Australian Curriculum - F10 - Science

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Australian Curriculum - F10 - Science - Document ver 4.1 - 1 February 2013

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<p>TheAustralian</p> <p>Curriculum</p> <p>Learningareas Yearlevels Curriculumversion Dated</p> <p>Science FoundationYear,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9and10 Version4.1 Friday,1February2013</p> <p>The Australian Curriculum Science</p> <p>ScienceTableofContents RationaleandAims Rationale Aims Organisation Contentstructure Theoverarchingideas ScienceacrossFoundationtoYear12 Achievementstandards Diversityoflearners Generalcapabilities Crosscurriculumpriorities Linkstotheotherlearningareas Implicationsforteaching,assessmentandreporting CurriculumF10 FoundationYear Year1 Year2 Year3 Year4 Year5 Year6 Year7 Year8 Year9 Year10 Glossary</p> <p>3 3 3 4 4 7 8 10 10 12 14 16 17 18 18 20 24 27 31 35 40 45 51 57 63 70</p> <p>ACARA | The Australian Curriculum | Version 4.1 dated Friday, 1 February 2013</p> <p>2</p> <p>Rationale and Aims</p> <p>RationaleScienceprovidesanempiricalwayofansweringinterestingandimportantquestionsaboutthebiological,physicaland technologicalworld.Theknowledgeitproduceshasprovedtobeareliablebasisforactioninourpersonal,socialand economiclives.Scienceisadynamic,collaborativeandcreativehumanendeavourarisingfromourdesiretomakesenseof ourworldthroughexploringtheunknown,investigatinguniversalmysteries,makingpredictionsandsolvingproblems. Scienceaimstounderstandalargenumberofobservationsintermsofamuchsmallernumberofbroadprinciples.Science knowledgeiscontestableandisrevised,refinedandextendedasnewevidencearises. TheAustralianCurriculum:Scienceprovidesopportunitiesforstudentstodevelopanunderstandingofimportantscience conceptsandprocesses,thepracticesusedtodevelopscientificknowledge,ofsciencescontributiontoourcultureand society,anditsapplicationsinourlives.Thecurriculumsupportsstudentstodevelopthescientificknowledge, understandingsandskillstomakeinformeddecisionsaboutlocal,nationalandglobalissuesandtoparticipate,iftheyso wish,insciencerelatedcareers. Inadditiontoitspracticalapplications,learningscienceisavaluablepursuitinitsownright.Studentscanexperiencethejoy ofscientificdiscoveryandnurturetheirnaturalcuriosityabouttheworldaroundthem.Indoingthis,theydevelopcriticaland creativethinkingskillsandchallengethemselvestoidentifyquestionsanddrawevidencebasedconclusionsusingscientific methods.Thewiderbenefitsofthisscientificliteracyarewellestablished,includinggivingstudentsthecapabilityto investigatethenaturalworldandchangesmadetoitthroughhumanactivity. Thesciencecurriculumpromotessixoverarchingideasthathighlightcertaincommonapproachestoascientificviewofthe worldandwhichcanbeappliedtomanyoftheareasofscienceunderstanding.Theseoverarchingideasarepatterns,order andorganisationformandfunctionstabilityandchangesystemsscaleandmeasurementandmatterandenergy. </p> <p>AimsTheAustralianCurriculum:Scienceaimstoensurethatstudentsdevelop:l</p> <p>aninterestinscienceasameansofexpandingtheircuriosityandwillingnesstoexplore,askquestionsaboutand speculateonthechangingworldinwhichtheylive anunderstandingofthevisionthatscienceprovidesofthenatureoflivingthings,oftheEarthanditsplaceinthe cosmos,andofthephysicalandchemicalprocessesthatexplainthebehaviourofallmaterialthings anunderstandingofthenatureofscientificinquiryandtheabilitytousearangeofscientificinquirymethods,including questioningplanningandconductingexperimentsandinvestigationsbasedonethicalprinciplescollectingand analysingdataevaluatingresultsanddrawingcritical,evidencebasedconclusions anabilitytocommunicatescientificunderstandingandfindingstoarangeofaudiences,tojustifyideasonthebasisof evidence,andtoevaluateanddebatescientificargumentsandclaims anabilitytosolveproblemsandmakeinformed,evidencebaseddecisionsaboutcurrentandfutureapplicationsof sciencewhiletakingintoaccountethicalandsocialimplicationsofdecisions anunderstandingofhistoricalandculturalcontributionstoscienceaswellascontemporaryscienceissuesand activitiesandanunderstandingofthediversityofcareersrelatedtoscience asolidfoundationofknowledgeofthebiological,chemical,physical,Earthandspacesciences,includingbeingableto selectandintegratethescientificknowledgeandmethodsneededtoexplainandpredictphenomena,toapplythat understandingtonewsituationsandevents,andtoappreciatethedynamicnatureofscienceknowledge.