Basic DSLR Photography and Videography for AITians

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<ul><li><p>Pakistan Students Association (PSA AIT)Fawad and Adnan</p><p>DSLR Photography, Videography and Photo/Video Editing</p><p>A Workshop on</p></li><li><p>Why this Workshop?</p><p>Note: Our prior apology from those who find the contents too basic.</p></li><li><p>Workshop Contents</p><p>Part 1: DSLR Photography</p><p>Part 2: Photo Editing (Adobe Lightroom)</p><p>Part 3: DSLR Video Shooting</p><p>Part 4: Video Editing (Cyberlink Power Director)</p></li><li><p>Workshop Contents</p><p>Part 1: DSLR Photography</p><p>Part 2: Photo Editing (Adobe Lightroom)</p><p>Part 3: DSLR Video Shooting</p><p>Part 4: Video Editing (Cyberlink Power Director)</p></li><li><p>Part 1: DSLR Photography The basics and 3 Elements of Exposure (shutter </p><p>speed, aperture and ISO)</p><p> Lenses and Focal Lengths</p><p> Summary</p><p> A Quick Settings Slideshow</p></li><li><p>Part 1: DSLR Photography The basics and 3 Elements of Exposure (shutter </p><p>speed, aperture and ISO)</p><p> Lenses and Focal Lengths</p><p> Summary</p><p> A Quick Settings Slideshow</p></li><li><p>Types of Digital Cameras</p><p> 3 Main classifications</p><p> Point and Shoot</p><p> Prosumer</p><p> Digital SLR</p></li><li><p>Point and Shoot digital Cameras (P&amp;S) </p><p> Commonly referred to as consumer digital cameras.</p><p> Represent probably 90% of all digital cameras on the market</p><p> Typically small, compact and lightweight</p><p> Targeted at broad majority</p><p> Typically very User-Friendly</p><p> Image Quality has improved drastically</p></li><li><p>Prosumer Digital Cameras</p><p> Common term used to describe advanced models of P&amp;S (now also used to describe many entry level DSLR's) </p><p> Similar in shape and appearance to Digital SLR's</p><p> Typically have extended zoom range (8-12X) </p><p> Typically combine user friendly P&amp;S features with more advanced manual features.</p></li><li><p>Digital SLR (DSLR) </p><p> SLR Stands for Single Lens Reflex</p><p> Have larger sensors, resulting in greater image quality</p><p> Tend to favor manual control</p><p> Much larger and heavier</p><p> Ability to interchange system lenses</p></li><li><p>Entry Level DSLRs</p><p> Canon EOS 100D</p><p> Canon EOS 1200D</p><p> Canon EOS 600D</p><p> Canon EOS 650D</p><p> Canon EOS 700D</p><p> Canon EOS 60D</p><p> Nikon D3200</p><p> Nikon D3300</p><p> Nikon D5200</p><p> Nikon D5300</p><p> Nikon D5500</p><p> Olympus E-PL6</p><p> Fujifilm X-A1</p><p> Sony a3000</p><p> Sony 5000</p><p> Sony 5100</p></li><li><p>Exposure Modes</p><p> There are several modes available which offer a combination of automatic and manual controls.</p><p> Auto, sometimes represented by an A, or simply a green square, is fully automatic functioning. True point and shoot where the camera decides all the settings for you</p></li><li><p>The Manual Mode</p></li><li><p>Know your Camera</p></li><li><p>The Manual Mode The 3 Pillars of Photography</p><p> Shutter Speed</p><p> Aperture, f-stop</p><p> ISO</p></li><li><p>Variables to play with</p><p>Exposure</p><p>Shutter Speed</p><p>ISO ApertureAmount of Grains/Noise</p><p>Depth of field</p><p>Motion Blur</p></li><li><p>Light meter</p><p>Proper Exposure</p><p>Under-exposed Over-exposed</p></li><li><p>The 3 Pillars of Photography</p><p>Shutter Speed</p><p>Aperture, f-stop</p><p> ISO</p></li><li><p>The Shutter Speed</p><p> Shutter Speed</p><p> How long the shutter remains open, exposing the image sensor to light. </p><p> How long the camera sees the picture </p><p> Measured in Seconds, from 30 sec to 1/8000 sec</p><p> The more the shutter speed (bigger denominator of the fraction the lesser time light is allowed to enter the camera), the lesser the exposure.</p><p>30 sec . 10 sec. 1 sec . sec ..1/5 sec . 1/10 sec 1/25 sec ... 1/100 sec ...1/500 sec 1/2000 sec . 1/4000 sec 1/8000 sec</p><p>Shutter Speed is getting higher</p><p>The image is getting darker</p><p>Less amount of light is allowed to enter in the camera</p><p>Shutter opens and closes quickly</p></li><li><p>Shutter Speed</p><p> Fast Shutter Speeds (600 and up) are used to stop motion and will freeze the subject.</p></li><li><p>Shutter Speed</p><p> If the shutter speed is such a low value that the object or camera moves/changes position before the shutter closes, you will get Motion blur.