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  • Behavioural Research in Road Safety 2005: Fifteenth Seminar

    November 2005Department for Transport: London

  • Although this report was commissioned by the Department for Transport, the findings andrecommendations are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the DfT.

    Department for TransportGreat Minster House76 Marsham StreetLondon SW1P 4DRTelephone 020 7944 8300Web site www.dft.gov.uk

    Queens Printer and Controller of Her Majestys Stationery Office, 2005, except where otherwisestated.

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    This publication, excluding logos, may be reproduced free of charge in any format or medium for non-commercial research, private study or for internal circulation within an organisation. This is subject to itbeing reproduced accurately and not used in a misleading context. The copyright source of the materialmust be acknowledged and the title of the publication specified.

    For any other use of this material please apply for a Click-Use Licence at www.opsi.gov.uk/click-use/index.htm, or by writing to the Licensing Division, Office of Public Sector Information, St ClementsHouse, 216 Colegate, Norwich NR3 1BQ, Fax 01603 723000, or e-mail licensing@cabinet-office.x.gsi.gov.uk

    This is a value added publication which falls outside the scope of the Core Click-Use Licence.

    To order further copies of this publication, contact:DfT PublicationsPO Box 236Wetherby LS23 7NBTel: 0870 1226 236Fax: 0870 1226 237Textphone: 0870 1207 405E-mail: odpm@twoten.press.netor online via www.publications.dft.gov.uk

    ISBN 1 90476361 8ISBN-13 978 1 90476361 1

    If you would like to be informed in advance of forthcoming Department for Transport titles, or would liketo arrange a standing order for all of our publications, call 020 7944 4668.

    Printed in Great Britain on paper containing at least 75% recycled fibre.

  • 3

    Contents

    1Department of Healths accidental injury research initiative 5Heather Ward

    2Have injury intervention studies addressed inequalities? 19Elizabeth Towner

    3The Neighbourhood Road Safety Initiative: understanding the widerimpacts of road safety interventions on the behaviour of communities 26NRSI Evaluation Team

    4Traffic calming, childhood pedestrian injury inequality and politics 36R.A. Lyons

    5Illicit drugs and driving: prevalence and attitudes 41S. Hope, N. McKeganey and S. Stradling

    6Comparing UK and European drivers on speed and speeding issues:some results from SARTRE 3 survey 49A.R. Quimby

    7Why ride powered two-wheelers? 68P.S. Broughton and S.G. Stradling

    8Research to inform future speed policy 79Heather Ward

    9Driving by the seat of your pants: a new agenda for research 85R. Fuller

    10Why do drivers break the speed limit? 94F.P. McKenna

    11A multiple case study of work-related road traffic collisions 104David D. Clarke, Pat Ward, Wendy Truman and Craig Bartle

  • Contents

    4

    12Work-related road safety: age, length of service and changes in crash risk 119Lisa Dorn and Helen Muncie

    13Fuel efficiency training in a full-mission truck simulator 135A.M. Parkes and N. Reed

    14Effects of a high sugar content energy drink on driver sleepiness 147J.A. Horne and C. Anderson

    15Towards cognitive vision: a tool for assessing road user behaviour 156se Svensson

    16Distortions of drivers speed and time estimates in dangerous situations 164Peter Chapman, Georgina Cox and Clara Kirwan

    17The take up of Pass Plus within the Cohort II samples 175Pat Wells

    18An evaluation of the enhanced Pass Plus scheme operated byKirklees Metropolitan Council 184Ian Edwards

    19Development and evaluation of a simulator-based trainingprogramme for emergency vehicle driving 202B. Lang, A. Neukum and H.-P. Krueger

  • 1

    Department of Healthsaccidental injury researchinitiative

    Heather WardCentre for Transport StudiesUniversity College LondonGower StreetLondon WC1E 6BT

    Background and context

    In 1999 the Governments White Paper Saving Lives, Our Healthier Nationidentified accidental injury as a priority for action. It set national targets to reducethe rates of death associated with accidental injury in England by 2010 by at leastone-fifth; and to reduce the rate of serious injury by at least one-tenth.