</p> <p>l</p> <p>l</p> <p>l</p> <p>l</p> <p>l</p> <p>l</p> <p>ACARA | The Australian Curriculum | Version 4.1 dated Friday, 1 February 2013</p> <p>3</p> <p>Organisation</p> <p>ContentstructureTheAustralianCurriculum:Sciencehasthreeinterrelatedstrands:ScienceUnderstanding,ScienceasaHumanEndeavour andScienceInquirySkills. Together,thethreestrandsofthesciencecurriculumprovidestudentswithunderstanding,knowledgeandskillsthrough whichtheycandevelopascientificviewoftheworld.Studentsarechallengedtoexplorescience,itsconcepts,natureand usesthroughclearlydescribedinquiryprocesses. ScienceUnderstanding Scienceunderstandingisevidentwhenapersonselectsandintegratesappropriatescienceknowledgetoexplainand predictphenomena,andappliesthatknowledgetonewsituations.Scienceknowledgereferstofacts,concepts,principles, laws,theoriesandmodelsthathavebeenestablishedbyscientistsovertime. TheScienceUnderstandingstrandcomprisesfoursubstrands.Thecontentisdescribedbyyearlevel. Biologicalsciences Thebiologicalsciencessubstrandisconcernedwithunderstandinglivingthings.Thekeyconceptsdevelopedwithinthis substrandarethat:adiverserangeoflivingthingshaveevolvedonEarthoverhundredsofmillionsofyearslivingthingsare interdependentandinteractwitheachotherandtheirenvironmentandtheformandfeaturesoflivingthingsarerelatedtothe functionsthattheirbodysystemsperform.Throughthissubstrand,studentsinvestigatelivingthings,includinganimals, plants,andmicroorganisms,andtheirinterdependenceandinteractionswithinecosystems.Theyexploretheirlifecycles, bodysystems,structuraladaptationsandbehaviours,howthesefeaturesaidsurvival,andhowtheircharacteristicsare inheritedfromonegenerationtothenext.Studentsareintroducedtothecellasthebasicunitoflifeandtheprocessesthat arecentraltoitsfunction. Chemicalsciences Thechemicalsciencessubstrandisconcernedwithunderstandingthecompositionandbehaviourofsubstances.Thekey conceptsdevelopedwithinthissubstrandarethat:thechemicalandphysicalpropertiesofsubstancesaredeterminedby theirstructureatanatomicscaleandthatsubstanceschangeandnewsubstancesareproducedbyrearrangingatoms throughatomicinteractionsandenergytransfer.Inthissubstrand,studentsclassifysubstancesbasedontheirproperties, suchassolids,liquidsandgases,ortheircomposition,suchaselements,compoundsandmixtures.Theyexplorephysical changessuchaschangesofstateanddissolving,andinvestigatehowchemicalreactionsresultintheproductionofnew substances.Studentsrecognisethatallsubstancesconsistofatomswhichcancombinetoformmolecules,andchemical reactionsinvolveatomsbeingrearrangedandrecombinedtoformnewsubstances.Theyexploretherelationshipbetween thewayinwhichatomsarearrangedandthepropertiesofsubstances,andtheeffectofenergytransfersonthese arrangements. Earthandspacesciences</p> <p>ACARA | The Australian Curriculum | Version 4.1 dated Friday, 1 February 2013</p> <p>4</p> <p>Science</p> <p>Organisation</p> <p>TheEarthandspacesciencessubstrandisconcernedwithEarthsdynamicstructureanditsplaceinthecosmos.Thekey conceptsdevelopedwithinthissubstrandarethat:EarthispartofasolarsystemthatispartofalargeruniverseandEarth issubjecttochangewithinandonitssurface,overarangeoftimescalesasaresultofnaturalprocessesandhumanuseof resources.Throughthissubstrand,studentsviewEarthaspartofasolarsystem,whichispartofagalaxy,whichisoneof