BELLWORK 1.Explain the causes of the March Revolution. 2.Why did the provisional government in Russia fail? 3.Describe the two sides of the Russian Civil.
Post on 16-Jan-2016
BELLWORKExplain the causes of the March Revolution. Why did the provisional government in Russia fail?Describe the two sides of the Russian Civil War. Who was Vladimir Lenin? What did he promise the Russian people? What was the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk? What was the outcome of the Civil War?THINKER: Why do you think Russians found communism appealing at the time?
Freedom in a capitalist society always remains about the same as it was in ancient Rome; freedom for slave owners.
REVIEW: U.S. InvolvementExplain Germanys use of submarine warfare. What ultimatum did President Wilson issue to Germany in 1915?Why didnt the U.S. declare war after the Lusitania?What was proposed in the Zimmerman Note?What finally caused President Wilson to declare war?How would U.S. entrance into the war change the balance of power?
The End of WWICollapse of the Central Powers and German Surrender
Towards the End of WarBritish blockade was starving GermanyBritish began using tanksAmerican convoy system shut down U-boat attacksTreaty of Brest-Litovsk: March 3, 1918; Russia makes peace with Central Powers; loses territory of Poland, Finland, and Baltic states. Both sides became fearful of revolutions spreading throughout Europe.
U.S. Convoy SystemA convoy is a group of vehicles (usually motor vehicles or ships) traveling together for mutual support and protection. Often, a convoy is organized with armed defensive support.
Ending the WarAllied powers launch huge offensive on August 8, 1918The Central Powers began to collapse under constant Allied attacks.Germanys allies, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire made peace with the Allied Powers.Separate states began declaring their independence from Austria-Hungary.
End of WWI11/3/1918: Berlin is occupied by Allied powers11/11/1918: Germany surrendersLeader steps down and a provisional government is established
End of WWIExtremely high death toll why?At the Paris Peace Conference in January 1919, the Allied leaders signed the Versailles Treaty.
The Treaty of Versailles (June 1919)We are now going to take a closer look at the implications of the Treaty of Versailles.As I go through the powerpoint, take notes on:What each country wanted from the TreatyEverything Germany had to doBe ready to discuss!
The Big FourWoodrow Wilson (US)
Georges Clemenceau (France)David Lloyd George (Great Britain)
Vittorio Orlando (Italy)
The Big Four at Versailles in 1919
What did France Want?SecurityRevengeReparationsGermany should pay for the damage caused by invasion!Clemenceau wanted to make sure that Germany could not invade France in the future.
What did Britain Want?Publically, Lloyd-George said he wanted to punish the Germans. The British public was very anti-German at the end of the war.Privately, he realized that Britain needed Germany to recover because she was an important trading partner.He was also worried about the disease from the east., communism. Lloyd-George believed that the spread of communism had to be stopped. A strong Germany would be a barrier against it.
What did America want?Wilson wanted an international organization to protect peaceHe believed Germany should be punished, but not severely. He wanted a fair settlement that would not leave Germany feeling resentfulThe American public did not support him. They were fed up with involvement in European affairs. The USA became more isolationist.
DiscussionWhat would Italy want out of the Treaty?Which countries were left out of the Treaty of Versailles? Why?Do you think all countries should have been included, even if they were on the losing side?Do you think the losing side should be punished for their acts/crimes during the war? How could this lead to future problems?
11 new countries created
Creation of the League of NationsWorldwide organization aimed at ensuring security and peace for all its members. Based off of Wilsons 14 points for peace (called for an end to alliances)
What were the terms under the Treaty of Versailles?With Germanys armed forces:The German army was to be reduced to 100,000 men. It was not allowed to have tanks.Germany was not allowed to have an air forceThe German navy was to have no submarines or large battle-shipsThe Rhineland was to be de-militarized.
100,000 De-militarisedThe Military Clauses
Territorial LossesGermany lost ALL of her overseas coloniesAlsace-Lorraine was given to France
"The Allied and Associated Governments affirm, and Germany accepts, the responsibility of Germany and her Allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associate Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of a war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her Allies." (Article 231)The War Guilt Clause GERMANY ACCEPTED RESPONSIBILITY FOR STARTING THE WAR
REPARATIONSGermany agreed to pay for the damage caused by her armies during the war. The sum she had to pay was later fixed at $31.4 billion!($389 billion in 2013)
Germany was forbidden to unite with Austria
Make a prediction..How do you think German citizens responded to the Treaty? Most Germans believed that the War Guilt Clause was unjustified. The French and British had done just as much to start the warThe loss of territory and population angered most Germans who believed that the losses were too severe.Many felt this would cripple the economy
German Reaction to the Cease-FireAs you know, Germany was not involved in the Treaty of Versailles and were heavily punished for their involvement in WWI.You are now going to read a short article that addresses viewpoints of the Germans and how they reacted to the treaty and cease-fire. Answer the 6 questions after you read!
WWI Timeline EventsEuropeans colonizing Africa (imperialism)Collapse of Ottoman/Austria-Hungarian empireGermany expands navy (militarism)Treaty of VersaillesFormation of the Triple Alliance & Triple EntenteAustria-Hungary declares war Lenin establishes communist controlU.S. declares WarFirst signs of a stalemate
Zimmerman Note The use of the Schlieffen Plan Russia overthrows Czar Nicholas and establishes Provisional government Russia breaks into Civil War Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand Russia declares warGermany surrenders Austria-Hungary annexes Slavic territory (nationalism)Sinking of the Lusitania