    In 2000 Heather Ward and Nicola Christie were invited by the Department of Health(DH) to undertake a strategic review of research priorities for accidental injury(Ward and Christie, 2000). In our review we looked at the polices and researchprogrammes of government departments with responsibilities for reducingaccidental injury or of activities that might lead to injury, such as sport. We alsolooked at the research programmes and spend profiles of research councils andcharitable trusts.

    Two of our main conclusions were as follows:

    There is a small amount of injury research aimed at a large injury problem.Multi-disciplinary research is therefore needed to bring about greaterunderstanding of the context in which accidental injury occurs.

    Different funders/departments commission research in different ways, whichtends to mean that methodology cultures grow up amongst different groups ofresearchers depending on the style of research methodology favoured by thefunder. This tends to lead to little overlap in research methodology and

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  • dissemination practice between different groups of researchers engaged in injuryprevention work, which is a barrier to increasing the capacity to take forward amulti-disciplinary research agenda.

    The burden of injuryAccidental injury is a leading cause of death and disability in the UK. The followingfigures illustrate the scale of the problem and the room for improvement; the factthat the burden of accidental death and injury is disproportionately heavy on themost disadvantaged in society; and that the costs to individuals, to the NHS, and tosociety of these deaths and injuries are considerable (DH, 2002):

    Injury is the leading cause of child death in England and Wales. In the period19982000 in England, 1,003 children aged 014 years died as a result ofaccidental injury.

    Falls (62%), road traffic accidents (12%), fire (3%) and suffocation (3%) causethe largest number of fatal injuries in older people.

    There were 320,283 road accident casualties in Great Britain in 2000, of whom16,184 were child pedestrians (015 years) and 5,832 were older pedestrians (60 years and above).

    There were some 4,000 accidental deaths in the home in 1999. Half were adultsof working age (1564 years).

    The burden of accidental death and injury is disproportionately heavy on the mostdisadvantaged in society:

    Residential fire deaths for children are 15 times greater for children in socialclass V compared to those in social class I.

    Child pedestrian deaths are five times greater.

    There is a variation between the sexes for falls, with the female death rate being 1.5 times the male death rate for older people. There is little evidence that rates offalling increase with deprivation.

    The death rate in domestic fires is 2.7 times the death rate for all ages where there isevidence of a social gradient, with fires more likely to occur in lower income andrented households (Measuring and Monitoring Injury Working Group report, DH,2002).

    The cost to individuals, to the NHS, and to society of these deaths and injuries isconsiderable:

    The estimated cost to the NHS in England of injury in 200001 (includingpoisoning and intentional injury) is 2.2 billion.

    Behavioural Research in Road Safety 2005

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  • The estimated value of preventing road traffic accidents in Great Britain in 2000was 12.2 billion.

    The cost to society of home accidents in the UK was estimated in 1996 as25 billion per annum.

    The Accidental Injury Task ForceArising from a commitment in the White Paper Saving Lives, Our Healthier Nation,an Accidental Injury Task Force was set up to advise on how the targets within itshould be achieved. Its report to the Chief Medical Officer, Preventing AccidentalInjury Priorities for Action, was published in October 2002 (DH, 2002). It wasendorsed by five government departments, in addition to the DH, reflecting thespread of responsibilities across Government for preventing accidental injury and theneed for co-ordinated action:

    the Department for Transport (Df T) was responsible for road safety;

    the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (ODPM) was responsible for fire safety;

    the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) was responsible for consumer safety;

    the Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) was responsible for health andsafety at work; and

    the Department for Culture, Media and Sports (DCMS) was responsible forsport.

    The Task Force report identified a number of key programmes already in placeacross Government to improve safety on the roads, at home and at work, butrecommended that a more concerted effort was needed to achieve sustainedreductions in injury.

    In line with DH priorities, the Task Force focused on children and young adults(015 and 1624 years), and older people (defined as 60 years and over for thepurposes of the Task Forces remit), and recommended that interventions to preventaccidental injury should be targeted, in particular, at areas of health inequalities.

    The Task Force adopted two population groups for priority attention:

    children and young adults; and

    older people.

    The burden of injury is greatest for falls by older people. The next highest burden isroad accidents followed by dwelling fires; both affect the young and the old.

    Department of Healths accidental injury research initiative

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