manyintheuniverseandexploretheimmensescalesassociatedwithspace.TheyexplorehowchangesonEarth,suchas dayandnightandtheseasonsrelatetoEarthsrotationanditsorbitaroundthesun.Studentsinvestigatetheprocessesthat resultinchangetoEarthssurface,recognisingthatEarthhasevolvedover4.5billionyearsandthattheeffectofsomeof theseprocessesisonlyevidentwhenviewedoverextremelylongtimescales.Theyexplorethewaysinwhichhumansuse resourcesfromtheEarthandappreciatetheinfluenceofhumanactivityonthesurfaceoftheEarthandtheatmosphere. Physicalsciences Thephysicalsciencessubstrandisconcernedwithunderstandingthenatureofforcesandmotion,andmatterandenergy. Thetwokeyconceptsdevelopedwithinthissubstrandarethat:forcesaffectthebehaviourofobjectsandthatenergycanbe transferredandtransformedfromoneformtoanother.Throughthissubstrandstudentsgainanunderstandingofhowan objectsmotion(direction,speedandacceleration)isinfluencedbyarangeofcontactandnoncontactforcessuchas friction,magnetism,gravityandelectrostaticforces.Theydevelopanunderstandingoftheconceptofenergyandhowenergy transferisassociatedwithphenomenainvolvingmotion,heat,sound,lightandelectricity.Theyappreciatethatconceptsof force,motion,matterandenergyapplytosystemsranginginscalefromatomstotheuniverseitself. ScienceasaHumanEndeavour Throughscience,humansseektoimprovetheirunderstandingandexplanationsofthenaturalworld.Scienceinvolvesthe constructionofexplanationsbasedonevidenceandscienceknowledgecanbechangedasnewevidencebecomes available.Scienceinfluencessocietybyposing,andrespondingto,socialandethicalquestions,andscientificresearchis itselfinfluencedbytheneedsandprioritiesofsociety.Thisstrandhighlightsthedevelopmentofscienceasauniquewayof knowinganddoing,andtheroleofscienceincontemporarydecisionmakingandproblemsolving.Itacknowledgesthatin makingdecisionsaboutsciencepracticesandapplications,ethicalandsocialimplicationsmustbetakenintoaccount.This strandalsorecognisesthatscienceadvancesthroughthecontributionsofmanydifferentpeoplefromdifferentculturesand thattherearemanyrewardingsciencebasedcareerpaths. ThecontentintheScienceasaHumanEndeavourstrandisdescribedintwoyearbands.Therearetwosubstrandsof ScienceasaHumanEndeavour.Theseare: Natureanddevelopmentofscience:Thissubstranddevelopsanappreciationoftheuniquenatureofscienceandscientific knowledge,includinghowcurrentknowledgehasdevelopedovertimethroughtheactionsofmanypeople. Useandinfluenceofscience:Thissubstrandexploreshowscienceknowledgeandapplicationsaffectpeopleslives, includingtheirwork,andhowscienceisinfluencedbysocietyandcanbeusedtoinformdecisionsandactions. ScienceInquirySkills Scienceinquiryinvolvesidentifyingandposingquestionsplanning,conductingandreflectingoninvestigationsprocessing, analysingandinterpretingevidenceandcommunicatingfindings.Thisstrandisconcernedwithevaluatingclaims, investigatingideas,solvingproblems,drawingvalidconclusionsanddevelopingevidencebasedarguments. Scienceinvestigationsareactivitiesinwhichideas,predictionsorhypothesesaretestedandconclusionsaredrawnin responsetoaquestionorproblem.Investigationscaninvolvearangeofactivities,includingexperimentaltesting,fieldwork, locatingandusinginformationsources,conductingsurveys,andusingmodellingandsimulations.Thechoiceofthe approachtakenwilldependonthecontextandsubjectoftheinvestigation.</p> <p>ACARA | The Australian Curriculum | Version 4.1 dated Friday, 1 February 2013</p> <p>5</p> <p>Science</p> <p>Organisation</p> <p>Inscienceinvestigations,collectionandanalysisofdataandevidenceplayamajorrole.Thiscaninvolvecollectingor extractinginformationandreorganisingdataintheformoftables,graphs,flowcharts,diagrams,prose,keys,spreadsheets anddatabases. ThecontentintheScienceInquirySkillsstrandisdescribedintwoyearbands.TherearefivesubstrandsofScience InquirySkills.Theseare: Questioningandpredicting:Identifyingandconstructingquestions,proposinghypothesesandsuggestingpossible