dampatch technique for the or namentation of the sharee. It is silk x silk base fabrics or-namented with extra looking and technique of weaving in karhuwan. JANGLA SAREE:-
Brocade weavers of Banares have often endeavoured to add a sense of gaiety and festivity by brocading patterns in colourful silk threads amidst the usual gold and silver motifs; of the brocade convention. The present saree is an example in which muga silk motifs have been in laid. Jangala wildly scrolling and spreading vegetation motif is among the eldest in Banares brocades. This old rose saree is embellished with beautifully contrasted gold-creepers and silver flowers of the Jangala motif.The borders have brocaded running creepers in muga silk and gold and silver-Zari threds.The end panel is a combination of motifs of the borders and condensed Jangala of the field. Muga silk brocading in-hances the beauty of the saree while reducing the cost. All over Jal Jangla design to get the stylish work of the sarees and also used mena work for the decoration of the fabrics. The exclusive design saree has time taking skilled work; costly fabrics are widely accepted during the wedding occassion. JAMAWAR TANCHOI SAREE:-
Using a technique similar to that of brocade, weavers of Banaras weave sarees using colorful extraweft silk yarn for patterning. This variety is known as tanchoi. This maroon-colored saree in satin weave is brocaded with elaborate motifs from the Jamawar shawl tradition from Kashmir, the characteristic feature of which was paisley motif, often elaborated into a maze which would look kaleidoscopic in character. The field has a densely spread minute diaper of Jamawar style paisley. The end panel has large motifs of multiple paisley forms-one growing out of the other. The border, as well as the cross-borders of the end panel, has miniature paisley creepers. Tanchoi fabric has remarkable fame in the India as well as all over in the world widely acceptable to all kind of the people.
The renowned Zari brocade weavers of Banaras have evolved a technique of weaving tissue material which looked like golden cloth. By running Zari in weft a combination of Zari and silk in extra-weft (pattern thread) and silk in warp, the weave of this saree has densely patterned with golden lotuses floating in a glimmering pond.The 'drops of water' are created by cut work technique. The borders and the end panel have a diaper of diamond patterns enclosed by a