augustan age (1689–1740) ppt
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AUGUSTAN AGE (1689 1740)Presented to Miss Maimona Anwar Presented by Rushda Saeed- Political and Religious situation SaeedFazila Fazal Abbas- Social and Economic situation AbbasZahra Nayab- Poetry NayabTayyaba Ahmad- Augustan Drama AhmadSabia Munawar- Prose and Novel Munawar-
POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS ISSUES IN AUGUSTAN AGE
The Restoration period ended with the exclusion crisis, where Parliament set up a new rule for succession to the British throne that favored Protestantism. The parliament brought William and Mary to the throne instead of James II. After their demise, Queen Anne Stuart came to the throne. Queen Anne - - - "when in good humor, [she] was meekly stupid and, when in bad humor, was sulkily stupid." King George I of Hanover (the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony, Germany) who inherited the throne after the death of Queen Anne Stuart, according to the Act of Settlement 1701.
The Augustan Age is generally regarded as a golden age, like the period of Roman History which had achieved political stability and power as well a flourishing of the arts. During George's reign the powers of the monarchy diminished and Britain began a transition to the modern system of cabinet government led by a prime minister. George spent much of his time in Hanover, even after gaining the throne of Britain, and never learned English. The political organization was hierarchical, hereditary and privileged. Thus elections were largely controlled by the powerful landowners and politicians who were more interested in bribing for winning their elections than in obtaining the vote of the citizens.
Whigs and Tories The Tories were the conservatives, who supported the monarchy and the Church and had a great influence under the Stuarts. The Whigs stood for industrial and commercial development, a vigorous foreign policy and religious toleration. They achieved influence under the Hanoverians and they met without the king under the guide of a prime minister. The first Prime Minister was Sir Robert Walpole, who managed to keep England out of foreign conflicts and made trade flourish. While the Hanoverian succession was initially popular, George's own behavior - his lack of speaking English, public preference for Hanover over England - started to produce some discontent. James Francis Edward Stuart launched an attempt to retake the throne in 1715. Another attempt was launched by the latter's son Charles Edward Stuart in 1745. George I was served by Robert Walpole until his death.
London's population exploded spectacularly --- The population pressure lead to the urban discontent. Dissenters (those radical Protestants who would not join with the Church of England) recruited and preached to the poor of the city. The Dissenters saw the Roman Catholic Church as the Whore of Babylon. While Anne was high church, George I came from a far more Protestant nation than England. Anyone too high church was suspected of being a closet JacobiteJacobite- - - Jacobitism was the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England, Scotland, and the Kingdom of Ireland
SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC SITUATION DURING AUGUSTAN AGE
Social situation The age of enlightenment
Empiricism is a theory of knowledge that asserts that knowledge arises from evidence gathered via experience. Empiricism: the most eminent feature to make Augustan age , the age of enlightenment. Press made the material easily available for the common people. Literature was spread quickly, everybody contributed in producing literature. Newspapers not only began but multiplied. Newspapers were compromised as well. Literacy rate increased and education was not confined only to aristocracy. Because of this literacy increase, literature began to appear from all over the kingdom. 18th century was more educated than the centuries before. Because of accepted, clear, rational methods as superior to tradition, this age is called the Age of Reason as well. However, there was a darkness to such literacy as well; nonsense and insanity were also getting more adherent than before.
The socioeconomic situation of London
The population of London was increasing. In the Restoration it grew from around 3,50,000 to 600,000, by 18th it had reached 950,000. The Enclosure Acts destroyed lower class farming in the countryside and The black act forced them to migrate to the big cities. The Enclosure Acts were series of United Kingdom Acts of Parliament which enclosed open fields to common people.
The countryside was left empty This situation swelled the ranks of population in the city. Poor and cheap labour increased for the city employers. This population pressure led to the proper crimes in the city.
Economic situation Industrial revolution
Industrial revolution was stepping in. industrial revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century. Major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining and technology had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and the cultural conditions.
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Innovations of industrial revolution Transfer of knowledge More focus on scientific experiments Cheap labour The countryside was left which provided free land to establish factories Social factors of Industrial revolution Factories and urbanization in the countryside Environment was polluted Child labour Capitalism Life standard was improved Aristocracy was falling down The study of Political economy was focused
In the classical sense, Augustan poetry was written during the reign of Caesar Augustus and includes poets such as Virgil, Horace, and Ovid. In the English sense (early-to-mid 18th century poetry), it is a neoclassical type of (early-topoetry such as that found in the works of Alexander Pope. During the time period, many poets focused 18th century English poetry was political, satirical, and marked by the central philosophical problem of whether the individual or society took precedence as the subject of verse. Augustan poetry is a branch of Augustan literature, and refers to the poetry of literature, the eighteenth-century, specifically the first half of the century. The term comes most eighteenthoriginally from a term that George I had used for himself. He saw himself as an Augustus. Therefore, the British poets picked up that term as a way of referring to their own endeavors, for it fit in another respect endeavors, In the Augustan era, poets were even more conversant with each other than were novelists. Their works were written as direct counterpoint and direct expansion of one another, with each poet writing satire when in opposition direct counterpoint and direct expansion of one another, with each poet writing satire when in opposition
The other development, one seemingly agreed upon by both sides, was a gradual expropriation and reinvention of all the Classical forms of poetry. Every genre of poetry was recast, reconsidered, Ode, ballad, elegy, and used to serve new functions. Ode, ballad, elegy, satire, parody, song, song, and lyric poetry would all be adapted from their older uses. Odes would cease to be encomium, ballads cease to be narratives, elegies cease to be sincere memorials, satires no longer be specific entertainments, parodies no longer be bravura stylistic performances, songs no longer be personal lyrics, and the lyric would become a celebration of the individual rather than a lover's complaint. There are many other plausible and coherent explanations of the causes of the rise of the subjective self, but whatever the prime cause, poets showed the strains of the development as a largely conservative set of voices argued for a social person and largely emergent voices argued for the individual person.
Pope began publishing when very young and continued to the end of his life, his poetry is a reference point in any discussion of the 1710s, 1720s, 1730s, or even 1740s. Furthermore, Pope's abilities were recognized early in his career, so contemporaries acknowledged his superiorit.The case with figures such as John Dryden or William Wordsworth, Wordsworth, a second generation did not emerge to eclipse his position. Pope and his enemies (often called "the Dunces" because of Pope's successful satirizing of them in The Dunciad of 1727 and 1738) fought over central 1738) matters of the proper subject matter for poetry and the proper pose of the poetic voice, and the excesses and missteps, as much as the achievements, of both sides demonstrated the stakes of the battle. The Scribbleran Club (GAY) In 1728, his The Beggar's Opera was an enormous success, running for an unheard-of eighty unheardperformances. Old style poetic parody involved imitation of the style of an author for the purposes of providing amusement, but not for the purpose of ridicule. The person imitated was not satirized
AUGUSTAN DRAMAAugustan drama can refer to the dramas of Ancient Rome during the Augustus, reign of Caesar Augustus, but it most commonly refers to the plays of Great Britain in the early 18th century. In drama, it was an age in transition between the highly witty and sexually playful Restoration comedy, comedy, the pathetic she-tragedy, she-tragedy, and any later plots of middle-class middleanxiety. The Augustan stage retreated from the Restoration's focus on cuckoldry, marriage for fortune, and a life of leisure. Instead, Augustan drama reflected questions the mercantile class had about itself and what it meant to gentry. be gentry.
The English stage was changing rapidly from Restoration comedy and Restoration drama and their noble subjects to the quickly developing melodrama. melodrama. Ge