</p><p> Slow Shutter Speeds (1/60 or slower) can be used to portray movement or speed</p></li><li><p>Shutter Speed Very Slow Shutter Speeds (5 sec. or slower) can be used in very low light </p><p>situations to obtain correct exposure, or achieve dramatic effects.</p><p>As your shutter speed decreases, your chances of getting a blurry image increase because you must hold the camera steady for a longer period.Maximum zoom is hard to hold camera steady for a sharp pictureSlowest shutter speed without a tripod is 1/focal length of lens</p></li><li><p>Slow Shutter Speed Fast Shutter Speed</p></li><li><p>Slow shutter speed Fast shutter speed</p></li><li><p>Panning</p><p> During the exposure, the camera is moved in the same direction as the subject.</p><p> Resulting in a reasonably sharp subject and a blurred background</p></li><li><p>Movement Compensation</p><p> Refers to the cameras ability to correct small movements by the user while taking a picture, in order to reduce the blur caused by camera shake.</p><p> Represented differently by different companies:</p><p> Nikon VR Vibration Reduction</p><p> Canon IS Image Stabilization</p><p> Pentax SR Shake Reduction</p><p> Sony SSS Super Steady-Shot</p></li><li><p>Moving Object Shutter Speeds - NO Blur</p><p> Which shutter speed to use for subjects depends on 3 factors: </p><p> How big the object appear in the frame</p><p> Which direction it is moving</p><p> How fast it is moving</p></li><li><p>Moving Object Shutter Speeds - NO Blur</p></li><li><p>Moving Object Shutter Speeds For Blur</p><p> Blur can be used to emphasise movement</p><p> Amount of blur depends on speed of movement of subject and shutter speed</p><p>Shutter Speed (sec)</p><p>Subject Moderate Blur Extreme Blur</p><p>Person Walking 1/30 sec sec</p><p>Person Running 1/60 sec 1/15 sec</p><p>Horse Trotting 1/30 sec 1/8 sec</p><p>Horse Galloping 1/125 sec 1/30 sec</p><p>Car at 30mph (50kph) 1/125 sec 1/30 sec</p><p>Car at 70mph (110kph) 1/250 sec 1/60 sec</p><p>Water 1-2 sec 3 sec +</p></li><li><p>The 3 Pillars of Photography</p><p>Shutter Speed</p><p>Aperture, f-stop</p><p> ISO</p></li><li><p>Aperture f/stop</p><p> Size of the lens opening - Controls the brightness of light that reaches the film</p><p>STOP refers to a change in exposure, whether the shutter speed or aperture is changed</p><p>one stop more exposure means to double the light reaching the film</p><p>one stop less exposure means to half the light reaching the film</p><p> Each f/stop number can be though of as the bottom part of a fraction</p><p> The larger the f/stop number, the smaller the lens opening</p><p> f/11 is a smaller opening than f/4</p><p>f/1.4 f/2 f/2.8 f/4 f/5.6 f/8 f/11 f/16 f/22</p></li><li><p>For example, if you shoot at f/stop 5.6, and then change it to f/8, you are letting exactly half as much light strike the film or sensor.</p></li><li><p>f/stop</p><p>f/stop is getting higher</p><p>The image is getting darker</p><p>Less amount of light is allowed to enter in the camera</p><p>Size of lens opening is getting smaller</p><p>f/1.4 f/2 f/2.8 f/4 f/5.6 f/8 f/11 f/16 f/22</p><p>Depth-of-field is increasing</p><p>BUT</p><p>The area of a scene from foreground to background that will remain acceptably sharp when we focus on a subject is called the depth of field.</p><p>f/22 provides more depth of field than f/4</p></li><li><p>You determine what you want to draw your viewers attention to.</p><p>shallow depth of field</p><p>f/4</p><p>Focus Point on b</p></li><li><p>increased depth of field</p><p>f/22</p></li><li><p>Depth of field</p><p> Compare depth of field at f/3.5 and f/22.</p></li><li><p>Smaller aperture (f/22), deep depth of field Larger aperture (f/4), shallow depth of field</p><p>A wide aperture (small #) will give a shallow DOF which can be used to isolate a subject.</p></li><li><p>Depth of field Depth of Field is not divided equally</p><p>You should note that Depth of Field is roughly divided 1/3 in front of where you are focused and 2/3 behind where you </p><p>are focused</p></li><li><p>The 3 Pillars of Photography</p><p>Shutter Speed</p><p>Aperture, f-stop</p><p> ISO</p></li><li><p>ISO</p><p> Measure of sensitivity of your camera to light. </p></li><li><p>ISO: General Rules and tips</p><p> ISO settings are often rated at 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, and even 3200 on some models </p><p> Use an ISO of 100 or 200 when taking photographs outside in sunny conditions. </p><p> If the sky is overcast or it is evening time, or in a darkened room, then use an ISO within the range of 400 to 800. </p><p> Night time or in cases of low light you might need to set your digital camera ISO to 1600. If not your photo will appear too dark, if at all. </p><p>Using High ISO values causes the sensor to produce much more heat, which creates digital noise in images.