Baroque Era (1600-1750) Definition of “baroque”  extreme ornamentation art / sculpture / architecture / music used to symbolize wealth and power Scientific.

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  • Slide 1
  • Baroque Era (1600-1750) Definition of baroque extreme ornamentation art / sculpture / architecture / music used to symbolize wealth and power Scientific discoveries Galileo / Newton Three phases of Baroque Era early - emphasis on dramatic contrast / homophonic middle - use of maj/min scales / music for certain instr. late (1680-1750) - what we will focus on
  • Slide 2
  • Characteristics of Baroque Music Unity of Mood Rhythmic Continuity Melodic Continuity Terraced Dynamics organ, harpsichord, clavichord - good for this Polyphonic Texture Favored Strong Importance of Chords (Harmony) basso continuo figured bass Continuation of Word Painting
  • Slide 3
  • Baroque Music Baroque Orchestra Nucleus Basso Continuo - harpsichord + cello / bass / bassoon Upper Strings - 1st & 2nd violins, violas Woodwinds / Brass / Percussion varied Baroque Trumpet - no valves Baroque Forms movements Binary / Ternary Continuous / undivided
  • Slide 4
  • Music in Baroque Society Music written to order Ruling class Opera houses / municipalities Churches The Overworked Musician How to Become a Musician and get a job!
  • Slide 5
  • More Baroque Forms Concerto Grosso tutti alternating with soloist or group 3 movements (F,S,F) Ritornello Form ritornello Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 - J.S. Bach soloists - harpsichord, violin, flute dedicated to the margrave of Brandenburg
  • Slide 6
  • More Baroque Forms Fugue a polyphonic composition based on one theme subject answer countersubject episodes pedal point variations of subject inversion, retrograde, augmentation, diminution Little organ Fugue in G minor - Bach
  • Slide 7
  • The Elements of Opera opera - drama sung to orchestral accompaniment began in Italy around 1600 fusion of music, acting, poetry, dance, scenery, costumes personnel needed to run an opera libretto serious vs. comic voice categories coloratura, lyric soprano, dramatic soprano lyric tenor, dramatic tenor bassobuffo, basso profundo
  • Slide 8
  • The Elements of Opera one to five acts subdivided into scenes aria - song for solo voice w/ orchestra recitative - vocal line that imitates speech duet ensemble trio, quartet, quintet, etc. prompter overture / prelude Should opera be translated for an audience?
  • Slide 9
  • Opera in the Baroque era the Camerata wanted to create vocal style modeled after ancient Greek tragedy recitative homophonic / polyphony rejected Euridice by Jacopo Peri (1600) earliest surviving opera composed for wedding of King Henri IV and Marie deMedici Orfeo by Claudio Monteverdi (1607) first great opera
  • Slide 10
  • Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643) born in Italy Career served at the court of Mantua - 21 years singer & violist music director wrote Orfeo 1613 - music director at St. Marks - 30 years composed sacred and secular music - all for voices wanted to create music of emotional intensity use of dissonance / new effects (pizzicato / tremolo)
  • Slide 11
  • Henry Purcell (ca.1659-1695) born in England Career age 10 - choirboy in Chapel Royal 1677 - (age 18) composer for kings string orchestra 1679 - organist at Westminster Abbey 1682 - organist at Chapel Royal buried under organ at Westminster Abbey wrote church music, secular choral music, chamber music, songs, music for the stage used ground bass (basso ostinato)
  • Slide 12
  • Henry Purcell Dido and Aeneas (1689) written for girls boarding school relatively short - one hour long scored for strings and harpsichord contiinuo libretto - (p.163) Didos Lament - from Act III recitative with basso continuo aria with full orchestra ground bass used to show grief and sorrow
  • Slide 13
  • The Baroque Sonata sonata composition in several movements for 1-8 instruments trio sonata - 2 high instruments and basso continuo originated in Italy - spread to Germany, England, France sonata da chiesa / sonata da camera Archangelo Corelli (1653-1713) studied in Bologna - spent most of his life in Rome friend and music director to Cardinal Ottoboni laid foundation for modern violin technique double stops / chords wrote only instrumental music Trio Sonata in B minor, Op.3 No.4
  • Slide 14
  • Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741) born in Venice / father at St. Marks as violinist age 25 - took holy orders / left ministry after 1 yr. the red priest teacher at music school of the Piet virtuoso violinist and composer popularity waned / died in poverty composed 50 operas and sacred music best known for concerti grossi and solo concerti La Primavera (Spring) from The Four Seasons
  • Slide 15
  • La Primavera concerto for solo violin and string orchestra Baroque program music 1. Allegro - birds, streams, storm 2. Largo e pianissimo sempre - goatherd w/ dog 3. Danza pastorale - bagpipes, dancing nymphs and shepherds Forms of movements 1. ritornello form 2. through-composed 3. ritornello form
  • Slide 16
  • Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) family of long line of musicians J.S. had 20 children 9 survived him / 4 became well-known composers born in Eisenach, Germany first musical training by father and cousin age 9 - both parents die / lives with oldest brother age 15 - leaves bothers home / goes to school, supporting himself by singing in church choir & playing organ & violin
  • Slide 17
  • Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) age 18 - becomes church organist at Arnstadt conflict with church authorities complicated music strange maiden age 23 - resolves conflict gets a better position in Mhlhausen marries the strange maiden, his cousin Barbara 1708 - court organist at Weimar stayed for 9 years / became concertmaster of court orch. asked to leave when passed over for promotion jailed for one month by Duke of Weimar
  • Slide 18
  • Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) 1717-1723 - court conductor for Prince of Cthen not involved in church music conducted orchestra of 18 players wrote Brandenburg Concertos 1720 - Barbara dies / leaving 4 children marries 21-year-old singer 1723 - cantor of St. Thomas Church in Leipzig drawbacks from career move / advantages wrote extended compositions for each Sunday and holiday became director of Leipzig Collegium Musicum eminent organist and teacher
  • Slide 19
  • Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) 1740s - eyesight began to deteriorate 1750 - goes blind / dies later that year Not well-known outside Germany in his day Baroque style out-of-date in his late career Bachs music largely forgotten 1829 - Felix Mendelssohn presents St. Matthew Passion Bachs music revived ever since
  • Slide 20
  • Bachs music composed all Baroque forms except opera bulk of music - vocal - Lutheran studied Italian concertos / French dance pieces unique combination of polyphonic texture & rich harmony use of musical symbolism music to demonstrate a specific musical form Art of the Fugue The Well-Tempered Clavier
  • Slide 21
  • Bachs music Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 movements instrumentation tempi form key other notable features Mass in B Minor setting of Roman Catholic Mass 1733 - wrote Kyrie / Gloria - sent to Catholic monarch later - completed mass w/ new and re-used music
  • Slide 22
  • Mass in B minor instrument parts each section subdivided into arias, duets, choruses in the Credo Crucifixus strings, 2 flutes, chorus use of ground bass Et Resurrexit full orch. (w/ oboes, trumpets, and timpani)
  • Slide 23
  • The Baroque Suite set of dance-inspired movements all in same key written for solo instr. / small groups / full orch. related to specific dance types examples allemande - moderate (Ger.) courante - fast (Fr.) gavotte - moderate (Fr.) sarabande - slow (Sp.) gigue - fast (Eng./Ire.) usually binary form French overture
  • Slide 24
  • The Chorale and Church Cantata Lutheran Church service in Bachs time 7 am / lasted 4 hours importance of music orchestra: 14-21 players chorus: 12+ men & boys single composition could last 1/2 hour use of vernacular chorale one note per syllable / moving in steady rhythm sung by congregation harmonized by choir chorale prelude
  • Slide 25
  • The Chorale and Church Cantata cantata written for chorus, vocal soloists, organ, orchestra German religious text- related to liturgy for each Sunday recitatives, arias, duets, choruses based on a chorale tune Bachs cantatas: wrote 295; surviving - 195 Cantata #140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme 7 movements mvt. 1 - Chorus w/ orch. mvt. 4 - Tenor (solo or unison) w/ strings and continuo mvt. 7 - Chorus doubled by orch.
  • Slide 26
  • George Frideric Handel (1685-1759) born in Halle, Germany - not in musical family father wanted him to study law age 9 - father relented to let G.F. study w/ organist age 11 - could compose and give organ lessons age 12 - father dies age 17 - studies law at Halle University age 18 - leaves university; sets out for Hamburg became violinist/harpsichordist at Hamburg Opera House / age 20 - own opera produced
  • Slide 27
  • George Frideric Handel (1685-1759) man of temperament and conviction age 21 - went to Italy / established his career wrote Italian operas 1710 - music director for Elector of Hanover (Ger.) after 1 mo. - asked to leave for London Rinaldo after 1 year - asked to leave again for London (1712-1759) became Englands most important composer favored by Queen Anne - gave him 200/year after death of Anne, Elector of Hanover becomes King George I of England - Handels subsidy increased to 400/year
  • Slide 28
  • George Frideric Handel (1685-1759) 1719 - music director of the Royal Academy of Music - open for only 9 seasons composed a number of operas for brilliant sopranos and castrati formed his own company impresario / composer / performer Opera of the Nobility - the opposition both companies go bankrupt / Handel has nervous breakdown recuperates in Germany / returns to England produces more operas and adds oratorios
  • Slide 29
  • George Frideric Handel (1685-1759) 1741 - stops composing opera / focuses on oratorio oratorios criticized, yet productive played organ concertos between acts plot against Handel suffers another breakdown / recovers / composes more oratorios 1753 - still active conducting/ giving organ concerts almost blind / statue erected in public park 1759 - 3000 mourners at his funeral in Westminster Abbey
  • Slide 30
  • The Oratorio large scale composition for chorus, vocal soloists, and orchestra no acting, scenery, or costumes - concert-style most based on Biblical stories choruses, arias, duets, recitatives, interludes chorus provides commentary / participates in story narrator longer than cantatas (sometimes over 2 hours) first appeared in early 17th century Italy - dramatized musical settings of Biblical stories

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