Automotive spark ignited direct-injection gasoline engines - f.zhao

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  1. 1. PROGRESS IN ENERGY AND COMBUSTION SCIENCE An International Review Journal Automotive spark-ignited direct-injection gasoline engines Editors F. ZHAO, M.-C. LAI, D.L. HARRINGTON PERGAMON Published originally as a special issue (Volume 25:5) of the international journal Progress in Energy and Combustion Science and also available in hard-bound edition (ISBN: 0 08 0436765)
  2. 2. ELSEVIER SCIENCE Ltd The Boulevard, Langford Lane Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1GB, UK 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. This work is protected under copyright by Elsevier Science, and the following terms and conditions apply to its use: Photocopying Single photocopies of single chapters may be made for personal use as allowed by national copyright laws. Permission of the Publisher and payment of a fee is required for all other photocopying, including multiple or systematic copying, copying for advertising or promotional purposes, resale, and all forms of document delivery. Special rates are available for educational institutions that wish to make photocopies for non-profit educational classroom use. Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier Science Rights & Permissions Department, PO Box 800, Oxford OX5 1DX, UK; phone: (+44) 1865 843830, fax: (+44) 1865 853333, e-mail: permissions@elsevier.co.uk. You may also contact Rights & Permissions directly through Elsevier's home page (http://www.elsevier.nl), selecting first 'Customer Support', then 'General Information', then 'Permissions Query Form'. In the USA, users may clear permissions and make payments through the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, USA; phone: (978) 7508400, fax: (978) 7504744, and in the UK through the Copyright Licensing Agency Rapid Clearance Service (CLARCS), 90 Tottenham Court Road, London WlP 0LP, UK; phone: (+44) 171 631 5555; fax: (+44) 171 631 5500. Other countries may have a local reprographic rights agency for payments. Derivative Works Tables of contents may be reproduced for internal circulation, but permission of Elsevier Science is required for external resale or distribution of such material. Permission of the Publisher is required for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. Electronic Storage or Usage Permission of the Publisher is required to store or use electronically any material contained in this work, including any chapter or part of a chapter. Except as outlined above, no part of this work maybe reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission of the Publisher. Address permissions requests to: Elsevier Science Rights & Permissions Department, at the mail, fax and e-mail addresses noted above. Notice No responsibility is assumed by the Publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the material herein. Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, in particular, independent verification of diagnoses and drug dosages should be made. Reprinted from: Progress in Energy and Combustion Science- ISSN: 0360-1285 Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data A catalog record from the Library of Congress has been applied for. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record from the British Library has been applied for. ISBN: 0-08 043676-5 The paper used in this publication meets the requirements of ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992 (Permanence of Paper). Printed in Great Britain by Polestar Wheatons Ltd, Exeter
  3. 3. PERGAMON Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 25 (1999)437-562 PROGRESS IN ENERGYAND COMBUSTION SCIENCE www.elsevier.com/locate/pecs Automotive spark-ignited direct-injection gasoline engines F. Zhao ~'*, M.-C. Lai ~, D.L. Harrington b aDepartmentof Mechanical Engineering, WayneState University,5050 Anthony WayneDr., Detroit, M148202, USA bThermaland Energy Systems Laboratory, GeneralMotorsResearch and Development Center, 30500MoundRoad, Warren,M148090, USA Abstract The development of four-stroke, spark-ignition engines that are designed to inject gasoline directly into the combustion chamber is an important worldwide initiative of the automotive industry. The thermodynamic potential of such engines for significantly enhanced fuel economy, transient response and cold-start hydrocarbon emission levels has led to a large number of research and development projects that have the goal of understanding, developing and optimizing gasoline direct-injection (GDI) combustion systems. The processes of fuel injection, spray atomization and vaporization, charge cooling, mixture preparation and the control of in-cylinder air motion are all being actively researched, and this work is reviewed in detail and analyzed. The new technologies such as high-pressure, common-rail, gasoline injection systems and swirl-atomizing gasoline fuel injectors are discussed in detail, as these technologies, along with computer control capabilities, have enabled the current new examination of an old objective; the direct-injection, stratified-charge (DISC), gasoline engine. The prior work on DISC engines that is relevant to current GDI engine development is also reviewed and discussed. The fuel economy and emission data for actual engine configurations are of significant importance to engine researchers and developers. These data have been obtained and assembled for all of the available GDI literature, and are reviewed and discussed in detail. The types of GDI engines are arranged in four classifications of decreasing complexity, and the advantages and disadvantages of each class are noted and explained. Emphasis is placed upon consensus trends and conclusions that are evident when taken as a whole. Thus the GDI researcher is informed regarding the degree to which engine volumetric efficiency and compression ratio can be increased under optimized conditions, and as to the extent to which unburned hydrocarbon (UBHC), NOx and particulate emissions can be minimized for specific combustion strategies. The critical area of GDI fuel injector deposits and the associated effect on spray geometry and engine performance degradation are reviewed, and important system guidelines for minimizing deposition rates and deposit effects are presented. The capabilities and limitations of emission control techniques and aftertreatment hardware are reviewed in depth, and areas of consensus on attaining European, Japanese and North American emission standards are compiled and discussed. All known research, prototype and production GDI engines worldwide are reviewed as to performance, emissions and fuel economy advantages, and for areas requiting further development. The engine schematics, control diagrams and specifications are compiled, and the emission control strategies are illustrated and discussed. The influence of lean-NOx catalysts on the development of late-injection, stratified-charge GDI engines is reviewed, and the relative merits of lean-burn, homogeneous, direct-injection engines as an option requiting less control complexity are analyzed. All current information in the literature is used as the basis for discussing the future development of automotive GDI engines. 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Automotive; Four stroke; Gasoline; Direct injection; Sparkignition; Engine *Corresponding author. Currently with Liberty and Technical Affairs, DaimlerChrysler Corporation, CIMS 482-01-19, 800 Chrysler Dr. E, Auburn Hills, MI 48326, USA. 0360-1285/99/$ - see front matter 1999Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S0360-1285(99)00004-0
  4. 4. 438 F. Zhao et al. /Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 25 (1999) 437-562 Contents Nomenclature .................................................................... 439 1. Introduction .................................................................. 440 1.1. Overview ................................................................ 440 1.2. Key potential benefits: GDI engine versus PFI engine ............................... 441 2. Direct-injection gasoline fuel system ................................................ 444 2.1. Fuel system requirements .................................................... 444 2.2. Fuel injector considerations .................................................. 446 2.3. Fuel spray characteristics .................................................... 452 2.3.1. Atomization requirements .............................................. 452 2.3.2. Single-fluid high-pressure swirl injector .................................... 455 2.3.3. Effect of injector sac volume ............................................ 462 2.3.4. Air-assisted injection ................................................. 464 2.3.5. Best practice performance of current GDI injectors ........................... 467 2.3.6. Future requirements of GDI fuel sprays .................................... 468 3. Combustion chamber geometry and in-cylinder mixture dynamics .......................... 470 3.1. Flow structure ............................................................ 470 3.2. Fuel-air mixing ........................................................... 476 4. Combustion process and control strategies ............................................ 485 4.1. Combustion chamber geometry ................................................ 485 4.2. In-cylinder charge cooling ................................................... 494 4.3. Engine operating modes and fuel injection strategies ................................ 495 4.4. Combustion characteristics ................................................... 501 4.5. Injector deposit issues ...................................................

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