</p></li><li><p>ISO Setting</p><p> ISO measures the sensitivity of the image sensor. The lower the number the less sensitive your camera is to light and the finer the grain. </p><p> Set the lowest setting possible to avoid noise </p><p>ISO 100 ISO 3200 </p></li><li><p>ISO Setting</p></li><li><p>The fourth Element - White Balance</p><p> White Balance is essentially the camera compensating for the color cast of the light in order to reproduce the correct colors.</p><p> The color cast of light is referred to as its Color Temperature and is rated in degrees Kelvin</p><p> Ranges from Cool to Warm</p><p> Most Digital cameras have Automatic White Balance, but also specific options for different sources of light.</p></li><li><p>Part 1: DSLR Photography The basics and 3 Elements of Exposure (shutter </p><p>speed, aperture and ISO)</p><p> Lenses and Focal Lengths</p><p> Summary</p><p> A Quick Settings Slideshow</p></li><li><p>The lens Light rays strike the subject and reflect in all </p><p>directions. The light hits all parts of the sensor, </p><p>everywhere, in a uniform pattern.</p><p> We need to find a way to aim that light to form an image.</p></li><li><p>The focal plane</p><p> A central question for photographers: do you want your subject to be a larger part of the frame, or a smaller part?</p><p> One way to change this is to move forward or backward.</p><p> A second way is to change the focal length of the lens.</p><p> The point of convergence of refracted light is called the focal point.</p><p> The focal point may be adjusted so that it is exactly at the same point as the film or sensor.</p><p> This is called in focus.</p></li><li><p>Refraction points</p><p> Some lenses bend light quite sharply. These are said to be short or wide-angle lenses.</p><p> Others bend light more gradually, These are long or telephoto lenses.</p></li><li><p>Zoom lens</p><p> Focal length is the measurement of the space between the lens and the focal plane, expressed in millimeters. </p><p> 18-55 mm lens</p><p> 55-250mm lens</p><p> 18-135mm lens</p><p> A lens that is capable of changing focal length is called a zoom lens.</p><p> A fixed focal length lens is sometimes called a prime lens.</p><p> 50mm lens</p><p> 70mm lens</p><p> 300mm lens</p><p> Most zoom lenses sacrifice speed for flexibility. Also, they may be less sharp.</p></li><li><p>Focal length and Zoom</p><p> If a focal length is short, the image takes up less space on the focal plane (sensor or film).</p><p> If it is long, the image takes up more space.</p><p> Therefore, a long lens brings us closer to the subject, like a binoculars.</p><p> The focal length of the lens is usually stamped on the lens barrel or ring.</p></li><li><p>Perspective</p><p> Here is a comparison of perspectives.</p></li><li><p>Wide angle and telephoto</p><p> 28mm (wide angle) and 105mm (telephoto). Note sign is about the same size.</p><p>28mm (wide angle) 105mm (telephoto) </p></li><li><p>Telephoto stacking A telephoto, or long focal length, lens gives appearance that objects are </p><p>closer together. Youve probably seen this startling effect on photos of airplanes that seem to be landing right on the highway.</p></li><li><p>Wide Angle Lens vs. Telephoto Lens</p></li><li><p>Focal Length</p></li><li><p>Depth of field (Effect of focal length and distance)</p><p> Depth of field is directly affected by three things:</p><p> F/stop</p><p> Focal length</p><p> Camera-to-subject distance</p></li><li><p>Depth of field and focal length</p><p> If you have a wide-angle lens, your focus can be fairly sloppy and you can still get a sharp photo.</p><p> If you are shooting with a telephoto, depth of field is shallow. Not much beyond the actual subject will be sharp.</p></li><li><p>Depth of field and focal length</p></li><li><p>Depth of field and camera-to-subject distance</p><p> When you get closer to a subject, the depth of field becomes more shallow.</p><p> When you get really close, depth of field may be nearly zero. That is why a macro (close-up) lens requires careful focusing.</p></li><li><p>Macro and depth of field</p><p> Here is a close-up at f/4.5 and f/19.</p></li><li><p>Depth of field in P&amp;S Cameras</p><p> Simple point-and-shoot cameras without a focus mechanism often have normal or wide-angle lenses.