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    Autoacetylation of the MYST Lysine Acetyltransferase MOF

    Chao Yang†, Jiang Wu†, Sarmistha H. Sinha†, John M. Neveu‡, Yujun George Zheng†,*

    From † the Department of Chemistry, Centre for Biotechnology and Drug Design, Georgia State University, PO BOX 4098, Atlanta, GA 30302-4098 and ‡ the FAS Center for Systems Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138.

    Running title: Effect of autoacetylation in MOF catalysis * To whom correspondence should be addressed: Y. G. Zheng. Telephone: (404) 413-5491. Fax: (404)

    413-5505. E-mail: yzheng@gsu.edu

    Keywords: MOF; histone; HAT; KAT; MYST; Autoacetylation; Deacetylation

    Background: Autoacetylation of the MYST HATs is studied recently but its mechanism and biochemical effect are poorly defined. Results: Deacetylated MOF showed similar enzymatic activity as acetylated MOF. Conclusion: Autoacetylation does not significantly affect the enzymatic activity of the MYST HATs. Significance: This study provides a new mechanistic insight into the MYST autoacetylation.

    ABSTRACT The MYST family of histone

    acetyltransferases (HATs) plays critical roles in diverse cellular processes, such as the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Lysine autoacetylation of the MYST HATs has received considerable attention recently. Nonetheless, the mechanism and function of the autoacetylation process are not well defined. To better understand the biochemical mechanism of MYST autoacetylation and the impact of autoacetylation on the cognate histone acetylation, we carried out detailed analyses of MOF, a key member of the MYST family. A number of mutant MOF proteins were produced with point mutations at several key residues near the active site of the enzyme. Autoradiography and immunoblotting data showed that mutation of these residues affects the autoacetylation activity and HAT activity of MOF by various degrees demonstrating that MOF activity is highly sensitive to the chemical changes in those residues. We produced MOF protein in the deacetylated form by using a nonspecific lysine deacetylase. Interestingly,

    both the autoacetylation activity and the histone acetylation activity of the deacetylated MOF was found to be very close to that of wild- type MOF, suggesting that autoacetylation of MOF only marginally modulates the enzymatic activity. Also, we found that the autoacetylation rates of MOF and deacetylated MOF are much slower than the cognate substrate acetylation. Thus autoacetylation does not seem to contribute to the intrinsic enzymatic activity in a significant manner. These data provide new insights into the mechanism and function of MYST HAT autoacetylation.

    INTRODUCTION Histone acetyltransferases (HATs), also often

    referred to as protein lysine acetyltransferases (KATs), catalyze the addition of acetyl groups in histone and non-histone proteins (1-6). The acetylation catalyzed by HATs occurs on the epsilon-amino group of specific lysine residues with the cosubstrate acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl- CoA, AcCoA) as the acetyl donor. First discovered in nucleosomal histones, protein acetylation is now widely recognized extending far beyond the chromatin realm and orchestrates other diverse biological functions and processes, including cell cycle, cytoskeleton remodeling, chaperones, ribosome, and metabolic pathways (7- 12). In the past decade, significant progress has been made in various aspects of HAT biology, from enzyme kinetics, protein structures, gene regulation, signal transduction, cell development, to disease mechanism and inhibitor development (13-19). Based on the sequence and structural similarities, HATs are grouped into several major

    http://www.jbc.org/cgi/doi/10.1074/jbc.M112.359356The latest version is at JBC Papers in Press. Published on August 23, 2012 as Manuscript M112.359356

