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  • AD_________________

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-04-1-0085 TITLE: Functional Characterization of a Novel Pro-Apoptotic Transcription Regulatory Protein in Ovarian Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Viji Shridhar, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN 55905 REPORT DATE: December 2006 TYPE OF REPORT: Final PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy or decision unless so designated by other documentation.

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    OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202- 4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE 01-12-2006

    2. REPORT TYPE Final

    3. DATES COVERED 15 Dec 2003 – 14 Nov 2006

    4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE

    5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

    Functional Characterization of a Novel Pro-Apoptotic Transcription Regulatory Protein in Ovarian Cancer

    5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0085

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    6. AUTHOR(S)

    5d. PROJECT NUMBER

    Viji Shridhar, Ph.D. 5e. TASK NUMBER

    E-Mail: shridhar.vijayalakshmi@mayo.edu

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    7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES)

    8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

    Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN 55905

    9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited

    13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Original contains colored plates: ALL DTIC reproductions will be in black and white.

    14. ABSTRACT In an effort to identify genetic changes involved in ovarian cancer (OvCa) development, we performed differential display-PCR, cDNA microarray and suppression subtraction hybridization analyses (SHH) to identify early genetic alterations associated with OvCa. These studies resulted in identification of several genes differentially expressed in OvCa, including a novel gene encoding a transcription elongation-like protein with the ability to induce apoptosis and suppress cancer cell growth. We named the protein ProApoptotic Protein on chromosome X (PAPX). Pro-apoptotic protein on X (PAPX) is a novel nuclear protein with sequence homology to transcription elongation factor like 1 (TCEAL1) [1]. PAPX expression is down-regulated in majority of ovarian cancer cell lines and primary tumors [2]. Re-expression of PAPX induces cell death and attenuates cell growth. We therefore proposed to study the functional role of PAPX as a candidate tumor suppressor in ovarian cancer. We proposed to (1) determine effect of PAPX on tumor and cell growth in vivo and in vitro; (2) analyze genes regulated by PAPX by transcriptional profiling using microarray chips; and (3) identify proteins that interact with PAPX and elucidate the function of PAPX related to tumor suppression.

    15. SUBJECT TERMS Ovarian Cancer

    16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF:

    17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

    18. NUMBER OF PAGES

    19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON USAMRMC

    a. REPORT U

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    66

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    Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract.....................................................................................................................................3 Introduction..............................................................................................................................3 Body...........................................................................................................................................8 Key Research Accomplishments...........................................................................................18 Reportable Outcomes ............................................................................................................18 Conclusions.............................................................................................................................19 References...............................................................................................................................20 Appendix.................................................................................................................................21

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    ABSTRACT Pro-apoptotic protein on X (PAPX) is a novel nuclear protein with sequence homology to transcription elongation factor like 1 (TCEAL1) [1]. PAPX expression is down-regulated in majority of ovarian cancer cell lines and primary tumors [2]. Re-expression of PAPX induces cell death and attenuates cell growth. We therefore proposed to study the functional role of PAPX as a candidate tumor suppressor in ovarian cancer. We proposed to (1) determine effect of PAPX on tumor and cell growth in vivo and in vitro; (2) analyze genes regulated by PAPX by transcriptional profiling using microarray chips; and (3) identify proteins that interact with PAPX and elucidate the function of PAPX related to tumor suppression. We reported on the epigenetic silencing of PAPX (Renamed TCEAL7 (Bex4) at the request of the reviewers) in ovarian cancer in the journal Oncogene in 2005 (Manuscript attached in the APPENDIX). The support from DOD is acknowledged in this manuscript. In our previous annual report, we provided the details of the experiments associated with Specific Aim#3 where we had utilized an antibody array to identify PAPX interacting proteins. The manuscript resulting from these experiments is under preparation. This manuscript is attached in the APPENDIX and the support from DOD is acknowledged in this article. INTRODUCTION We identified a novel pro-apoptotic nuclear protein with domain homology to p75NTR-associated death executor (NADE) [3] and transcription elongation factor A-like 1 (TCEAL1) [1]. Amino acid alignment of PAPX and NADE reveals that PAPX contains a putative nuclear export signal, but no homology with the C terminal region of NADE that is shown to be involved in NGF-dependent regulation of NADE-induced apoptosis [4]. NADE is a nuclear pro-apoptotic protein involved in modulating apoptosis mediated by the low affinity neurotropin receptor [3]. Like NADE, PAPX is a pro-apoptotic nuclear protein, and forced expression of PAPX in ovarian cancer cell lines induces apoptosis. Although NADE is not implicated in carcinogenesis, expression of PAPX is lost or markedly reduced in ovarian cancer. The fact that PAPX is a pro-apoptotic protein and is lost in majority of ovarian tumor is highly significant because loss of expression of a pro-apoptotic protein could confer a survival advantage leading to the development of ovarian epithelial neoplasia. 1. Genomic structure of TCEAL7 Genomic structure of TCEAL7 revealed that it is made up of three exons with the ORF residing entirely within exon 3 (Figure 1). Exons 1, 2, and 3 are 109 bp, 118 bp and 949 bp long respectively. Introns 1 and 2 are 618 bp and 336 bp long respectively. The putative open reading frame codes for a 100 amino acid long polypeptide. The putative initiation codon occurs within a strong Kozak context [5, 6] and is preceded by an in-frame stop codon. The assembled gene mapped to Xq21.1-21.2 based on the Human Genome BLAST server database.

    Figure 1. Genomic Structure of TCEAL7 2. Similarity alignment of TCEAL7 to other proteins To identify potential functions of TCEAL7, a homology search using Blastp was performed [7]. Subsequent CLUSTALW sequence alignment analyses between TCEAL7 and two homologous proteins are shown in Figure 2. The highest identity was observed with the p75NTR-associated death executor (NADE) (37%) and with the transcription elongation factor A-like 1 (TCEAL1) (35%). TCEAL7 and NADE share high degree of homology except between residues 72-112 of NADE, a region essential for NGF-dependent regulation of NADE-induced apoptosis [3]. TCEAL7 and TCEAL1 share homologies in the N- and