</p><p> This is because with these lenses depth of field is large, commonly between 5 feet and 15 feet (1.5 meters to 4.5 meters). </p><p> This means you can snap a subject anywhere in that area and be confident it will look sharp.</p></li><li><p>The Lens Specifications - f/stops and focal lengths</p><p> The longer the telephoto lens, the bigger in diameter it has to be to obtain the same f/stop.</p><p> To obtain f/2 with a 200mm lens, you need a diameter of 100mm.</p><p> This is why fast telephoto and zoom lenses become big heavy pieces of glass, and why they usually cost a LOT of money.</p><p> The fastest lens (lowest f/stop) in theory, is 1.0 f/stop. That doesnt exist, but 1.2 f/stop does. For a price.</p><p> Regular zoom lenses that offer a wide range will have a smaller possible f/stop number at the telephoto end than at the wide-angle end. </p><p> Stamped on the barrel will be something like f/3.5 - f/5.6 or f/4 f/5.6</p></li><li><p>The Lens Specifications - f/stops and focal lengths</p><p> Here are standard f/stops:</p><p> 1.4, 1.8 (or 2), 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 22, 32, 45.</p><p> No one lens offers this entire range.</p><p> Usually the lens speed, or widest possible f/stop, will be stamped on the barrel. Also depth of field at different f/stop and focus combinations.</p><p> Some cameras offer a depth-of-field preview button. This shows you in your viewfinder what will be in focus.</p></li><li><p>Aperture: General Rules and tips</p><p> A larger lens opening (f1.8-3.5) offers the following advantages: </p><p> Allows you to shoot more often with just natural lighting helps to reduce harsh shadows and red-eye caused by flash. </p><p> Allows more light to pass through, the camera will be able to choose a slightly higher shutter speed helps to reduce motion blur.</p><p> Helps to reduce "depth-of-field (for effect).</p></li><li><p>How to read a lens</p><p> Zoom is 18-55mm.</p><p> Speed is f/3.5 (at 18 mm) to 5.6 (at 55mm).</p><p> VR means Vibration Reduction.</p><p> G means no aperture ring.</p><p> AF-S means Auto Focus-Single.</p><p> And of course, the model name is Nikkor DX.</p><p> Some cameras also include filter size.</p><p>Information you need is usually stamped on the front ring.</p></li><li><p>Why a fixed focal length?</p><p> Most of us use zoom lenses nowadays, but fixed focal lengths (prime) have advantages:</p><p> They tend to be sharper.</p><p> They tend to be more simple in construction, so more trouble-free.</p><p> They are cheaper.</p><p> They are usually fasterthe biggest reason they remain popular.</p><p> What is fast? Anything lower than about f/4.</p></li><li><p>Part 1: DSLR Photography The basics and 3 Elements of Exposure (shutter </p><p>speed, aperture and ISO)</p><p> Lenses and Focal Lengths</p><p> Summary</p><p> A Quick Settings Slideshow</p></li><li><p>Shutter Speed The time given to light to enter in camera and creates image</p><p>ApertureThe time given to light to enter in camera and creates image</p><p>ISOThe time given to light to enter in camera and creates image</p><p>30 sec . 1 sec .. 1/101/100..1/1000..1/4000</p><p>f/1.8 f/3.5..f/10.f/22 100, 1604001600.6400</p><p>Sh</p><p>utt</p><p>er </p><p>Sp</p><p>ee</p><p>d </p><p>Ex</p><p>po</p><p>sure</p><p>30 sec</p><p>1/4000 secDarkest but without blur</p><p>Ap</p><p>ert</p><p>ure</p><p>Ex</p><p>po</p><p>sure</p><p>f/1.8</p><p>f/22</p><p>Brightest but blurry</p><p>Darkest but highest DOF</p><p>Brightest but least DOF</p><p>ISO</p><p>Ex</p><p>po</p><p>sure</p><p>100</p><p>6400</p><p>Brightest but grainy/less sharp</p><p>Darkest but less grainy/sharp</p></li><li><p>Rough Guidelines</p><p>Sports</p><p>Night</p><p>Indoor</p><p>Portrait</p><p>Landscape</p><p>High Shutter Speed to avoid motion blur</p><p>High ISO for exposure, To center light meter</p><p>????</p><p>Low f/stop, To separate object from backgroundHigh f/stop, To bring everything in focus</p><p>e.g. SS = 1/500 sec</p><p>e.g. ISO = 1000</p><p>?????</p><p>e.g. f/stop = f/2.8</p><p>e.g. f/stop = f/8</p></li><li><p>Summary</p></li><li><p>Summary</p></li><li><p>Shutter Speed and Aperture</p><p> To get a correctly exposed picture, you need a combination of shutter speed and aperture</p><p> Each shutter speed lets in twice as much light as the next faster speed</p><p> 1/60 lets in 2x as much light as 1/125</p><p> Each aperture setting lets in twice as much light as the n...</p></li></ul>