authors: pharmacist liliam acosta amaya. pharmacist leuvis pedro moreno sánchez

Download Authors: Pharmacist Liliam Acosta Amaya. Pharmacist Leuvis Pedro Moreno Sánchez

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Slide 2 Authors: Pharmacist Liliam Acosta Amaya. Pharmacist Leuvis Pedro Moreno Snchez. Slide 3 We performed a prospective study on expired medicines in the pharmacy Katutura Intermediate Hospital in the period from October to December of 2012 determined that won 68 Drug which represented a total loss for the institution of 49181.29 ND (Namibiam Dollar) being the Antibiotics and TB drugs the higher incidence, Cotrimoxazole 480mg (Injectable) Rifampicin150mg/Isoniacid75mg (Tablets) besides being the month of December the greatest losses of 20801.27 (42.29%) due to poor organization of medicines in the store without having into account its maturity, the failure to conduct a systematic calculation of the maximum and minimum to achieve quality purchase orders to suppliers, poor maintenance of specific conditions requiring hospital wards, the absence of a system of control and reporting system that enables the period in which they mature, and not performing periodic checks to the medications in the wards. Slide 4 Since the emergence of humanity man has suffered from various ailments that have affected to a lesser or greater extent, character suffering from pandemic diseases such as plague, tuberculosis, yellow fever among others, causing them to give to the task of seek ways to combat them to reduce their negative impact on the population and that is how come Drugs: substances with properties for the treatment or prevention of disease in humans and animals. Also considered as substances that are used or administered with the aim of restoring, correcting or modifying physiological functions in the body or those for making a medical diagnosis. (1, 2.5) These are used in doses so small that in order to administer the correct dose, should be prepared so that they are manageable and so arising (tablets, syrups, suppositories, injections, ointments, etc..) Known as dosage forms. (5) These are used in doses so small that in order to administer the correct dose, should be prepared so that they are manageable and so arising (tablets, syrups, suppositories, injections, ointments, etc..) Known as dosage forms. (5) These drugs not only consist of medicinal substances are those with therapeutic activity and are called Active Principles, often accompanied by other substances that have no therapeutic activity but have an important role, allowing the drug to have stability and preserved properly, some of which are notifiable and very important in the production, storage and release of medicinal substances identified by the name of Excipients. (5) These drugs not only consist of medicinal substances are those with therapeutic activity and are called Active Principles, often accompanied by other substances that have no therapeutic activity but have an important role, allowing the drug to have stability and preserved properly, some of which are notifiable and very important in the production, storage and release of medicinal substances identified by the name of Excipients. (5) Since the emergence of humanity man has suffered from various ailments that have affected to a lesser or greater extent, character suffering from pandemic diseases such as plague, tuberculosis, yellow fever among others, causing them to give to the task of seek ways to combat them to reduce their negative impact on the population and that is how come Drugs: substances with properties for the treatment or prevention of disease in humans and animals. Also considered as substances that are used or administered with the aim of restoring, correcting or modifying physiological functions in the body or those for making a medical diagnosis. (1, 2.5) These are used in doses so small that in order to administer the correct dose, should be prepared so that they are manageable and so arising (tablets, syrups, suppositories, injections, ointments, etc..) Known as dosage forms. (5) These are used in doses so small that in order to administer the correct dose, should be prepared so that they are manageable and so arising (tablets, syrups, suppositories, injections, ointments, etc..) Known as dosage forms. (5) These drugs not only consist of medicinal substances are those with therapeutic activity and are called Active Principles, often accompanied by other substances that have no therapeutic activity but have an important role, allowing the drug to have stability and preserved properly, some of which are notifiable and very important in the production, storage and release of medicinal substances identified by the name of Excipients. (5) These drugs not only consist of medicinal substances are those with therapeutic activity and are called Active Principles, often accompanied by other substances that have no therapeutic activity but have an important role, allowing the drug to have stability and preserved properly, some of which are