outcomes. Planningandconducting:Makingdecisionsregardinghowtoinvestigateorsolveaproblemandcarryingoutan investigation,includingthecollectionofdata. Processingandanalysingdataandinformation:Representingdatainmeaningfulandusefulwaysidentifyingtrends, patternsandrelationshipsindata,andusingthisevidencetojustifyconclusions. Evaluating:Consideringthequalityofavailableevidenceandthemeritorsignificanceofaclaim,propositionorconclusion withreferencetothatevidence. Communicating:Conveyinginformationorideastoothersthroughappropriaterepresentations,texttypesandmodes. Relationshipbetweenthestrands Inthepracticeofscience,thethreestrandsofScienceUnderstanding,ScienceasaHumanEndeavourandScienceInquiry Skillsarecloselyintegratedtheworkofscientistsreflectsthenatureanddevelopmentofscience,isbuiltaroundscientific inquiryandseekstorespondtoandinfluencesocietysneeds.Studentsexperiencesofschoolscienceshouldmirrorand connecttothismultifacetedviewofscience. Toachievethis,thethreestrandsoftheAustralianCurriculum:Scienceshouldbetaughtinanintegratedway.Thecontent descriptionsofthethreestrandshavebeenwrittensothatateachyearthisintegrationispossible.Intheearlieryears,the NatureanddevelopmentofsciencesubstrandwithintheScienceasaHumanEndeavourstrandfocusesonscientific inquiry.Thisenablesstudentstomakeclearconnectionsbetweentheinquiryskillsthattheyarelearningandtheworkof scientists.Asstudentsprogressthroughthecurriculumtheyinvestigatehowscienceunderstandinghasdeveloped, includingconsideringsomeofthepeopleandthestoriesbehindtheseadvancesinscience. Theywillalsorecognisehowthisscienceunderstandingcanbeappliedtotheirlivesandthelivesofothers.Asstudents developamoresophisticatedunderstandingoftheknowledgeandskillsofsciencetheyareincreasinglyabletoappreciate theroleofscienceinsociety.ThecontentoftheScienceUnderstandingstrandwillinformstudentsunderstandingof contemporaryissues,suchasclimatechange,useofresources,medicalinterventions,biodiversityandtheoriginsofthe universe.TheimportanceoftheseareasofsciencecanbeemphasisedthroughthecontentoftheScienceasaHuman Endeavourstrand,andstudentscanbeencouragedtoviewcontemporarysciencecriticallythroughaspectsoftheScience InquirySkillsstrand,forexamplebyanalysing,evaluatingandcommunicating. Yearleveldescriptions Yearleveldescriptionshavethreefunctions.Firstly,theyemphasisetheinterrelatednatureofthethreestrands,andthe expectationthatplanningascienceprogramwillinvolveintegrationofcontentfromacrossthestrands.Secondly,theyre emphasisetheoverarchingideasasappropriateforthatstageofschooling.Thirdly,theyprovideanoverviewofthecontent fortheyearlevel. Contentdescriptions</p> <p>ACARA | The Australian Curriculum | Version 4.1 dated Friday, 1 February 2013</p> <p>6</p> <p>Science</p> <p>Organisation</p> <p>TheAustralianCurriculum:Scienceincludescontentdescriptionsateachyearlevel.Thesedescribetheknowledge, concepts,skillsandprocessesthatteachersareexpectedtoteachandstudentsareexpectedtolearn.However,theydonot prescribeapproachestoteaching.WhileScienceUnderstandingcontentispresentedinyearlevels,whenunitsofworkare devised,attentionshouldbegiventothecoverageofcontentfromScienceInquirySkillsandScienceasaHuman Endeavouroverthetwoyearband.Thecontentdescriptionsensurethatlearningisappropriatelyorderedandthat unnecessaryrepetitionisavoided.However,aconceptorskillintroducedatoneyearlevelmayberevisited,strengthened andextendedatlateryearlevelsasneeded. Contentelaborations ContentelaborationsareprovidedforFoundationtoYear10toillustrateandexemplifycontentandassistteacherstodevelop acommonunderstandingofthecontentdescriptions.Theyarenotintendedtobecomprehensivecontentpointsthatall studentsneedtobetaught. Glossary Aglossaryisprovidedtosupportacommonunderstandingofkeytermsinthecontentdescriptions. </p> <p>TheOverarchingIdeasThereareanumberofoverarchingideasthatrepresentkeyaspectsofascientificviewoftheworldandbridgeknowledge andunderstandin...</p>