Basic Approaches to Leadership © PAPERHINT.COM. What Is Leadership? Leadership The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals Management.

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<ul><li><p>Basic Approaches to Leadership PAPERHINT.COM</p><p> PAPERHINT.COM</p></li><li><p>What Is Leadership?LeadershipThe ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goalsManagementUse of authority inherent in designated formal rank to obtain compliance from organizational members PAPERHINT.COM</p><p> PAPERHINT.COM</p></li><li><p>Trait TheoriesLeadership TraitsExtraversionConscientiousnessOpenness Emotional Intelligence (Qualified) Traits Theories of LeadershipTheories that consider personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits to differentiate leaders from nonleaders PAPERHINT.COM</p><p> PAPERHINT.COM</p></li><li><p>Trait TheoriesLimitationsNo universal traits found that predict leadership in all situationsUnclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traitsBetter predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders PAPERHINT.COM</p><p> PAPERHINT.COM</p></li><li><p>Trait ApproachTraits (examples)ExtraversionOpenness Assumption: Leaders are bornGoal: Select leadersProblemsTraits do not generalize across situationsBetter at predicting leader emergence than leader effectiveness PAPERHINT.COM</p><p> PAPERHINT.COM</p></li><li><p>Behavioral TheoriesBehavioral Theory Leadership behaviors can be taught.vs. Trait Theory Leaders are born, not made.Behavioral Theories of LeadershipTheories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from nonleaders PAPERHINT.COM</p><p> PAPERHINT.COM</p></li><li><p>Ohio State Studies/University of MichiganInitiating Structure/Production OrientationConsideration/Employee OrientationAssumption: Leaders can be trainedGoal: Develop leadersProblem: Effective behaviors do not generalize across situations.Behavioral Approach PAPERHINT.COM</p><p> PAPERHINT.COM</p></li><li><p>Ohio State StudiesInitiating StructureThe extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of subordinates in the search for goal attainmentConsiderationThe extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinates ideas, and regard for his/her feelings PAPERHINT.COM</p><p> PAPERHINT.COM</p></li><li><p>University of Michigan StudiesEmployee-oriented LeaderEmphasizing interpersonal relations; taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual differences among membersProduction-oriented LeaderOne who emphasizes technical or task aspects of the job PAPERHINT.COM</p><p> PAPERHINT.COM</p></li><li><p>The Managerial Grid(Blake and Mouton)E X H I B I T 121 PAPERHINT.COM</p><p> PAPERHINT.COM</p></li><li><p>Contingency Theories</p><p>All Consider the SituationFiedler Contingency ModelCognitive Resource Theory Hersey and Blanchards Situational Leadership ModelPath Goal Theory</p><p>Assumptions underlying the different models:Fiedler: Leaders style is fixed.Others: Leaders style can and should be changed. PAPERHINT.COM</p><p> PAPERHINT.COM</p></li><li><p>Leader: Style Is Fixed (Task-oriented vs. Relationship- oriented)Considers Situational Favorableness for LeaderLeader-member relationsTask structurePosition powerKey AssumptionLeader must fit situation; options to accomplish this: Select leader to fit situationChange situation to fit leaderFiedler Model PAPERHINT.COM</p><p> PAPERHINT.COM</p></li><li><p>Fiedler Model: The LeaderLeast Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) QuestionnaireThe way in which a leader will evaluate a co-worker who is not liked will indicate whether the leader is task- or relationship-oriented.Assumption: Leaders style is fixed and can be measured by the least preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire. PAPERHINT.COM</p><p> PAPERHINT.COM</p></li><li><p>Fiedler Model: Defining the SituationLeader-Member RelationsThe degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates have in their leaderPosition PowerInfluence derived from ones formal structural position in the organization; includes power to hire, fire, discipline, promote, and give salary increasesTask StructureThe degree to which the job assignments are procedurized PAPERHINT.COM</p><p> PAPERHINT.COM</p></li><li><p>Findings of the Fiedler ModelGoodPoorPerformanceRelationship-OrientedTask-OrientedFavorableModerateUnfavorable PAPERHINT.COM</p><p> PAPERHINT.COM</p></li><li><p>E X H I B I T 122Findings from Fiedler Model PAPERHINT.COM</p><p> PAPERHINT.COM</p></li><li><p>Cognitive Resource