notifiable and very important in the production, storage and release of medicinal substances identified by the name of Excipients. (5) Slide 5 Nowadays, most medications are prepared by pharmaceutical and, for preparation and distribution, these must be approved by the Ministry of Health of the country preceding a name registered. (1, 4) All processes related to the research, manufacture and distribution are strictly regulated by the laws that protect the health of citizens, among them are those which provide that: Apart from the registered name of the drug, on the outside of the package must be printed a lot of information that can be very useful and it expresses: Apart from the registered name of the drug, on the outside of the package must be printed a lot of information that can be very useful and it expresses: Active Ingredient and the amount contained. Excipients notifiable. Laboratory manufacturer. Batch. Expiration or maturity date. Symbols and abbreviations: (2,3) Nowadays, most medications are prepared by pharmaceutical and, for preparation and distribution, these must be approved by the Ministry of Health of the country preceding a name registered. (1, 4) All processes related to the research, manufacture and distribution are strictly regulated by the laws that protect the health of citizens, among them are those which provide that: Apart from the registered name of the drug, on the outside of the package must be printed a lot of information that can be very useful and it expresses: Apart from the registered name of the drug, on the outside of the package must be printed a lot of information that can be very useful and it expresses: Active Ingredient and the amount contained. Excipients notifiable. Laboratory manufacturer. Batch. Expiration or maturity date. Symbols and abbreviations: (2,3) Slide 6 All these aspects are essential for the use which gives the drug and within it the significance of the Expiration Date or Expiration of a drug known as: Date placed in a drug packaging which indicates the period during which the product is expected to meet specifications. This date is established for each batch by adding the shelf life from the date of manufacture. Also as: The date provided by the manufacturer in a non-encoded, based on the stability of the drug product and after which the medicine it cannot be used. All these aspects are essential for the use which gives the drug and within it the significance of the Expiration Date or Expiration of a drug known as: Date placed in a drug packaging which indicates the period during which the product is expected to meet specifications. This date is established for each batch by adding the shelf life from the date of manufacture. Also as: The date provided by the manufacturer in a non-encoded, based on the stability of the drug product and after which the medicine it cannot be used. Slide 7 Using as reference texts of pharmacology in principle is considered against the law market or use drugs beyond their expiration date, existing from the theoretical point of view two lines of reasoning that support this policy: 1 - That a expired drug may contain less active ingredient than stated on the label, reducing or compromising therapeutic efficacy in varying degrees. 2 - That the process of drug degradation in storage conditions give rise to hazardous, toxic either director haptens that trigger a hypersensitivity reaction. There is a practical approach that allows overcoming this problem: the product must be discarded. In particular, the antibiotics penicillin derivatives, and various biological agents - which generally require cold chain for proper conservation being the most commonly cited in this category. Product for the above properties are medications that can alter and potential consequences: Chemical: Each active ingredient can vary its chemical integrity and labeled potency, reduce its therapeutic effect. Physical: physical properties can be altered original: appearance Uniformity, dissolution, color, etc. Microbiological: sterility may be affected or resistance to bacterial growth. Therapeutic: therapeutic effects may be affected. Toxicology: Changes may occur in the training toxicity of degradation products that may be toxic, harmful to the body. (1, 3, 4.5) That is why taking into account all the aforementioned aspects we were motivated to conduct a study on the drug expires in Katutura Intermediate Hospital, which is in effect and problems affecting the sector indicators, not to mention the therapeutic implications that would entail the use of one of these drugs, and thus we propose the following objectives: Using as reference texts of pharmacology in principle is considered against the law market or use drugs beyond their expiration date, existing from the theoretical point of view two lines of reasoning that support this policy: 1 - That a expired drug may contain less active ingredient than stated on the label, reducing or compromising therapeutic efficacy in varying degrees. 2 - That the process of drug degradation in storage cond