    Copyright 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

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    families, including GCN5/PCAF family, MYST family, p300/CBP, and RTT109 (15,20,21). The MYST family contains the largest number of HAT proteins in humans, including MOF (males-absent- on-the-first, KAT8, MYST1) which has specific HAT activity for Lys 16 on histone H4, Tip60, MORF, MOZ, and HBO1 (22). Recently, increasing biochemical, proteomic, and crystal structural evidence shows that overexpressed MYST proteins exist in the acetylated form. For instance, our data showed that when recombinant Tip60 or MOF was mixed with radiolabeled AcCoA, the proteins exhibited strong bands on the radioactive gel. Confirmative evidence supporting MYST autoacetylation comes from the structural reports showing that in several MYST protein crystal structures, a conserved lysine residue residing near the active site (i.e., Lys-274 in MOF, Lys-327 in Tip60, Lys-815 in MORF, Lys-604 in MOZ, Lys-432 in HBO1, and Lys-262 in yEsa1) was found predominantly in the acetylated form (23-26). Such a unique spatial feature prompted several studies toward sorting out the functionality of this lysine autoacetylation in the regulation of the enzymatic activities of the MYST HATs. While some studies showed that MOF Lys-274 autoacetylation increases substrate binding and acetylation (23,27), others found that it blocks enzyme recruitment to chromatin (26). It is noteworthy to mention that almost all the previous studies relied on site mutagenesis to decipher the function of autoacetylation which might be prone to producing false positive results. In addition to the active site lysine acetylation, there are other acetylated lysine residues, albeit to less degrees. These alternative autoacetylation events have yet to be well studied. Because elucidation of MYST autoacetylation is of critical significance to understand the regulatory mechanism of the activities of this class of epigenetic enzymes, in this work, we carried out a detailed study of the autoacetylation of MOF; in particular, we investigated the effect of autoacetylation on its intrinsic enzymatic activities. This work provides new insights into the mechanism and function of MYST autoacetylation.

    EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES Chemicals and reagents−pET19b-hMOF (125-

    458) DNA plasmid was a gift from Dr. John Lucchesi in Emory University. Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cell was purchased from Stratagene. [14C]-acetyl CoA was purchased from Perkin Elmer. Anti-acetyllysine antibody (ST1027) was obtained from Calbiochem. Goat anti-rabbit IgG- HRP antibody (sc-2004) was purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology.

    Site-directed mutagenesis and protein expression−Site-directed mutagenesis was achieved using the QuikChange protocol (Stratagene). All mutations were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Each His10x-tagged hMOF (125-458) DNA plasmid was respectively introduced into BL21(DE3) through the heat shock transformation method. Protein expression was induced with 0.3 mM IPTG at 16ºC for 20 h. After protein expression, cells were harvested by centrifuge; suspended in the lysis buffer (25 mM Na-HEPES pH 8.0, 150 mM NaCl, 1 mM PMSF, 1 mM MgSO4, 5% ethylene glycol, 5% glycerol) and lysed by French Press. The protein supernatant was purified on the Ni-NTA resin (Novagen). Before protein loading, the beads were equilibrated with column buffer (25 mM Na- HEPES, pH 8.0, 500 mM NaCl, 1 mM PMSF, 10% glycerol and 30 mM imidazole). After protein loading, the beads were washed thoroughly with washing buffer (25 mM Na-HEPES, pH 8.0, 500 mM NaCl, 1 mM PMSF, 10% glycerol and 70 mM imidazole), and then the protein was eluted with elution buffer (25 mM Na-HEPES, pH 7.0, 500 mM NaCl, 1 mM PMSF, 100 mM EDTA, 10% glycerol and 200 mM imidazole). Different elution fractions were individually checked on SDS– PAGE, followed by concentration using Millipore centrifugal filters. Concentrated protein solution was applied to size-exclusion chromatography on Superdex 75 (GE Healthcare) in the buffer containing 25 mM Na-HEPES, pH 7.0, 200 mM NaCl, 1 mM EDTA, 1 mM DTT and 5% glycerol at 4ºC. The protein peak was collected and concentrated by Millipore centrifugal filters.

    His6x-tagged human Sirt1 (1-555) protein was expressed and purified using similar procedures as described above. Protein was dialyzed against dialysis buffer (25 mM Na-HEPES, pH 7.0, 500 mM NaCl, 1 mM EDTA, 10% glycerol and 1 mM DTT) and concentrated using Millipore centrifugal

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    filters. The Bradford assay was utilized to determine the concentration of protein. Final proteins were aliquoted, stored at -80oC for future use.

    Protein digestion and MS analysis−1D gel slices of MOF were submitted to the Harvard University Mass Spectrometry and Proteomics Resource Laboratory (Cambridge, MA) for protein identification and site of modification (acetylation) analysis. Each slice was reduced and alkylated (TCEP and iodoacetamide) before enzymatic digestion. Three enzymes were chosen to obtain complimentary peptides of expected sites of acetylation, endoproteinase Glu-C, chymotrypsin and elastase. After digestion, peptides were extracted and pooled for MS analysis.

    All samples were analyzed on a Thermo Fisher LTQ-Orbitrap XL equipped with a Waters nano- Acquity UPLC and nanocapillary chromatographic components. The Integrafrit trapping column was packed with 5 cm of Michrom Bioresources Magic C18 AQ (5 μm beads with 2