TheoryResearch SupportLess intelligent individuals perform better in leadership roles under high stress than do more intelligent individuals.Less experienced people perform better in leadership roles under low stress than do more experienced people.Cognitive Resource TheoryA theory of leadership that states that the level of stress in a situation is what impacts whether a leaders intelligence or experience will be more effective. PAPERHINT.COM</p><p> PAPERHINT.COM</p></li><li><p>Contingency Approach: Hersey and Blanchard Situational ModelConsiders Leader Behaviors (Task and Relationship) Assumes leaders can change their behaviorsConsiders Followers as the SituationFollower task maturity (ability and experience)Follower psychological maturity (willingness to take responsibility)Assumptions Leaders can and should change their style to fit their followers degree of readiness (willingness and ability) Therefore, it is possible to train leaders to better fit their style to their followers. PAPERHINT.COM</p><p> PAPERHINT.COM</p></li><li><p>Hersey and Blanchards Situational Leadership TheorySituational Leadership Theory (SLT)A contingency theory that focuses on followers readiness; the more ready the followers (the more willing and able) the less the need for leader support and supervision.LOW Amount of Follower Readiness HIGHAmount of Leader Support &amp;Supervision Required HIGH LOW PAPERHINT.COM</p><p> PAPERHINT.COM</p></li><li><p>Leadership Styles and Follower Readiness(Hersey and Blanchard)WillingUnwillingAbleUnableDirectiveHigh Task and Relationship OrientationsSupportive Participative MonitoringFollower ReadinessLeadership Styles PAPERHINT.COM</p><p> PAPERHINT.COM</p></li><li><p>Leader-Member Exchange TheoryLeader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory Leaders select certain followers to be in (favorites) based on competence and/or compatibility and similarity to leader Exchanges with these in followers will be higher quality than with those who are out Result: In subordinates will have higher performance ratings, less turnover, and greater job satisfaction. PAPERHINT.COM</p><p> PAPERHINT.COM</p></li><li><p>Leader-Member Exchange TheoryE X H I B I T 123 PAPERHINT.COM</p><p> PAPERHINT.COM</p></li><li><p>Path-Goal TheoryPremise Leader must help followers attain goals and reduce roadblocks to success Leaders must change behaviors to fit the situation (environmental contingencies and subordinate contingencies)</p><p> PAPERHINT.COM</p><p> PAPERHINT.COM</p></li><li><p>Path-Goal TheoryE X H I B I T 124 PAPERHINT.COM</p><p> PAPERHINT.COM</p></li><li><p>Leader-Participation ModelPremise Rule-based decision tree to guide leaders about when and when not to include subordinate participation in decision making Considers 12 contingency variables to consider whether or not to include subordinates in decision making PAPERHINT.COM</p><p> PAPERHINT.COM</p></li><li><p>Contingency Variables in the Revised Leader-Participation ModelE X H I B I T 125Importance of the decisionImportance of obtaining follower commitment to the decisionWhether the leader has sufficient information to make a good decisionHow well structured the problem isWhether an autocratic decision would receive follower commitmentWhether followers buy into the organizations goalsWhether there is likely to be conflict among followers over solution alternativesWhether followers have the necessary information to make a good decisionTime constraints on the leader that may limit follower involvementWhether costs to bring geographically dispersed members together is justifiedImportance to the leader of minimizing the time it takes to make the decisionImportance of using participation as a tool for developing follower decision skills PAPERHINT.COM</p><p> PAPERHINT.COM</p><p>***************Fiedler asserts that if the leaders style matches the situation, he or she will be effective. His model predicts that low-LPC, task motivated leaders will be effective in high and low situational control. High-LPC, relationship motivated leaders will be effective in moderate situational control. The Fiedler model has several practical implications for managers: Leaders must understand their style and the situation. Leaders should focus on changing the situation to match their style. A good relationship with followers can compensate for a lack of power. Leaders can compensate for task ambiguity through training and experience. ***********</p></li></ul>


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